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BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 596, 2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34353280


BACKGROUND: The eating and cooking qualities (ECQs) of rice (Oryza sativa L.) are key characteristics affecting variety adoption and market value. Starch viscosity profiles tested by a rapid visco analyzer (RVA) offer a direct measure of ECQs and represent the changes in viscosity associated with starch gelatinization. RVA profiles of rice are controlled by a complex genetic system and are also affected by the environment. Although Waxy (Wx) is the major gene controlling amylose content (AC) and ECQs, there are still other unknown genetic factors that affect ECQs. RESULTS: Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for starch paste viscosity in rice were analyzed using chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) developed from the two cultivars 9311 and Nipponbare, which have same Wx-b allele. Thus, the effect of the major locus Wx was eliminated and the other locus associated with the RVA profile could be identified. QTLs for seven parameters of the starch RVA profile were tested over four years in Nanjing, China. A total of 310 QTLs were identified (from 1 to 55 QTLs per trait) and 136 QTLs were identified in more than one year. Among them, 6 QTLs were stalely detected in four years and 26 QTLs were detected in at least three years including 13 pleiotropic loci, controlling 2 to 6 RVA properties simultaneously. These stable QTL hotspots were co-located with several known starch synthesis-related genes (SSRGs). Sequence alignments showed that nucleotide and amino acid sequences of most SSRGs were different between the two parents. Finally, we detected stable QTLs associated with multiple starch viscosity traits near Wx itself, supporting the notion that additional QTLs near Wx control multiple characteristic values of starch viscosity. CONCLUSIONS: By eliminating the contribution from the major locus Wx, multiple QTLs associated with the RVA profile of rice were identified, several of which were stably detected over four years. The complexity of the genetic basis of rice starch viscosity traits might be due to their pleiotropic effects and the multiple QTL hot spots. Minor QTLs controlling starch viscosity traits were identified by using the chromosome segment substitution strategy. Allele polymorphism might be the reason that QTLs controlling RVA profile characteristics were detected in some known SSRG regions.

Oryza , Amido/química , Alelos , Cromossomos , Oryza/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Viscosidade
Yi Chuan ; 43(5): 442-458, 2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33972215


In order to develop a variety of japonica rice with good eating quality suitable for planting in Jiangsu Province, the genetic basis of high quality, disease resistance and high yield japonica rice varieties in Jiangsu Province was systematically studied. The relationship among different rice qualities of cooking, nutrition, and eating was studied by association analysis. It was clear that amylose content was the key factor affecting eating quality. The semi waxy rice with amylose content of 10%~14% has bright surface, soft texture, and elasticity, combining the softness of glutinous rice and the elasticity of japonica rice. The cold rice is not hard, and the taste is excellent. It meets the taste requirements of people in Yangtze River Delta region who like to eat soft fragrant japonica rice. The semi waxy japonica rice variety "Kantou 194" with a low expression of amylose content gene Wx mp and an amylose content of about 10% was selected as the core germplasm for improving eating quality. Pyramiding breeding of japonica rice variety with good eating quality, disease resistance and high yield was carried out by examining the development of Wx mp gene molecular markers and the use of closely linked molecular markers with disease resistance and high yield genes. A series of new japonica rice varieties with good taste such as Nanjing 46, Nanjing 5055, Nanjing 9108, and Nanjing 5718, suitable for different rice areas of Jiangsu Province, have been bred and approved by Jiangsu Provincial Variety Approval Committee. The layout of japonica rice varieties with good taste covering different rice areas in Jiangsu Province has been formed. These varieties have been planted with an accumulated area of more than 5.3 million hectares, which has effectively promoted the development of high quality rice industry in Jiangsu Province and its surrounding areas, and made important contributions to the structural adjustment of the supply side of rice industry, improving quality and efficiency, and ensuring food security.

Oryza , Amilose , Marcadores Genéticos , Humanos , Oryza/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal
BMC Genet ; 21(1): 119, 2020 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33054745


BACKGROUND: Eating and cooking qualities (ECQs) of rice (Oryza sativa L.) determine consumer acceptance and the economic value of rice varieties. The starch physicochemical properties, i.e. amylose content, gel consistency, gelatinization temperature and pasting viscosity are important indices for evaluating rice ECQs. Genetic factors are required for development of rice varieties with excellent ECQs and association mapping is one of the promising approaches for discovering such associated genetic factors. RESULTS: A genome-wide association mapping was performed on a set of 253 non-glutinous rice accessions consisting of 83 indica and 170 japonica cultivated rice varieties through phenotyping for 11 ECQ traits in two consecutive years and genotyping with 210 polymorphic SSR and candidate-gene markers. These markers amplified 747 alleles with an average of 3.57 alleles per locus. The structure, phylogenetic relationship, and principal component analysis indicated a strong population differentiation between indica and japonica accessions and association mapping was thus undertaken within indica and japonica subpopulations. All traits showed a large phenotypic variation and highly significant phenotypic correlations were present between most of traits. A total of 33 and 30 loci were located for 11 ECQs in indica and japonica subpopulations respectively. Most of associated loci were overlapped with starch synthesis-related genes (SSRGs), and the Wx locus gathered 14 associated loci with the largest effects on amylose content, gel consistency and pasting viscosities. Eight subpopulation specific markers, RM588, Wx-(CT)n, SSI and SBE1 for indica subpopulation and RM550, Wxmp, SSIIa and SBE4 for japonica subpopulation, were identified, suggesting alleles of SSRGs showed the subspecific tendency. Nevertheless, allelic variation in SSIIa showed no tendency towards subspecies. One associated maker RM550 detected in japonica subpopulation for amylose content and pasting viscosity was verified a potential novel and stably expressed locus and could be selected for further fine mapping. CONCLUSION: This study illustrated the potential for dissecting genetic factors of complex traits in domesticated rice subspecies and provided highly associated markers to facilitate marker-assisted selection for breeding high-quality indica or japonica rice varieties.

