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1.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 9: 904117, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36531723

RESUMO

Background: Median nerve stimulation (MNS) diminishes regional myocardial ischemia and ventricular arrhythmia; however, the underlying mechanism has not been elucidated. Methods: In this study, we randomly categorized 22 adult mongrel dogs into a control group, MNS group 1, and MNS group 2. After a 4-week experimental myocardial infarction (MI), ventricular electrophysiology was measured in the MNS group 1 before and after 30 min of MNS. The same measurements were performed in the MNS group 2 dogs via bilateral vagotomy. Venous blood and ventricular tissue were collected to detect molecular indicators related to inflammation and cholinergic pathways by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunohistochemistry (IHC), and Western blot (WB). Results: No significant changes were reported in the ventricular effective refractory period (ERP) in the MNS group 1 and MNS group 2 dogs before and after MNS. The ventricular fibrillation threshold (VFT) in the MNS group 1 was significantly higher than that in the MNS group 2 (20.3 ± 3.7 V vs. 8.7 ± 2.9 V, P < 0.01). The levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB) were lower (P < 0.01), whereas the levels of Ach were higher in the peri-infarct zone tissues in the MNS group 1 dogs than those in the MNS group 2 dogs (P < 0.01). Conclusion: This study demonstrated that MNS increases VFT in a canine model with MI. The effects of MNS on VFT are potentially associated with the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway.

2.
Int J Med Sci ; 19(14): 1995-2007, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36483596

RESUMO

Background: We previously found that intermediate conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel (SK4) might be an important target in atrial fibrillation (AF). Objective: To investigate the role of SK4 in AF maintenance. Methods: Twenty beagles were randomly assigned to the sham group (n=6), pacing group (n=7), and pacing+TRAM-34 group (n=7). Rapid atrial pacing continued for 7 days in the pacing and TRAM-34 groups. During the pacing, the TRAM-34 group received TRAM-34 intravenous injection (10 mg/Kg) 3 times per day. Atrial fibroblasts isolated from canines were treated with angiotensin II or adenovirus carrying the SK4 gene (Ad-SK4) to overexpress SK4 channels. Results: TRAM-34 treatment significantly suppressed the increased intra-atrial conducting time (CT) and AF duration in canines after rapid atrial pacing (P<0.05). Compared with the sham group, the expression of SK4 in atria was higher in the pacing group, which was associated with an increased number of myofibroblasts and levels of extracellular matrix in atrium (all P<0.05), and this effect was reversed by TRAM-34 treatment (all P<0.05). In atrial fibroblasts, the increased expression of SK4 induced by angiotensin II stimulation or Ad-SK4 transfection contributed to higher levels of P38, ERK1/2 and their downstream factors c-Jun and c-Fos, leading to the increased expression of α-SMA (all P<0.05), and all these increases were markedly reduced by TRAM-34 treatment. Conclusion: SK4 blockade suppressed AF by attenuating cardiac fibroblast activity and atrial fibrosis, which was realized through not only a decrease in fibrogenic factors but also inhibition of fibrotic signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Animais , Cães , Fibrilação Atrial/genética , Fibrilação Atrial/terapia , Angiotensina II , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno , Fibrose
3.
Cell Biol Int ; 2022 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36273427

RESUMO

Cardiac hypertrophy caused by angiotensin II (Ang II) is essential for the pathological process of heart failure. The intermediate calcium-activated potassium channel (SK4) has been shown to be involved in the process of the inflammatory response, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. However, the role of SK4 in cardiac hypertrophy has not been elucidated. Cardiac hypertrophy in human-induced pluripotent stem cells-derived cardiomyocytes (HiPSC-CMs) was induced by Ang II. Cells were transfected with SK4 adenovirus or treated with SK4 inhibitor (TRAM-34). TUNEL staining was used to assess the levels of apoptosis. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis were used to measure messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels, respectively. The present results showed that SK4 expression was upregulated in HiPSC-CMs stimulated by Ang II. The downregulation of SK4 by a specific inhibitor TRAM-34 markedly ameliorated cardiac hypertrophy (reflected by the mRNA levels of atrial natriuretic peptide, brain natriuretic peptide, and ß-myosin heavy chain) and apoptosis (reflected by the level of Caspase 3, Bax, and Bcl-2) induced by Ang II treatment. The action of SK4 in cardiac hypertrophy was mediated by Ras-Raf-mitogen-activated protein kinases 1/2 (MEK1/2)-extracellular-regulated protein kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) and calcineurin (CN)-nuclear factors of activated T cells (NFAT) activation. Our studies demonstrated that inhibition of SK4 significantly alleviated cardiac hypertrophy induced by Ang II in hiPSC-CMs by targeting Ras-Raf-MEK1/2-ERK1/2 signaling and CN-NFAT signaling pathway. Our studies suggest that SK4 may serve as a potential therapeutic target that could delay hypertrophy.

