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1.
Front Neurol ; 13: 918956, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35928134

RESUMO

Background: Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques and mirror therapy (MT) are promising rehabilitation measures for stroke. While the combination of MT and NIBS has been employed for post-stroke upper limb motor functional rehabilitation, its effectiveness has not been examined. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of combined MT and NIBS in the recovery of upper limb motor function in stroke patients. Methods: The search was carried out in PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Science Direct, CNKI, WANFANG and VIP until December 2021. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) comparing MT or NIBS alone with the combination of NIBS and MT in improving upper extremity motor recovery after stroke were selected. A meta-analysis was performed to calculate the mean differences (MD) or the standard mean differences (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) with random-effect models. Subgroup analyses were also conducted according to the types of control group, the types of NIBS, stimulation timing and phase poststroke. Results: A total of 12 articles, including 17 studies with 628 patients, were reviewed in the meta-analysis. In comparison with MT or NIBS alone, the combined group significantly improved body structure and function (MD = 5.97; 95% CI: 5.01-6.93; P < 0.05), activity levels (SMD = 0.82; 95% CI 0.61-1.02; P < 0.05). For cortical excitability, the motor evoked potential cortical latency (SMD = -1.05; 95% CI:-1.57--0.52; P < 0.05) and the central motor conduction time (SMD=-1.31 95% CI:-2.02--0.61; P < 0.05) of the combined group were significantly shortened. A non-significant homogeneous summary effect size was found for MEP amplitude (SMD = 0.47; 95%CI = -0.29 to 1.23; P = 0.23). Subgroup analysis showed that there is an interaction between the stimulation sequence and the combined treatment effect. Conclusion: In this meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials, in comparison to the control groups, MT combined with NIBS promoted the recovery of upper extremity motor function after stroke, which was reflected in the analysis of body structure and function, activity levels, and cortical excitability. Systematic review registration: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/, identifier CRD42022304455.

2.
Mol Ecol ; 2022 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35789059

RESUMO

Microbiologically driven ecosystem processes can be profoundly altered by alien plant invasions. There is limited understanding of the ecological mechanisms orchestrating different microbial constituents and their roles in emerging functional properties under plant invasions. Here, we investigated soil microbial communities and functions using high-throughput amplicon sequencing and GeoChip technology, respectively, along a chronological gradient of smooth cordgrass invasion in salt marshes located in the Yellow River Estuary, China. We found a positive correlation between microbial diversity and the duration age of invasion, and both bacterial and fungal communities showed consistent changes with invasion. Soil microbial metabolic potential, as indicated by the abundance of microbial functional genes involved in biogeochemical cycling, decreased in response to invasion. As a consequence, declining soil microbial metabolisms as a result of plant invasion facilitated carbon accumulation in invaded salt marshes. Bacteria and fungi exhibited distinct contributions to assembly processes along the invasion gradient: bacterial communities were mainly driven by selection and dispersal limitation, while fungi were dramatically shaped by stochastic processes. Soil microbial-mediated functions were taxon-specific, as indicated by community-function relationships. This study demonstrates the distinct contributions of microbial constituents to microbial community assembly and functions and sheds light on the implications of plant invasion on microbiologically driven ecosystem processes in coastal wetlands.

3.
Carbohydr Polym ; 294: 119775, 2022 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35868752

RESUMO

A series of chitosan (CS)-konjac glucomannan (KGM) foams with excellent thermal insulation property has been prepared using a directional freezing method, which exhibit high strain recovery, excellent piezoelectric generation and sensing properties. Layered lamellar or honeycomb morphologies in CS-KGM foams attributes a low thermal conductivity coefficient of ca. 0.03 W/(m·K). Bridge-like structure that mainly observed in CS-KGM foams from horizontal freezing endows them with excellent compression recovery performance even after 200 compression cycles. This along with piezoelectricity of CS contributes a long-lasting piezoelectric generation performance, ranging from 0.809 to 2.460 V during compression cycle process. Piezoelectric signals generated from pressing with certain strain and rate, finger taping and hand grasping can be sensed profoundly by CS-KGM. As thus, fully renewable source-based CS-KGM foams with outstanding thermal insulation and piezoelectric performance shows great potential in application as wearable thermal insulation and piezoelectric devices.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Quitosana/química , Congelamento , Condutividade Térmica
4.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 10: 794837, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35531093

RESUMO

Congenital hereditary cataract is genetically heterogeneous and the leading cause of visual impairment in children. Identification of hereditary causes is critical to genetic counselling and family planning. Here, we examined a four-generation Chinese pedigree with congenital dominant cataract and identified a new mutation in GJA8 via targeted exome sequencing. A heterozygous missense mutation c.263C > T, leading to a proline-to-Leucine conversion at the conserved residue 88 in the second transmembrane domain of human connexin 50 (Cx50), was identified in all patients but not in unaffected family members. Functional analyses of the mutation revealed that it disrupted the stability of Cx50 and had a deleterious effect on protein function. Indeed, the mutation compromised normal membrane permeability and gating of ions, and impeded cell migration when overexpressed. Together, our results expand the pathogenic mutation spectrum of Cx50 underlying congenital cataract and lend more support to clinical diagnosis and genetic counseling.

5.
Cell Discov ; 8(1): 33, 2022 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35387979

RESUMO

NALCN regulates the resting membrane potential by mediating the Na+ leak current in neurons, and it functions as a channelosome in complex with FAM155A, UNC79, and UNC80. Dysfunction of the NALCN channelosome causes a broad range of neurological and developmental diseases called NALCN channelopathies in humans. How the auxiliary subunits, especially the two large components UNC79 and UNC80, assemble with NALCN and regulate its function remains unclear. Here we report an overall architecture of the human NALCN channelosome. UNC79 and UNC80 each adopt an S-shape super-helical structure consisting of HEAT and armadillo repeats, forming a super-coiled heterodimeric assembly in the cytoplasmic side, which may provide a scaffold for the binding of other potential modulators of the channelosome. The UNC79-UNC80 assembly specifically associates with the NALCN-FAM155A subcomplex through the intracellular II-III linker of NALCN. Disruptions of the interaction interfaces between UNC79 and UNC80, and between the II-III linker of NALCN and the UNC79-UNC80 assembly, significantly reduce the NALCN-mediated currents in HEK293T system, suggesting the importance of the UNC79-UNC80 assembly in regulating channelosome function. Cross-linking mass spectrometry analysis identified an additional calmodulin (CaM) bound in the carboxyl-terminal domain of NALCN. Our study thus provides a structural basis for understanding the unique assembly mechanism and functional regulation of the NALCN channelosome, and also provides an opportunity for the interpretation of many disease-related mutations in UNC80.

6.
Clin Exp Med ; 2022 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35347503

RESUMO

IL-34 involves in host immunity regulated carcinogenesis. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is related to the development of HCC. We explored if combination of IL-34 and APF could improve the diagnostic value in HBV related hepatocellular carcinoma (HBV-HCC). Serum was obtained from HBV patients or healthy control. Liver tissue was obtained from liver biopsy in CHB, HBV related cirrhosis patients or curative resection in HBV-HCC patients. Serum IL-34 and MCSF, or intrahepatic IL-34, MCSF and CD68+ tumor associate macrophages (TAMs) were determined using ELISA or immunohistochemistry. Serum IL-34 was 1.7, 1.3 or 2.3-fold higher in HBV-HCC than that of CHB, HBV related cirrhosis or healthy control, which was inhibited following trans-hepatic arterial chemoembolization (TACE) in HBV-HCC patients. Intra-hepatic IL-34 was higher in HBV-HCC than that of the other three groups. Intra-hepatic IL-34 was associated with high HBV-DNA, HBeAg-, poor differentiation and small tumor size of HBV-HCC patients. Intra-hepatic TAMs in HBV-HCC were increased 1.7 or 1.3-fold, compared to that from CHB or HBV-cirrhosis patients. Intra-hepatic TAMs were associated with high HBV-DNA, high tumor differentiation, small tumor size, abnormal AFP and more tumor number. AFP plus serum IL-34, showed the highest AUC (0.837) with sensitivity (0.632) and highest specificity (0.931), suggesting that AFP plus IL-34 enhances the reliability for prediction of the development of HBV-HCC among CHB patients. Circulating and intra-hepatic IL-34 was upregulated gradually in HBV disease progression from CHB, cirrhosis and HCC. IL-34 may be used as a diagnostic biomarker and potential therapeutic target for the management of HBV-HCC.

7.
J Affect Disord ; 306: 115-123, 2022 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35304234

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individuals with subclinical autistic traits exhibit a pattern of eye avoidance similar to that of typical autism. Our study aimed to test the efficacy of group cognitive behavioral therapy (G-CBT) in promoting gaze toward the eye area of facial expressions, specifically orienting to emotional faces, in individuals with high autistic traits (high AT). METHODS: Twenty-six high AT individuals and 30 low AT individuals participated. High AT individuals were assigned to eight sessions of G-CBT intervention. Eye-tracking measurements were acquired before and after treatment. RESULTS: We observed the following: (a) the eye avoidance in high AT individuals was prominent for all facial expressions in relative to low AT individuals; (b) G-CBT primarily improved gaze toward the eyes of happy and fearful faces but not for neutral face expressions in high AT individuals; (c) after 8 sessions of G-CBT, the fixation time on the eyes of emotional faces improved significantly. For happy faces, the fixation time on the eyes of faces was markedly increased in epochs between 500 ms and 1000 ms after the face onset; for fearful faces, the improvement in participants existed between about 1000 ms and 1500 ms after the face appeared. LIMITATION: Our results may not be generalized to other patients with ASD. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that G-CBT significantly promotes gaze toward the eyes of emotional faces in high AT individuals. These results are encouraging, and suggest that the emotional face processing in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) might stand to benefit from similar psychotherapeutic treatment.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/terapia , Transtorno Autístico/terapia , Emoções , Tecnologia de Rastreamento Ocular , Expressão Facial , Fixação Ocular , Humanos
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35104607

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atypical eye gaze on emotional faces is a core feature of alexithymia. The inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) is considered to be the neurophysiological basis of alexithymia-related emotional face fixation. Our aim was to examine whether anodal high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS) administered to the right (r)IFG would facilitate eye gaze of emotional faces in alexithymia individuals. METHOD: Forty individuals with alexithymia were equally assigned to anodal or sham HD-tDCS of the rIFG according to the principle of randomization. The individuals then completed a free-viewing eye tracking task (including happy, sad, and neutral faces) before and after 5 consecutive days of stimulation (twice a day). RESULTS: The results showed that twice a day anodal HD-tDCS of the rIFG significantly increased the fixation time and fixation count of the eye area on happy and neutral faces, but there was no significant effect on sad faces. According to the temporal-course analysis, after the intervention, the fixation time on neutral faces increased significantly at almost all time points of the eye tracking task. For happy faces, the improvement was demonstrated between 500 and 1000 ms and between 2500 and 3500 ms. For sad faces, the fixation time improved but not significantly. CONCLUSIONS: Applying high-dose anodal HD-tDCS to the rIFG selectively facilitated eye gaze in the eye area of neutral and happy faces in individuals with alexithymia, which may improve their face processing patterns.