Amilose/análise , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Oryza/genética , Alelos , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Genes de Plantas , Estudos de Associação Genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Amido/análise
Plant Mol Biol ; 102(1-2): 199-212, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31813113


KEY MESSAGE: The kinase-associated protein phosphatase, KAPP, is negatively involved in abscisic acid (ABA) signaling. KAPP interacts physically with SnRK2.2, SnRK2.3 and SnRK2.6, and functionally acts upstream of SnRK2.2 and SnRK2.3. The kinase-associated protein phosphatase (KAPP) has been reported to be involved in the regulation of many developmental and signaling events, but it remains unknown whether KAPP is involved in ABA signaling. Here, we report that KAPP is negatively involved in ABA-mediated seed germination and early seedling growth in Arabidopsis thaliana. The two loss-of-function mutants of KAPP, kapp-1 and kapp-2, exhibit increased ABA sensitivity in ABA-induced seed germination inhibition and post-germination growth arrest. The three closely-related protein kinase, (SNF1)-related protein kinase SnRK2.2, SnRK2.3 and SnRK2.6, which play critical roles in ABA signaling, interact and co-localize with KAPP. Genetic evidence showed that the ABA-hypersensitive phenotypes caused by KAPP mutation were suppressed by the double mutation of SnRK2.2 and SnRK2.3, indicating that KAPP functions upstream of SnRK2.2 and SnRK2.3 in ABA signaling. RNA-sequencing analysis revealed that KAPP mutation affects expression of multiple ABA-responsive genes. These results demonstrated that KAPP is negatively involved in plant response to ABA, which help to understand the complicated ABA signaling mechanism.

Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Fosfoproteínas Fosfatases/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Germinação , Mutação , Fenótipo , Fosfoproteínas Fosfatases/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Análise de Sequência , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transdução de Sinais , Estresse Fisiológico , Tabaco/genética
Plant J ; 97(4): 683-692, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30417595


Recombination during meiosis plays an important role in genome evolution by reshuffling existing genetic variations into fresh combinations with the possibility of recovery of lost ancestral genotypes. While crossover (CO) events have been well studied, gene conversion events (GCs), which represent non-reciprocal information transfer between chromosomes, are poorly documented and difficult to detect due to their relatively small converted tract size. Here, we document these GC events and their phenotypic effects at an important locus in rice containing the SD1 gene, where multiple defective alleles contributed to the semi-dwarf phenotype of rice in the 'Green Revolution' of the 1960s. Here, physical separation of two defects allows recombination to generate the wild-type SD1 gene, for which plant height can then be used as a reporter. By screening 18 000 F2 progeny from a cross between two semi-dwarf cultivars that carry these different defective alleles, we detected 24 GC events, indicating a conversion rate of ~3.3 × 10-4 per marker per generation in a single meiotic cycle in rice. Furthermore, our data show that indels and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) do not differ significantly in GC rates, at least at the SD1 locus. Our results provide strong evidence that GC by itself can regain an ancestral phenotype that was lost through mutation. This GC detection approach is likely to be broadly applicable to natural or artificial alleles of other phenotype-related functional genes, which are abundant in other plant genomes.

Oryza/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Genótipo , Meiose/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 17486, 2017 12 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29235492


Lysine 2-hydroxyisobutyrylation is a recently identified protein post-translational modification that is known to affect the association between histone and DNA. However, non-histone protein lysine 2-hydroxyisobutyrylation remains largely unexplored. Utilizing antibody-based affinity enrichment and nano-HPLC/MS/MS analyses of 2-hydroxyisobutyrylation peptides, we efficaciously identified 9,916 2-hydroxyisobutyryl lysine sites on 2,512 proteins in developing rice seeds, representing the first lysine 2-hydroxyisobutyrylome dataset in plants. Functional annotation analyses indicated that a wide variety of vital biological processes were preferably targeted by lysine 2-hydroxyisobutyrylation, including glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, TCA cycle, starch biosynthesis, lipid metabolism, protein biosynthesis and processing. Our finding showed that 2-hydroxyisobutyrylated histone sites were conserved across plants, human, and mouse. A number of 2-hydroxyisobutyryl sites were shared with other lysine acylations in both histone and non-histone proteins. Comprehensive analysis of the lysine 2-hydroxyisobutyrylation sites illustrated that the modification sites were highly sequence specific with distinct motifs, and they had less surface accessibility than other lysine residues in the protein. Overall, our study provides the first systematic analysis of lysine 2-hydroxyisobutyrylation proteome in plants, and it serves as an important resource for future investigations of the regulatory mechanisms and functions of lysine 2-hydroxyisobutyrylation.

Oryza/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Proteoma , Sementes/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Lisina/análogos & derivados , Lisina/metabolismo , Oryza/genética , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteômica , Sementes/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento