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1.
Pancreatology ; 21(1): 89-94, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33309224

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence indicates that hemodialysis may be a risk factor for acute pancreatitis. This meta-analysis was conducted with the aim of summarizing all available data and examining the present evidence. AIM: To quantify the association between hemodialysis and the incidence of acute pancreatitis. METHODS: This meta-analysis included studies on the incidence of acute pancreatitis in patients with hemodialysis. We summarized the incidence of acute pancreatitis in hemodialysis patients, and compared the incidence of acute pancreatitis in hemodialysis patients with that in non-hemodialysis individuals. Pooled risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random-effects model. RESULTS: A total of 5 observational studies with 1059384 individuals were identified for the meta-analysis. Meta-analysis of these observational studies showed that the pooled prevalence of acute pancreatitis in hemodialysis patients was 1.1% (95% CI: 0.2%-2.3%). In addition, we found that hemodialysis was associated with an increased risk of acute pancreatitis (relative risk = 6.96; 95% CI 3.71-13.06). CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis confirmed that hemodialysis is associated with an increased risk of acute pancreatitis. More fundamental research should be carried out to elucidate the biological mechanisms.

2.
ACS Med Chem Lett ; 11(11): 2195-2203, 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33214829

RESUMO

Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) has been shown to play a key role in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity. Therefore, the inhibition of the kinase activity of BTK with a small molecule inhibitor could offer a breakthrough in the clinical treatment of many autoimmune diseases. This Letter describes the discovery of BMS-986143 through systematic structure-activity relationship (SAR) development. This compound benefits from defined chirality derived from two rotationally stable atropisomeric axes, providing a potent and selective single atropisomer with desirable efficacy and tolerability profiles.

3.
Therap Adv Gastroenterol ; 13: 1756284820952596, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33029198

RESUMO

Background and aims: The genotypic method could significantly shorten the time needed to obtain antibiotic susceptibility data for Helicobacter pylori. The aim of this study was to explore the profile of H. pylori from gastric biopsies and strains with antibiotic-induced resistance. Methods: A total of 124 gastric biopsies were used to perform gene sequencing and to perform bacterial culture and susceptibility testing. Seven susceptible strains were selected to develop resistance to clarithromycin, levofloxacin, and metronidazole. Four susceptible strains were selected to transfer candidate mutations. The genotype profiles of these groups were analyzed by sequencing analysis. The antibiotic susceptibility of these strains was detected using the E-test method. Results: Phenotypic resistance to clarithromycin, levofloxacin, and metronidazole was observed in 35.5%, 40.0%, and 79.8% strains, respectively. Point mutations in 23 S rRNA, gyrA, and rdxA genes were observed in 39.5%, 38.7%, and 86.3% of gastric biopsies, respectively. The A2143G mutation in the 23S rRNA occurs in most clarithromycin-resistant samples. The A2142C point mutation showed a higher efficacy than A2142G and A2143G for inducing clarithromycin resistance. The D91N and N87K mutations in gyrA occurs in most levofloxacin-resistant samples, and double point mutations showed a higher efficacy than single mutations for inducing levofloxacin resistance. Phenotypic resistance and mutations in rdxA lacked consistency. Conclusion: Genotype-based gastric biopsy analysis was reliable for determining clarithromycin and levofloxacin resistance. A2143G in 23S rRNA and N87K/D91N in the gyrA gene occurred in most resistant strains. Mutations in the rdxA gene were not good indicators of metronidazole resistance.

4.
Mol Med Rep ; 22(4): 2851-2859, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32945488

RESUMO

Single immunoglobulin and Toll­interleukin­1 receptor domain­containing molecule (SIGIRR) is a specific inhibitor of IL­1R and Toll­like receptor (TLR) signaling and considered a potential target for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Pathogenic mechanisms associated with the TLR4 signaling pathway have a critical role in the development of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). The aim of the present study was to determine the role of SIGIRR in the regulation of TLR4 signaling during the progression of SAP. Pancreatitis­associated ascitic fluid (PAAF) was collected from patients with SAP. Murine RAW264.7 macrophages were transfected with a SIGIRR overexpression plasmid and co­cultured with the PAAF from the donors in order to evaluate the effect of SIGIRR in vitro. The mRNA expression of TLR4, SIGIRR and other key downstream signaling molecules was quantified using semi­quantitative PCR with agarose gel electrophoresis. Furthermore, the levels of pro­inflammatory cytokines in the culture supernatant were detected using ELISA. In contrast to SIGIRR, the mRNA expression levels of TLR4, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), IL­1R­associated kinase­1 (IRAK­1) and TNF receptor­associated factor­6 (TRAF­6) were significantly increased in RAW264.7 cells following treatment with PAAF. Furthermore, TLR4, MyD88, IRAK­1 and TRAF­6 mRNA levels were significantly downregulated following SIGIRR overexpression and PAAF treatment in RAW264.7 cells. The levels of IL­2, IL­12, IL­17 and IFN­Î³ in the culture supernatant were also significantly decreased, while IL­10 levels were increased. Overall, SIGIRR negatively regulated the TLR4 signaling pathway to protect against the development of SAP in an in vitro model. Therefore, SIGIRR may represent a promising therapeutic target for SAP.

5.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 87: 106828, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736193

RESUMO

AIM: BicC family RNA-binding protein 1 (BICC1) codes an RNA-binding protein that regulates gene expression and modulates cell proliferation and apoptosis. We aim at investigating the role of BICC1 in gastric carcinogenesis. METHODS: BICC1 mRNA expression in gastric cancer (GC) was examined using the Tumor Immune Estimation Resource (TIMER), The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) databases. Correlations between BICC1 expression and clinicopathological parameters were analyzed. The Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA) and Kaplan-Meier plotter databases were used to examine the clinical prognostic significance of BICC1 in GC. Signaling pathways related to BICC1 expression were identified by gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA). TIMER and CIBERSORT were used to analyze the correlations among BICC1, BICC1-coexpressed genes and tumor-infiltrating immune cells. RESULTS: BICC1 was highly expressed in GC and significantly correlated with grade (P = 0.002), TNM stage (P = 0.033), invasion depth (P = 0.001) and vital status (P = 0.009) of GC patients. High BICC1 expression correlated with poor overall survival. The GSEA results showed that cell adhesion-, tumor- and immune- related pathways were significantly enriched in samples with high BICC1 expression. BICC1 and its coexpressed genes were positively related to tumor-infiltrating immune cells and were strongly correlated with tumor-infiltrating macrophages (all r ≥ 0.582, P < 0.0001). The CIBERSORT database revealed that BICC1 correlated with M2 macrophages (P < 0.0001), regulatory T cells (P < 0.0001), resting mast cells (P < 0.0001), activated memory CD4+ T cells (P = 0.002), resting NK cells (P = 0.002), activated dendritic cells (P = 0.002), and follicular helper T cells (P = 0.016). The results from TIMER database confirmed that BICC1 is closely associated with the markers of M2 macrophages and tumor-associated macrophages (all r ≥ 0.5, P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: BICC1 may be a potential prognostic biomarker in GC and correlates with immune infiltrates.

6.
Biol Sex Differ ; 11(1): 43, 2020 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32703269

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) of the stomach are the most common GISTs. The risk, incidence, and outcome of cancer are different between the sexes. Whether gender is related to the prognosis of gastric stromal tumors is unclear. Therefore, this study aims to explore the relationship between gender and gastric GIST prognosis. METHODS: Data from gastric GIST patients were collected from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Propensity score matching (PSM) was performed to reduce confounding factors, and the clinicopathological features and prognosis of GIST patients were comprehensively evaluated. RESULTS: There were 512 male patients and 538 female patients with gastric GIST. The gender of gastric GIST patients was associated with marital status, surgical treatment, tumor size, and mitotic index (P < 0.05). The Kaplan-Meier analysis and log-rank test revealed that male patients had a higher mortality rate than female patients (P = 0.0024). After matching all the potential confounding factors, the survival of the female gastric GIST patients was better than that of the male gastric GIST patients (P = 0.042). Cox regression analysis revealed that gender was an independent risk factor for overall survival. The risk of death was higher for males than for females (HR 1.677, 95% CI 1.150-2.444, P = 0.007). CONCLUSION: Gender could be a prognostic factor for gastric GIST survival, and male patients had a higher risk of death.

7.
Med Microbiol Immunol ; 209(5): 621-630, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32607764

RESUMO

Outer inflammatory protein (OipA) is an important virulence factor of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), but the correlation between oipA copy number and its virulence remains unknown. The study was designed to investigate whether the duplicate oipA gene loci showed more virulent than one oipA gene in vitro. H. pylori strain CCS9803 (China Chongqing Strain 9803) that carries duplicate oipA loci was used to construct one or two oipA knockout mutant strain, which was further verified by qPCR and western blot. Gastric epithelial cells AGS and GES-1 were infected with wild-type (WT) or oipA mutants for 6 or 24 h. The expression levels of IL-8, bacterial adhesion, cell apoptosis and cell cycle were performed to analyze the function of oipA. The WT and oipA mutant strains induce significantly higher mRNA and protein levels of IL-8 than the uninfected group (P < 0.05), but only oipA2 mutants induced significantly decreased expression levels than the WT-infected group (P < 0.05). Adherence to gastric cells was significantly decreased by inactivated two oipA loci (P < 0.05). The WT strain caused a significant rising proportion of early apoptosis cell, which had dropped after duplicate oipA genes were both knockout (P < 0.05). WT and oipA1 mutants failed to affect cell cycle; however, the oipA2 mutants increased M phase and reduced S phase when compared to the uninfected group. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that oipA impacts IL-8 expression, adherence, cell apoptosis and cell cycle of gastric cells independent of its gene copy number.

8.
ACS Med Chem Lett ; 10(3): 300-305, 2019 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30891130

RESUMO

We encountered a dilemma in the course of studying a series of antagonists of the G-protein coupled receptor CC chemokine receptor-2 (CCR2): compounds with polar C3 side chains exhibited good ion channel selectivity but poor oral bioavailability, whereas compounds with lipophilic C3 side chains exhibited good oral bioavailability in preclinical species but poor ion channel selectivity. Attempts to solve this through the direct modulation of physicochemical properties failed. However, the installation of a protonation-dependent conformational switching mechanism resolved the problem because it enabled a highly selective and relatively polar molecule to access a small population of a conformer with lower polar surface area and higher membrane permeability. Optimization of the overall properties in this series yielded the CCR2 antagonist BMS-741672 (7), which embodied properties suitable for study in human clinical trials.

9.
J Med Chem ; 62(7): 3228-3250, 2019 04 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30893553

RESUMO

Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), a non-receptor tyrosine kinase, is a member of the Tec family of kinases and is essential for B cell receptor (BCR) mediated signaling. BTK also plays a critical role in the downstream signaling pathways for the Fcγ receptor in monocytes, the Fcε receptor in granulocytes, and the RANK receptor in osteoclasts. As a result, pharmacological inhibition of BTK is anticipated to provide an effective strategy for the clinical treatment of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus. This article will outline the evolution of our strategy to identify a covalent, irreversible inhibitor of BTK that has the intrinsic potency, selectivity, and pharmacokinetic properties necessary to provide a rapid rate of inactivation systemically following a very low dose. With excellent in vivo efficacy and a very desirable tolerability profile, 5a (branebrutinib, BMS-986195) has advanced into clinical studies.


Assuntos
Tirosina Quinase da Agamaglobulinemia/antagonistas & inibidores , Descoberta de Drogas , Indóis/farmacologia , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Animais , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Indóis/farmacocinética , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Macaca fascicularis , Camundongos , Piperidinas/farmacocinética , Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacocinética , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico
10.
J Chromatogr A ; 1586: 106-115, 2019 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30578026

RESUMO

Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) plays an essential role in multiple cell types responsible for numerous autoimmune diseases, thus inhibition of BTK is anticipated to provide an effective strategy for the clinical treatment of autoimmune diseases. Preparative-scale super/subcritical fluid chromatography (SFC) separation methods for four groups of highly potent and selective BTK inhibitor atropisomers were successfully developed. Depending on the rotation barrier around the chiral axis, the compounds were prepared as a single stereochemically stable atropisomer or as an atropisomeric mixture. Among the four, compound 2 with one rotationally stable atropisomeric center (carbazole/quinazolinedione based) was resolved as a mixture of two atropisomers, while compound 3 (carbazole-chlorine/quinazolinedione based) and 4 (tetrahydrocarbazole-fluorine/quinazolinedione based) with two rotationally stable atropisomeric centers were resolved into a single stable atropisomer. This article discusses the challenges and strategies in preparing large quantities of these atropisomeric active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in support of the BTK program discovery efforts.