4.
Front Physiol ; 13: 927221, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35936905

RESUMO

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a highly prevalent arrhythmia that causes high morbidity and mortality. However, the underlying mechanism of AF has not been fully elucidated. Recent research has suggested that, during AF, the immune system changes considerably and interacts with the environment and cells involved in the initiation and maintenance of AF. This may provide a new direction for research and therapeutic strategies for AF. In this review, we elaborate the concept of immune remodeling based on available data in AF. Then, we highlight the complex relationships between immune remodeling and atrial electrical, structural and neural remodeling while also pointing out some research gaps in these field. Finally, we discuss several potential immunomodulatory treatments for AF. Although the heterogeneity of existing evidence makes it ambiguous to extrapolate immunomodulatory treatments for AF into the clinical practice, immune remodeling is still an evolving concept in AF pathophysiology and further studies within this field are likely to provide effective therapies for AF.

5.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 9: 915903, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35898278

RESUMO

Background: Macrophage polarization is an important regulatory mechanism of ventricular remodeling. Studies have shown that sinapic acid (SA) exerts an anti-inflammatory effect. However, the effect of SA on macrophages is still unclear. Objectives: The purpose of the study was to investigate the role of SA in macrophage polarization and ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI). Methods: An MI model was established by ligating the left coronary artery. The rats with MI were treated with SA for 1 or 4 weeks after MI. The effect of SA on bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) was also observed in vitro. Results: Cardiac systolic dysfunction was significantly improved after SA treatment. SA reduced MCP-1 and CCR2 expression and macrophage infiltration. SA decreased the levels of the inflammatory factors TNF-α, IL-1α, IL-1ß, and iNOS and increased the levels of the M2 macrophage markers CD206, Arg-1, IL-10, Ym-1, Fizz-1, and TGF-ß at 1 week after MI. SA significantly increased CD68+/CD206+ macrophage infiltration. Myocardial interstitial fibrosis and MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels were decreased, and the sympathetic nerve marker TH and nerve sprouting marker GAP43 were suppressed after SA treatment at 4 weeks after MI. The PPARγ level was notably upregulated after SA treatment. In vitro, SA also increased the expression of PPARγ mRNA in BMDMs and IL-4-treated BMDMs in a concentration-dependent manner. SA enhanced Arg1 and IL-10 expression in BMDMs, and the PPARγ antagonist GW9662 attenuated M2 macrophage marker expression. Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that SA attenuated structural and neural remodeling by promoting macrophage M2 polarization via PPARγ activation after MI.

6.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 925276, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35873593

RESUMO

Background: Methamphetamine (METH)-induced cardiovascular toxicity has been attributed to its destructive effect on mitochondrial function at least to some extent. Previous studies highlighted the benefits of dapagliflozin (DAPA) on the cardiovascular system, but the response of METH-induced cardiomyopathy to DAPA is never addressed before. The present study aimed to investigate the potential ability of DAPA in preventing METH-induced cardiomyopathy. Materials and Methods: C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into control group (n = 24), METH group (n = 24), and METH + DAPA group (n = 24). The METH-induced cardiomyopathy group received intraperitoneal METH injections at gradually increasing doses thrice weekly for 14 weeks. Mice in the METH + DAPA group were simultaneously treated with DAPA 1 mg/kg/day by intragastric administration. Echocardiography was performed to assess cardiac function. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), JC-1, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assays were performed to evaluate oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage, and apoptosis, respectively. Mitochondrial and apoptosis-related protein expression was measured by western blotting. Results: Mice exposed to METH exhibited reduced cardiac function (left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF]: 56.51 ± 6.49 vs. 73.62 ± 1.42, p < 0.01), fibrotic remodeling, and mitochondrial dysfunction, leading to apoptosis (apoptotic cells%: 7.4 ± 1.3 vs. 1.3 ± 0.5, p < 0.01). DAPA significantly reduced mitochondrial dynamics and function, ROS, apoptosis (apoptotic cells%: 2.4 ± 0.8 vs. 7.4 ± 1.3, p < 0.01), cardiac function decline (LVEF: 70.99 ± 4.936 vs. 56.51 ± 6.49, p < 0.01), and fibrotic remodeling. These results indicated that DAPA could be considered as an effective therapeutic agent in the protection against METH-associated cardiomyopathy. Conclusion: DAPA protects against METH-induced cardiomyopathy in mice by decreasing mitochondrial damage and apoptosis.

7.
Lancet Reg Health West Pac ; 23: 100439, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35800039

RESUMO

Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common persistent cardiac arrhythmia. This study aimed to estimate its prevalence and explore associated factors in adults aged 18 years or older in China. Methods: Study data were derived from a national sample from July 2020 to September 2021. Participants were recruited using a multistage stratified sampling method from twenty-two provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in China. AF was determined based on a history of diagnosed AF or electrocardiogram results. Findings: A total of 114,039 respondents were included in the final analysis with a mean age of 55 years (standard deviation 17), 52·1% of whom were women. The crude prevalence of AF was 2·3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1·7-2·8) and increased with age. The age-standardized AF prevalence was 1·6% (95% CI 1·6-1·7%) overall, and 1·7% (1·6-1·8%), 1·4% (1·3-1·5%), 1·6% (95% CI 1·5-1·7%), and 1·7% (1·6-1·9%) in men, women, urban areas, and rural areas, respectively. The prevalence was higher in the central regions (2·5%, 2·3-2·7%) than in the western regions (1·5%, 1·0-2·0%) and eastern regions (1·1%, 1·0-1·2%) in the overall population, either in the gender or residency subgroups. The associated factors for AF included age (per 10 years; odds ratio 1·41 [95% CI 1·38-1·46]; p < 0·001), men (1·34 [1·24-1·45]; p < 0·001), hypertension (1·22 [1·12-1·33]; p < 0·001), coronary heart disease (1·44 [1·28-1·62]; p < 0·001), chronic heart failure (3·70 [3·22-4·26]; p < 0·001), valvular heart disease (2·13 [1·72-2·63]; p < 0·001), and transient ischaemic attack/stroke (1·22 [1·04-1·43]; p = 0·013). Interpretation: The prevalence of AF was 1.6% in the Chinese adult population and increased with age, with significant geographic variation. Older age, male sex, and cardiovascular disease were potent factors associated with AF. It is crucial to increase the awareness of AF and disseminate standardized treatment in clinical settings to reduce the disease burden. Funding: This research was supported the Nature Science Foundation of Hubei province (No: 2017CFB204).

8.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2022: 3961495, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35677105

RESUMO

The exact mechanism of atrial fibrillation (AF) has been not well elucidated. Ferroptosis is an iron-dependent cell death due to excessive accumulation of peroxidized polyunsaturated fatty acids. However, the molecular mechanism underlying AF and ferroptosis has never been reported. Here, we established the rapid pacing model in vivo and vitro to investigate the relationship between AF and ferroptosis. In canine model of rapid atrial pacing, the content of malondialdehyde and total ions in the atrial tissue of the Pacing group was significantly increased and the exosome inhibitor GW4869 reduced ferroptosis, fibrosis, and inflammation and improved histological and electrophysiological remodeling. In rapid pacing h9c2 cells, the expression of antioxidative stress genes associated with ferroptosis presented sequential changes and proteins involved in ferroptosis such as FTH1, SLC7A11, and GPX4 were gradually depleted. Furthermore, pacing cardiac fibroblast-derived exosomes (CF-exos) exacerbated ferroptosis in h9c2 cells and pretreated pacing-CF-exos with GW4869 alleviated injury to h9c2 cells. In mechanism, our results demonstrated that pacing-CF-exos highly expressed miR-23a-3p by informatics analysis and experimental verification. Inhibitor-miR-23a-3p protected h9c2 cells from ferroptosis accompanying with upregulation of SLC7A11. In addition, SLC7A11 was shown to be the target gene of miR-23a-3p. In conclusion, our results suggest that CF-exos-miR-23a-3p may promote ferroptosis. The development of AF in a persistent direction could be prevented by intervening with exosomal miRNAs to reduce oxidative stress injury and ferroptosis.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Exossomos , Ferroptose , MicroRNAs , Animais , Cães , Exossomos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo
9.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 9: 766477, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35669473