Assuntos
Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua , Sintomas Afetivos/terapia , Tecnologia de Rastreamento Ocular , Fixação Ocular , Humanos , Estudantes , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua/métodos
9.
Dalton Trans ; 51(11): 4406-4413, 2022 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35195144

RESUMO

Transition metal sulfides (TMSs) have been widely explored as electrode materials for supercapacitors (SCs). Nevertheless, the application of TMSs alone is limited due to their lattice expansion and dissolution in an alkaline electrolyte. To overcome these challenges, in this study, hierarchical core-shell hollow Co3S4@NiCo2O4 nanosheet arrays have been constructed on reduced graphene oxide/nickel foam (rGO/NF) through a metal-organic framework (MOF)-engaged strategy. The MOF-derived two-dimensional (2D) hollow Co3S4 nanosheets can offer rich electroactive sites and rapid charge transport paths. The 2D NiCo2O4 nanosheets with high electrochemical activity and a stable lattice can overcome the intrinsic defects of Co3S4 by coating on its surface. Besides, the binder-free configuration ensures good electronic conductivity and mechanical stability. Thus, the Co3S4@NiCo2O4/rGO/NF exhibits a significantly improved specific capacitance (6.34 F cm-2 at 2 A cm-2), rate capability (57.9% at 50 mA cm-2) and cycling durability (70.9%, after 5000 cycles), compared with Co3S4/rGO/NF. Moreover, the Co3S4@NiCo2O4/rGO/NF and an activated carbon (AC) electrode have been constructed into an asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC), which exhibits an excellent energy density (35.7 W h kg-1 at a power density of 799.3 W kg-1) and an outstanding cycling stability (85.7% capacitance retention after 10 000 cycles) and a high coulombic efficiency (95%). Two solid-state ASCs can power four green light emitting diode (LED) bulbs for 4 min, demonstrating the great potential of the Co3S4@NiCo2O4/rGO/NF electrode in practical applications.

10.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 43(2): 1077-1088, 2022 Feb 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35075882

RESUMO

The high-throughput Illumina NovaSeq sequencing method was adopted to study the effect of artificial root exudates and Lolium perenne L. root exudates on the community structure, α and ß diversity, and gene function of the bacterial communities in pyrene-contaminated soils to understand the impact of root exudates on microbial communities. The results showed that root exudates did not significantly change the composition of pyrene-contaminated soil bacterial communities. The main dominant bacterial phyla were Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, etc. The main dominant bacterial genera were Sphingomonas, Lactobacillus, Bacillus, etc. Root exudates changed the relative abundance of dominant species to a different extent and resulted in discriminating bacteria. The genus Lachnospiraceae belonging to Proteobacteria and Ruminiclostridium belonging to Firmicutes were the biomarkers in the artificial root exudates group and the actual root exudate group, respectively. The common discriminating bacteria in both root exudate groups compared to those in the control group were polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs)-degrading bacteria. Root exudates selectively promoted the growth of PAHs-degrading bacteria. Root exudates had little effect on the richness and diversity of the bacterial communities in pyrene-contaminated soil. However, they significantly influenced the soil bacterial community structure, which resulted from significant changes in low-abundance species. The bacterial community structures of the two root exudate groups were similar. Root exudates decreased pyrene concentration in the soil by 14.0% (artificial root exudates) and 8.7% (actual root exudates). The promotion of pyrene degradation affected by root exudates was due to the growth promotion of PAHs-degrading bacteria and the significant increase in the abundance of some functional genes. This research can supply data for the exploration of a rhizoremediation mechanism in PAHs-contaminated soils.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes do Solo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Exsudatos e Transudatos/química , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Pirenos , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
11.
Cancer Commun (Lond) ; 42(2): 141-163, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35001556

RESUMO

Phototherapy and immunotherapy in combination is regarded as the ideal therapeutic modality to treat both primary and metastatic tumors. Immunotherapy uses different immunological approaches to stimulate the immune system to identify tumor cells for targeted elimination. Phototherapy destroys the primary tumors by light irradiation, which induces a series of immune responses through triggering immunogenic cancer cell death. Therefore, when integrating immunotherapy with phototherapy, a novel anti-cancer strategy called photoimmunotherapy (PIT) is emerging. This synergistic treatment modality can not only enhance the effectiveness of both therapies but also overcome their inherent limitations, opening a new era for the current anti-cancer therapy. Recently, the advancement of nanomaterials affords a platform for PIT. From all these nanomaterials, inorganic nanomaterials stand out as ideal mediators in PIT due to their unique physiochemical properties. Inorganic nanomaterials can not only serve as carriers to transport immunomodulatory agents in immunotherapy owing to their excellent drug-loading capacity but also function as photothermal agents or photosensitizers in phototherapy because of their great optical characteristics. In this review, the recent advances of multifunctional inorganic nanomaterial-mediated drug delivery and their contributions to cancer PIT will be highlighted.


Assuntos
Nanoestruturas , Neoplasias , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Nanoestruturas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Fototerapia
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 807(Pt 2): 151725, 2022 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34822888

RESUMO

Coastal reclamation for cropland has led to the accumulation of heavy metals in soils, bringing about pervasive and severe risks for environment and human health. However, less is known about the influence of long-term reclamation on heavy metals risk, mobility and bioavailability in cropland soil. In this study, we determined six heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb) and their fractionations in soils from five croplands across a 100-year reclamation chronosequence in the Pearl River estuary. Results showed that across five reclaimed soils, Cd posed seriously ecological risk and bioavailability according to assessments based on both total contents (single-metal pollution index: Cd > Cu > Zn > Ni > Cr > Pb) and fractionations (risk assessment code: Cd > Zn > Cu > Ni > Pb > Cr). Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb posed slightly to moderately ecological risks, and were mainly bound to residual (73.70%) and reducible (15.86%) fractions with lower mobility and bioavailability. With the highest risks level, mobility, toxicity and bioavailability (5.67% exchangeable and 11.75% carbonate fractions bound), Cd was identified as the main pollution factor in study area. Principal component analysis and Pearson's correlation analysis revealed that anthropogenic reclamation activities (including phosphate fertilizers, pesticides and sewage irrigation) were the major sources of these heavy metals. Long-term reclamation activities induced the increases of soil organic matter, clay contents, total concentrations and non-residual fractions of heavy metals by 46.14%, 538.98%, 42.87% and 219.78%, respectively, demonstrating significant promotions in level and mobility of heavy metals due to longer-term agricultural activities, higher soil clay and organic matter content.


Assuntos
Estuários , Metais Pesados , China , Produtos Agrícolas , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Solo
13.
Chemosphere ; 289: 133207, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34890619

RESUMO

Crude oil contamination greatly influence soil bacterial community. Proliferative microbes in the crude oil-contaminated soil are closely related to the living conditions. Oil wells in the Yellow River Delta Natural Reserve (YRDNR) region is an ideal site for investigating the bacterial community of crude oil-contaminated saline soil. In the present study, 18 soil samples were collected from the depths of 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm around the oil wells in the YRDNR. The bacterial community profile was analyzed through high-throughput sequencing to trace the oil-degrading aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. The results indicated that C15-C28 and C29-C38 were the main fractions of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) in the sampled soil. These TPH fractions had a significant negative effect on bacterial biodiversity (Shannon, Simpson, and Chao1 indices), which led to the proliferation of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria. A comprehensive analysis between the environmental factors and soil microbial community structure showed that Streptococcus, Bacillus, Sphingomonas, and Arthrobacter were the aerobic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria; unidentified Rhodobacteraceae and Porticoccus were considered to be the possible facultative anaerobic bacteria with hydrocarbon biodegradation ability; Acidithiobacillus, SAR324 clade, and Nitrosarchaeum were predicted to be the anaerobic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in the sub-surface soil. Furthermore, large amount of carbon sources derived from TPH was found to cause depletion of bioavailable nitrogen in the soil. The bacteria associated with nitrogen transformation, such as Solirubrobacter, Candidatus Udaeobacter, Lysinibacillus, Bradyrhizobium, Sphingomonas, Mycobacterium, and Acidithiobacillus, were highly abundant; these bacteria may possess the ability to increase nitrogen availability in the crude oil-contaminated soil. The bacterial community functions were significantly different between the surface and the sub-surface soil, and the dissolved oxygen concentration in soil was considered to be potential influencing factor. Our results could provide useful information for the bioremediation of crude oil-contaminated saline soil.


Assuntos
Petróleo , Poluentes do Solo , Bactérias/genética , Biodegradação Ambiental , Hidrocarbonetos , Rios , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 150095, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509829

RESUMO

Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) have been regarded as emerging environmental contaminants. The profile of resistome (collection of all ARGs) in drinking water and its fate during drinking water treatment remain unclear. This study applied metagenomic assembly combined with network analysis to decipher the profile, mobility, host, and pathogenicity of resistomes in two full-scale drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs), each applying conventional treatment and advanced treatment of ozonation followed by biological activated carbon filtration. In source waters and effluents of each treatment process collected from both DWTPs, 215 ARGs belonging to 20 types were detected with total concentration ranging from 6.30 ± 1.83 to 5.20 ± 0.26 × 104 copies/mL. Both the conventional and advanced DWTPs were revealed to effectively reduce the concentration of total ARGs, with the average removal efficiency of 3.61-log10 and 2.21-log10, respectively. Multiple statistical analyses (including network analysis) indicated drinking water resistome correlated tightly with mobile gene elements (MGEs) and bacterial community, with the latter acting as the premier driver of resistome alteration in DWTPs. Further analysis of ARG-carrying contigs (ACCs) assembled from drinking water metagenomes (i) tracked down potential bacterial hosts of ARGs (e.g., Proteobacteria phylum as the major pool of resistome), (ii) provided co-localization information of ARGs and MGEs (e.g., MacB-E7196 plasmid1), and (iii) identified ARG-carrying human pathogens (e.g., Enterococcus faecium and Ralstonia pickettii). This work firstly determined the concentration, mobility incidence, and pathogenicity incidence of DWTP resistomes, based on which the actual health risk regarding antibiotic resistance could be quantitatively assessed in further study, providing a useful direction for decision-making concerning the risk control of ARGs in DWTPs.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Metagenoma , Antibacterianos/análise , Genes Bacterianos , Humanos , Metagenômica , Virulência
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34876916

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in improving lower limb spasticity after stroke. METHODS: The PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), China Biology Medicine (CBM) disc, China Science and Technology Journal Database (VIP), and Wanfang databases were searched online from their inception to May 2021 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for lower extremity spasticity after stroke. Valid data were extracted from the included literature, and the quality evaluation was conducted with the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions along with the Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale (PE-Dro scale). The data that met the quality requirements were systematically analysed using Review Manager 5.4 software. RESULTS: A total of 554 patients from seven articles (nine studies) were quantitatively analysed. Outcomes included the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS), Fugl-Meyer Assessment of Lower Extremity (FMA-LE), Modified Barthel Index (MBI), and Timed Up and Go (TUG), measured as the effect of rTMS compared with controls conditions after treatment. The systematic review showed that rTMS reduced MAS and increased MBI scores, respectively (SMD = -0.24, 95% CI [-0.45, -0.03], P = 0.02; MD = 6.14, 95% CI [-3.93,8.35], P < 0.00001), compared with control conditions. Low-frequency rTMS (LF-rTMS) significantly improved FMA-LE scores (SMD = 0.32, 95% CI [0.13, 0.51], P = 0.001). However, there was no significant difference in FMA-LE scores when using high-frequency rTMS (HF-rTMS) (P > 0.1) and in TUG times (P > 0.1) between the treatment and control groups. CONCLUSIONS: rTMS was effective in improving spasticity and activities of daily living. LF-rTMS has positive clinical effects on enhancing motor function in patients who experience lower extremity spasticity after stroke. To better validate the above conclusions, more multicentre, high-quality, and double-blind randomized controlled trials are needed.

16.
Tomography ; 7(4): 767-782, 2021 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34842849

RESUMO

This paper proposes a deep-learning-based image enhancement approach that can generate high-resolution micro-CT-like images from multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). A total of 12,500 MDCT and micro-CT image pairs were obtained from 25 vertebral specimens. Then, a pix2pixHD model was trained and evaluated using the structural similarity index measure (SSIM) and Fréchet inception distance (FID). We performed subjective assessments of the micro-CT-like images based on five aspects. Micro-CT and micro-CT-like image-derived trabecular bone microstructures were compared, and the underlying correlations were analyzed. The results showed that the pix2pixHD method (SSIM, 0.804 ± 0.037 and FID, 43.598 ± 9.108) outperformed the two control methods (pix2pix and CRN) in enhancing MDCT images (p < 0.05). According to the subjective assessment, the pix2pixHD-derived micro-CT-like images showed no significant difference from the micro-CT images in terms of contrast and shadow (p > 0.05) but demonstrated slightly lower noise, sharpness and trabecular bone texture (p < 0.05). Compared with the trabecular microstructure parameters of micro-CT images, those of pix2pixHD-derived micro-CT-like images showed no significant differences in bone volume fraction (BV/TV) (p > 0.05) and significant correlations in trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) and trabecular spacing (Tb.Sp) (Tb.Th, R = 0.90, p < 0.05; Tb.Sp, R = 0.88, p < 0.05). The proposed method can enhance the resolution of MDCT and obtain micro-CT-like images, which may provide new diagnostic criteria and a predictive basis for osteoporosis and related fractures.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Tomografia Computadorizada Multidetectores , Osso e Ossos , Coluna Vertebral , Microtomografia por Raio-X/métodos
17.
Pharmaceutics ; 13(9)2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34575419

RESUMO

Black phosphorus (BP) is one of the emerging versatile nanomaterials with outstanding biocompatibility and biodegradability, exhibiting great potential as a promising inorganic nanomaterial in the biomedical field. BP nanomaterials possess excellent ability for valid bio-conjugation and molecular loading in anticancer therapy. Generally, BP nanomaterials can be classified into BP nanosheets (BPNSs) and BP quantum dots (BPQDs), both of which can be synthesized through various preparation routes. In addition, BP nanomaterials can be applied as photothermal agents (PTA) for the photothermal therapy (PTT) due to their high photothermal conversion efficiency and larger extinction coefficients. The generated local hyperpyrexia leads to thermal elimination of tumor. Besides, BP nanomaterials are capable of producing singlet oxygen, which enable its application as a photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy (PDT). Moreover, BP nanomaterials can be oxidized and degraded to nontoxic phosphonates and phosphate under physiological conditions, improving their safety as a nano drug carrier in cancer therapy. Recently, it has been reported that BP-based PTT is capable of activating immune responses and alleviating the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment by detection of T lymphocytes and various immunocytokines, indicating that BP-based nanocomposites not only serve as effective PTAs to ablate large solid tumors but also function as an immunomodulation agent to eliminate discrete tumorlets. Therefore, BP-mediated immunotherapy would provide more possibilities for synergistic cancer treatment.

18.
Pharmaceutics ; 13(8)2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452113

RESUMO

The encapsulation of therapeutic agents into nano-based drug delivery system for cancer treatment has received considerable attention in recent years. Advancements in nanotechnology provide an opportunity for efficient delivery of anticancer drugs. The unique properties of nanoparticles not only allow cancer-specific drug delivery by inherent passive targeting phenomena and adopting active targeting strategies, but also improve the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of the loaded drugs, leading to enhanced therapeutic efficacy and safety compared to conventional treatment modalities. Small molecule drugs are the most widely used anticancer agents at present, while biological macromolecules, such as therapeutic antibodies, peptides and genes, have gained increasing attention. Therefore, this review focuses on the recent achievements of novel nano-encapsulation in targeted drug delivery. A comprehensive introduction of intelligent delivery strategies based on various nanocarriers to encapsulate small molecule chemotherapeutic drugs and biological macromolecule drugs in cancer treatment will also be highlighted.