RESUMO

Background: Depression is often comorbid with cardiovascular diseases and contributes to the development and maintenance of atrial fibrillation (AF). Ample research demonstrated that pinocembrin had protective effects on the neuropsychiatric and cardiovascular systems via its pharmacological properties. However, whether pinocembrin protects from AF in depression models is not known. The present research investigated antiarrhythmic effects of pinocembrin and the underlying mechanisms in depressed rats. Methods: One hundred and ten male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups: the CTL group (the normal rats administered saline), the CTP group (the normal rats administered pinocembrin), the MDD group (the depressed rats administered saline), the MDP group (the depressed rats administered pinocembrin), the MDA group (the depressed rats administered apocynin), and the MPA group (the depressed rats administered both pinocembrin and apocynin). Chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) was performed for 28 days to establish the depression model. Pinocembrin was administered via gavage from Day 8 to Day 28, and apocynin was administered via intraperitoneal injection from Day 1 to Day 28. The effects were evaluated using behavioral measurements, in vitro electrophysiological studies, whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, biochemical detection, Western blot, and histological studies. Results: Pinocembrin treatment significantly attenuated the abnormality of heart rate variability (HRV), the prolongation of action potential duration (APD), the shortening of the effective refractory period (ERP), the reduction of transient outward potassium current (Ito), and the increase in L-type calcium current (ICa-L), which increase susceptibility to AF in a rat model of depression. Compared to the depressed rats, pinocembrin also increased the content of Kv4.2, Kv4.3, and atrial gap junction channel Cx40 and decreased the expression level of Cav1.2, which ameliorated oxidative stress and inhibited the ROS/p-p38MAPK pro-apoptotic pathway and the ROS/TGF-ß1 pro-fibrotic pathway. Conclusion: Pinocembrin is a therapeutic strategy with great promise for the treatment of AF in depressed patients by reducing oxidative stress.

10.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 9: 827101, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35586655

RESUMO

Background: Stroke is predominately attributed to left atrial thrombus (LAT) in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF), however, its detection rate in real clinical practice has been few reported in China. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of LAT in patients with NVAF in China. Methods: All adult NVAF patients undergoing transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in the China Atrial Fibrillation Center database from January 2017 to January 2022 were enrolled in this study. The prevalence of LAT was calculated, and associated factors were identified. Results: A total of 36,007 NVAF inpatients from 602 hospitals in 30 provinces/autonomous regions/municipalities were included in the final analysis, with a median age of 66 years and 39.4% were female. LAT was present in 1,467 (4.1%) patients overall, 2.7, 5.7, and 6.8% in patients with paroxysmal, persistent, and long-standing persistent AF, respectively. In subgroup analysis, including age ≥ 65 years, CHA2DS2-VASC score ≥ 2, left atrial diameter (LAD) ≥ 50 mm, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) < 50%, and anticoagulation, patients with paroxysmal AF always had the lowest LAT prevalence, followed by patients with persistent and long-standing persistent AF. Patients treated with anticoagulants had less prevalent LAT than those without anticoagulation (2.1 vs. 5.0%, p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, AF pattern (both persistent AF and long-standing persistent AF), hypertension, chronic heart failure, coronary heart disease, transient ischemic attack/stroke, diabetes mellitus, and LAD (per 5 mm) were associated with an increased prevalence of LAT. However, LVEF (per 5%) and anticoagulation were associated with a reduced prevalence of LAT. Conclusion: LAT was found in 4.1% of Chinese adult NVAF inpatients underwent TEE in real-world experience. The prevalence of LAT mainly associated with non-paroxysmal AF, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, enlarged left atrium, lower LVEF, and lack of anticoagulation therapy.

11.
Front Physiol ; 13: 837412, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35431996

RESUMO

Previous studies have indicated that ganglionated plexi (GP) function influences atrial fibrillation (AF) vulnerability, and intermediate-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (SK4) have a close relationship with cardiomyocyte automaticity and the induction of AF. However, the effects of the SK4 inhibitor on GP function and AF vulnerability are unknown. Eighteen beagles were randomly divided into a control group (n = 6), rapid atrial pacing (RAP) group (n = 6), and triarylmethane-34 (TRAM-34, an SK4 inhibitor) group (n = 6). TRAM-34 (0.3 ml, 15 mmol/L) and saline were locally injected into GPs in the TRAM-34 group dogs and dogs from the other groups, respectively. After that, dogs in the RAP and TRAM-34 groups were subjected to RAP, and the neural activity of anterior right GP (ARGP) and atrial electrophysiology were measured. The levels of inflammatory cytokines and function of macrophages in the ARGP were measured in the three groups. At 10 min after TRAM-34 injection, ARGP activity and atrial electrophysiology did not significantly change. The atrial pacing shortened effective refractory period (ERP) values at all sites and increased the AF vulnerability and ARGP neural activity, while TRAM-34 reversed these changes. The levels of CD68 + cells, induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in the ARGP tissues were higher in the RAP group and TRAM-34 group than they were in the control group. Furthermore, the levels of the CD68 + cells, iNOS, and inflammatory cytokines in the ARGP tissues were higher in the pacing group than those in the TRAM-34 group. Based on these results, administration of TRAM-34 into the atrial GP can suppress GP activity and AF vulnerability during atrial pacing. The effects of TRAM-34 might be related to macrophage polarization and the inflammatory response of GP.

12.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 23(1): 52, 2022 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35018574

RESUMO

Despite the fact that capsules play an important role in many dry powder inhalation (DPI) systems, few studies have been conducted to investigate the capsules' interactions with respirable powders. The effect of four commercially available hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)inhalation-grade capsule types on the aerosol performance of two model DPI formulations (lactose carrier and a carrier-free formulation) at two different pressure drops was investigated in this study. There were no statistically significant differences in performance between capsules by using the carrier-based formulation. However, there were some differences between the capsules used for the carrier-free rifampicin formulation. At 2-kPa pressure drop conditions, Embocaps® VG capsules had a higher mean emitted fraction (EF) (89.86%) and a lower mean mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) (4.19 µm) than Vcaps® (Capsugel) (85.54%, 5.10 µm) and Quali-V® I (Qualicaps) (85.01%, 5.09 µm), but no significant performance differences between Embocaps® and ACGcaps™ HI. Moreover, Embocaps® VG capsules exhibited a higher mean respirable fraction (RF)/fine particle fraction (FPF) with a 3-µm-sized cutoff (RF/FPF< 3 µm) (33.05%/35.36%) against Quali-V® I (28.16%/31.75%) (P < 0.05), and a higher RF/FPF with a 5-µm-sized cutoff (RF/FPF< 5 µm) (49.15%/52.57%) versus ACGcaps™ HI (38.88%/41.99%) (P < 0.01) at 4-kPa pressure drop condition. Aerosol performance variability, pierced-flap detachment, as well as capsule hardness and stiffness, may all influence capsule type selection in a carrier-based formulation. The capsule type influenced EF, RF, FPF, and MMAD in the carrier-free formulation.


Assuntos
Budesonida , Rifampina , Administração por Inalação , Aerossóis , Cápsulas , Química Farmacêutica , Inaladores de Pó Seco , Derivados da Hipromelose , Tamanho da Partícula , Pós
13.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 699175, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34722652

RESUMO

Background: Clinical studies have shown that exosomes are associated with atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the roles and underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the function of exosomes in AF development. Methods: Twenty beagles were randomly divided into the sham group (n = 6), the pacing group (n = 7), and the pacing + GW4869 group (n = 7). The pacing and GW4869 groups underwent rapid atrial pacing (450 beats/min) for 7 days. The GW4869 group received intravenous GW4869 injection (an inhibitor of exosome biogenesis/release, 0.3 mg/kg, once a day) during pacing. Electrophysiological measurements, transmission electron microscopy, nanoparticle tracking analysis, western blotting, RT-PCR, Masson's staining, and immunohistochemistry were performed in this study. Results: Rapid atrial pacing increased the release of plasma and atrial exosomes. GW4869 treatment markedly suppressed AF inducibility and reduced the release of exosomes. After 7 days of pacing, the expression of transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1), collagen I/III, and matrix metalloproteinases was enhanced in the atrium, and the levels of microRNA-21-5p (miR-21-5p) were upregulated in both plasma exosomes and the atrium, while the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 (TIMP3), a target of miR-21-5p, showed a lower expression in the atrium. The administration of GW4869 abolished these effects. Conclusions: The blockade of exosome release with GW4869 suppressed AF by alleviating atrial fibrosis in a canine model, which was probably related to profibrotic miR-21-5p enriched in exosomes and its downstream TIMP3/TGF-ß1 pathway.

14.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 656631, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34136541

RESUMO

Aims: To investigate the role of KCa3. 1 inhibition in macrophage pro-inflammatory polarization and vulnerability to atrial fibrillation (AF) in a canine model with prolonged rapid atrial pacing. Materials and Methods: Twenty beagle dogs (weighing 8-10 kg) were randomly assigned to a sham group (n = 6), pacing group (n = 7) and pacing+TRAM-34 group (n = 7). An experimental model of AF was established by rapid pacing. TRAM-34 was administered to the Pacing+TRAM-34 group by slow intravenous injection (10 mg/kg), 3 times each day. After 7 days of pacing, the electrophysiology was measured in vivo. The levels of interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), CD68, c-Fos, p38, and NF-κB p65 in both atriums were measured by Western blotting, and the levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and arginase1 (Arg-1) were measured by real-time PCR. Macrophage and KCa3.1 in macrophage in the atrium were quantized following double labeled immunofluorescent. Results: Greater inducibility of AF, an extended duration of AF and lower atrial effective refractory period (AERP) were observed in the pacing group compared with those in the sham group. Both CD68-labeled macrophage and the expression of KCa3.1 in macrophage were elevated in the pacing group and inhibited by TRAM-34, led to higher iNOS expression, lower Arg-1 expression, elevated levels of IL-1ß, MCP-1, and TNF-α in the atria, which could be reversed by TRAM-34 treatment (all P < 0.01). KCa3.1 channels were possibly activated via the p38/AP-1/NF-κB signaling pathway. Conclusions: Inhibition of KCa3.1 suppresses vulnerability to AF by attenuating macrophage pro-inflammatory polarization and inflammatory cytokine secretion in a canine model with prolonged rapid atrial pacing.

15.
Int Heart J ; 62(3): 607-615, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34054001

RESUMO

The aim was to investigate the role of the α7nAChR-mediated cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway in vagal nerve regulated atrial fibrillation (AF).18 beagles (standard dogs for testing) were used in this study, and the effective refractory period (ERP) of atrium and pulmonary veins and AF inducibility were measured hourly during rapid atrial pacing at 800 beats/minute for 6 hours in all beagles. After cessation of 3 hours of RAP, the low-level vagal nerve stimulation (LL-VNS) group (n = 6) was given LL-VNS and injection of salinne (0.5 mL/GP) into four GPs, the methyllycaconitine (MLA, the antagonist of α7nAChR) group (n = 6) was given LL-VNS and injection of MLA into four GPs, and the Control group (n = 6) was given saline into four GPs and the right cervical vagal nerve was exposed without stimulation. Then, the levels of the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), acetylcholine (ACh), STAT3, and NF-κB proteins were measured. During the first 3 hours of RAP, the ERPs gradually decreased while the dispersion of ERPs (dERPs) and AF inducibility gradually increased in all three groups. During the last 3 hours of 6 hours' RAP in this study, the ERPs in the LL-VNS group were higher, while the dERPs and AF inducibility were significantly lower when compared with the Control and MLA groups at the same time points. The levels of ACh in the serum and atrium in the LL-VNS and MLA groups were higher than in the Control group, and the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were higher in the Control and MLA groups than in the LL-VNS group. The concentrations of STAT3 in RA and LA tissues were higher in the LL-VNS group while those of NF-κB were lower.In conclusion, the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway mediated by α7nACh plays an important role in low-level vagal nerve-regulated AF.