19.
Exp Eye Res ; 210: 108728, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390734

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Activation of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 4 signaling promotes the survival of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) after acute injury. Chordin-like 1 (CHRDL1) is an endogenous BMP antagonist. In this study, we researched whether CHRDL1 was involved in BMP4 signaling and regulation of RGC degeneration in a mouse model of glaucoma. METHODS: Magnetic microbeads were intracameral injected to induce experimental glaucoma in a mouse model. A recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) system was designed for overexpression of BMP4 or CHRDL1 in mouse retina. Immunohistochemistry and hematoxylin-eosin (HE) stains were performed to identify changes in retinal morphology. Electroretinogram (ERG) recordings were used to assess changes in visual function. RESULTS: The mRNA expression levels of Bmp4 and its downstream BMPRIa, small mothers against decapentaplegic 1 (Smad1), were significantly upregulated in retinas with glaucoma. RGC survival was significantly enhanced in the beads + AAV-BMP4 group and significantly reduced in the beads + AAV-CHRDL1 group, compared with the beads + AAV-EGFP group. Similar results were observed in retinal explant culture in vitro. Consistent with these findings, the photopic negative response (PhNR)responses in ERG, which indicate RGC function, were restored in mice overexpressing BMP4, whereas a-wave and b-wave responses were not. Activation of CHRLD1 inhibited Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation and exacerbated RGC damage. The expression of Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) was decreased significantly in beads + AAV-BMP4 group. CONCLUSIONS: BMP4 promoted RGC survival and visual function in an experimental glaucoma model. Activation of CHRDL1 exaggerated RGC degeneration by inhibiting the BMP4/Smad1/5/8 pathway. The mechanism of BMP4/Smad1/5/8 pathway may be related to the inhibition of glial cell activation. Our studies suggested that BMP4 and CHRLD1 might serve as therapeutic targets in glaucoma.


Assuntos
Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 4/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Proteínas do Olho/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Glaucoma/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Células Ganglionares da Retina/fisiologia , Animais , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 4/antagonistas & inibidores , Sobrevivência Celular , Dependovirus/genética , Eletrorretinografia , Vetores Genéticos , Glaucoma/fisiopatologia , Proteína Glial Fibrilar Ácida/metabolismo , Imuno-Histoquímica , Pressão Intraocular/fisiologia , Injeções Intravítreas , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Retina/fisiopatologia
20.
Pharm Biol ; 59(1): 1117-1125, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403300

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Panax japonicus is the dried rhizome of Panax japonicus C.A. Mey. (Araliaceae). Saponins from Panax japonicus (SPJ) exhibit anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects. OBJECTIVE: To explore the neuroprotective effect of SPJ on natural ageing of rat. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats 18-month-old were divided into ageing control, ageing treated with SPJ 10 or 30 mg/kg (n = 8). Five-month-old rats were taken as the adult control (n = 8). Rats were fed regular feed or feed containing SPJ for 4 months. Cognitive level was evaluated by Morris water maze (MWM) test. The mechanisms of SPJ's neuroprotection were evaluated by transmission electron microscope, western blot analysis, and immunofluorescence in vivo and in vitro. RESULTS: SPJ attenuated ageing-induced cognitive impairment as indicated by elevated number of times crossing the target platform (from 1.63 to 3.5) and longer time spent in the target platform quadrant (from 1.33 to 1.98). Meanwhile, SPJ improved the morphology of microglia and synapse, and activated M2 microglia polarisation including increased hippocampus levels of CD206 (from 0.98 to 1.47) and YM-1 (from 0.67 to 1.1), and enhanced autophagy-related proteins LC3B (from 0.48 to 0.82), Beclin1 (from 0.32 to 0.51), Atg5 (from 0.22 to 0.89) whereas decreased p62 level (from 0.71 to 0.45) of ageing rats. In vitro study also showed that SPJ regulated the microglial polarisation and autophagy. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: SPJ improved cognitive deficits of ageing rats through attenuating microglial inflammation and enhancing microglial autophagy, which could be used to treat neurodegenerative disorders.


Assuntos
Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Panax/química , Saponinas/farmacologia , Envelhecimento , Animais , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Disfunção Cognitiva/tratamento farmacológico , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/isolamento & purificação , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Saponinas/isolamento & purificação
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