Assuntos
Aconitina/análogos & derivados , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Neuroimunomodulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Nervo Vago/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor Nicotínico de Acetilcolina alfa7/antagonistas & inibidores , Acetilcolina/sangue , Aconitina/administração & dosagem , Aconitina/farmacologia , Animais , Estimulação Cardíaca Artificial/efeitos adversos , Estimulação Cardíaca Artificial/métodos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Cães , Átrios do Coração/inervação , Átrios do Coração/fisiopatologia , Interleucina-6/sangue , NF-kappa B/sangue , Antagonistas Nicotínicos/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas Nicotínicos/farmacologia , Veias Pulmonares/inervação , Veias Pulmonares/fisiopatologia , Período Refratário Eletrofisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/sangue , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue , Estimulação do Nervo Vago/efeitos adversos , Estimulação do Nervo Vago/métodos
16.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(4): 891-901, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33456346

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate the potential mechanism of ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) after acute ischemic stroke and explore the effects of left stellate gangling (LSG) ablation on VAs induced by stroke in canines. Materials and Methods: Twenty canines were randomly divided into the sham-operated group (n=6), AS group (n=7) and SGA group (n=7). Cerebral ischemic model was established in the AS group and the SGA group by right acute middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). LSG ablation was performed in the SGA group as soon as MCAO. After 3 days, atrial electrophysiology and neural activity were measured in vivo. The levels of norepinephrine (NE) in plasma and ventricle were detected by ELISA. The levels of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and NF-κB p65 in ventricle were detected by western blotting. The pro-inflammatory polarization of macrophages in ventricle was detected by immunofluorescence. Results: Higher ventricular tachycardia (VT) inducibility and lower ventricular fibrillation threshold (VFT) were observed in the AS group compared with those in the sham-operated group, associated with higher LSG activity and NE levels, increased number of M1 macrophages and secretion of inflammatory cytokines in ventricle (all P<0.001). Compared with the AS group, the SGA group had lower VT inducibility and higher VFT, combined with lower NE levels, and reduced number of M1 macrophages and secretion of inflammatory cytokines in ventricle (all P<0.001). Conclusion: LSG ablation could reduce VAs vulnerability after acute stroke by preventing the macrophages polarization and activation induced by sympathetic hyperactivity.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas/prevenção & controle , Ablação por Cateter/métodos , Ventrículos do Coração/inervação , AVC Isquêmico/complicações , Gânglio Estrelado/cirurgia , Animais , Arritmias Cardíacas/diagnóstico , Arritmias Cardíacas/etiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Cães , Eletrocardiografia , Humanos , AVC Isquêmico/diagnóstico , Macrófagos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética
17.
J Interv Card Electrophysiol ; 60(2): 247-253, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32248426

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to explore the role of intermediate-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (SK4) in atrial fibrillation (AF) inducibility in canines with rapid atrial pacing. METHODS: Eighteen dogs were divided into the control group, the pacing group and the stellate ganglion ablation (SGA) + pacing group. In the pacing group, dogs were subjected to rapid atrial pacing, and the atrial effective refractory period (AERP) and AF inducibility were measured. After cessation of 7-h pacing, SK4 inhibitor (TRAM-34) was administered. After SGA, the SGA + pacing group received the same procedure of pacing and electrophysiological measurement as the pacing group. The expression of SK4 was measured in the left atrium (LA) and the right atrium (RA) in the three groups. RESULTS: The duration of the AERP decreased, while the number of AF episodes, the duration of induced AF, and the amplitude of stellate ganglion neural activity all increased after rapid atrial pacing. TRAM-34 completely inhibited AF induction in the pacing group. There was no significant difference in AERP shortening or AF vulnerability between the SGA + pacing group and the control group. The expression of SK4 in the LA and RA was higher in the pacing group than in the control and SGA + pacing groups. However, there was no significant difference in the expression of SK4 in the LA or the RA between the SGA + pacing group and the control group. CONCLUSION: The higher expression of SK4 plays an important role in AF induction and the increased expression of SK4 in the atrium is related to SG activity during rapid atrial pacing.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Animais , Fibrilação Atrial/terapia , Estimulação Cardíaca Artificial , Cães , Átrios do Coração , Canais de Potássio Ativados por Cálcio de Condutância Intermediária , Gânglio Estrelado
18.
J Immunol Res ; 2021: 1994328, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34514000

RESUMO

Atrial fibrillation (AF) seriously reduces the health and life quality of patients. It is necessary to explore the pathogenesis of AF and provide a new target for the treatment. Here, exosomes were identified using transmission electron microscopy and nanoparticle tracing analysis. Western blotting assay was performed to detect the expression of exosomal surface markers, extracellular matrix-related proteins, and IL-16. The expression of genes was measured using qRT-PCR. Flow cytometry was performed to examine the percentages of CD86- and CD163-positive macrophages. Besides, luciferase activity assay was performed to explore the combination between PVT1 and miR-145-5p and the combination between miR-145-5p and IL-16 3'UTR. The combination between PVT1 and miR-145-5p also was examined using RIP assay. In our study, we isolated human cardiac myocyte- (HCM-) derived exosomes successfully. Ang-II-treated HCM-derived exosomes (Ang-II-Exo) promoted M1 macrophage polarization. PVT1 was highly expressed in Ang-II-Exo. Ang-II-Exo induced macrophage to M1 polarization through transferring PVT1. Furthermore, our data showed that PVT1 increased the expression of IL-16 via sponging miR-145-5p. Finally, we proved that exosomal PVT1 could boost the extracellular matrix remodeling of atrial fibroblasts. Overall, our data demonstrated that Ang-II-Exo promoted the extracellular matrix remodeling of atrial fibroblasts via inducing M1 macrophage polarization by transferring PVT1. PVT1 facilitated M1 polarization macrophage via increasing IL-16 expression by sponging miR-145-5p. Our results provided a new evidence for PVT1 which might be a treatment target of AF.


Assuntos
Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Comunicação Celular , Ativação de Macrófagos/genética , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Transporte Biológico , Biomarcadores , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/metabolismo , Exossomos/metabolismo , Exossomos/ultraestrutura , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Humanos , Ativação de Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , MicroRNAs/genética , Transdução de Sinais
19.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e047658, 2021 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34551942

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the characteristics of new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) and its impact on prognosis in acute pulmonary embolism (aPE). DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study SETTING: The study cohort included patients diagnosed with aPE who were admitted to the Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University from January 2017 to January 2019. PARTICIPANTS: Patients were ≥18 years of age and hospitalised for aPE. OUTCOME MEASURES: AF was diagnosed based on an ECG recording or a Holter monitor during hospitalisation. aPE was diagnosed by CT pulmonary angiography. The prescription was determined from the discharge medication list. All-cause mortality was observed after 6-month follow-up. The logistic regression model and Cox proportional hazards model were used to study the risk factor of the new-onset AF and the predictor of all-cause mortality, respectively. RESULTS: A total of 590 patients with aPE were enrolled, 23 (3.9%) in the new-onset paroxysmal AF group, 31 (5.3%) in the new-onset persistent AF group and 536 (90.8%) in the sinus rhythm (SR) group. The incidence of the new-onset AF was 9.2% (54/590). A significant difference in age, heart rate, cardiac troponin I ultra, amino-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, D-dimer, left atrial diameter, left ventricular ejection fraction, pulmonary infection, venous thromboembolism, congestive heart failure, chronic cor pulmonale and ischaemic heart disease was found among the three groups (p<0.05). Risk factors for the new-onset AF were massive PE, ischaemic heart disease and congestive heart failure. The survival rate of the paroxysmal and persistent AF group was significantly lower than that of the SR group within 6 months (60.9% and 51.6% vs 88.8%, p<0.001). New-onset persistent AF (OR 2.73; 95% CI 1.28 to 5.81; p=0.009) was an independent predictor affecting the 6-month survival in aPE patients. CONCLUSIONS: Massive PE, ischaemic heart disease and congestive heart failure are high-risk factors which were related to new-onset AF in aPE. New-onset persistent AF was an independent predictor for 6-month all-cause mortality in PE patients.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Embolia Pulmonar , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Humanos , Prognóstico , Embolia Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Embolia Pulmonar/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Volume Sistólico , Função Ventricular Esquerda
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