Assuntos
Tirosina Quinase da Agamaglobulinemia/antagonistas & inibidores , Cromatografia com Fluido Supercrítico/métodos , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/análise , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/isolamento & purificação , Descoberta de Drogas/instrumentação , Humanos , Estereoisomerismo
11.
Helicobacter ; 23(2): e12468, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29480532

RESUMO

Antibiotic resistance is a major cause of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) treatment failures. Because the resistance rate of H. pylori to furazolidone is low, we aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of furazolidone. We searched the PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Embase databases and included randomized controlled trials (RCT) that either compared furazolidone to other antibiotics or changed the administered dose of furazolidone. A total of 18 articles were included in the meta-analysis. According to the intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis, the total eradication rates of furazolidone-containing therapy were superior to those of other antibiotic-containing therapies (relative risk [RR] 1.07, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.14) (13 RCTs). Specifically, the eradication rates of furazolidone-containing therapy were better than those for metronidazole-containing therapy (RR 1.10, 95% CI: 1.01-1.21 for ITT). The eradication rate of furazolidone-containing bismuth-containing quadruple therapy was 92.9% (95% CI: 90.7%-95.1%) (PP). In addition, a higher daily dose of furazolidone increased the eradication rate (RR 1.17, 95% CI: 1.05-1.31). And the incidence of some adverse effects, such as fever and anorexia, was higher in the furazolidone group than in the control group, the overall incidences of total side effects and severe side effects showed no significant differences between the groups. Furazolidone-containing treatments could achieve satisfactory eradication rates and did not increase the incidence of total or severe adverse effects, but the incidence of milder side effects, such as fever and anorexia, should be considered when prescribing furazolidone-containing treatments to patients.


Assuntos
Furazolidona/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Helicobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Helicobacter pylori/efeitos dos fármacos , Helicobacter pylori/patogenicidade , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Helicobacter ; 23(2): e12467, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29405526

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antibiotic susceptibility testing is essential for tailored treatments to cure Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. However, phenotypic methods have some limitations. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the feasibility of genotypic detection methods compared with phenotypic detection methods using samples taken from H. pylori-infected patients. METHODS: Literature searches were conducted in the following databases (from January 2000 to November 2016): PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and Web of Science. A meta-analysis and systematic review was performed for studies that compared genotypic methods with phenotypic methods for the detection of H. pylori antibiotic susceptibility. RESULTS: This meta-analysis showed that the pooled sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) for the A2142G/C and/or A2143G combination for the detection of clarithromycin resistance in the strain samples were 0.97 (95% CI: 0.94-0.99), 1.00 (95% CI: 0.99-1.00), and 13 742 (95% CI: 1708-110 554), respectively. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, and DOR for the A2142G/C and/or A2143G combination for the detection of clarithromycin resistance in biopsy samples were 0.96 (95% CI: 0.90-0.99), 0.96 (95% CI: 0.91-0.99), and 722 (95% CI: 117-4443), respectively. The summarized sensitivity, specificity, and DOR value for the ability of the genotypic methods to detect quinolone resistance in biopsy specimens were 0.97 (95% CI: 0.87-0.99), 0.99 (95% CI: 0.92-1.00), and 6042 (95% CI: 486-75 143), respectively. CONCLUSION: The genotypic detection methods were reliable for the diagnosis of clarithromycin and quinolone resistance in the strain and biopsy specimens. The A2142G/C and/or A2143G combination had the best sensitivity and specificity for the detection of clarithromycin resistance.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Claritromicina/farmacologia , Claritromicina/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Genótipo , Infecções por Helicobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Helicobacter pylori/efeitos dos fármacos , Helicobacter pylori/patogenicidade , Humanos
13.
Eur J Clin Pharmacol ; 74(1): 1-13, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28990120

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sequential and concomitant therapies are two innovative therapies for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication. However, the comparative efficacy and safety of these treatments are controversial. Therefore, we aimed to conduct an updated systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that compared these two treatments. METHODS: A search of PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and Web of Science was carried out. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared sequential with concomitant therapies were selected for meta-analysis. RESULTS: Twenty RCTs were included in the analysis. The eradication rate of 10-day sequential therapy was superior to that of 5-day concomitant therapy (82.09 versus 77.79%, relative risk (RR) 1.052 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.004-1.103), P = 0.035)), similar to that of 7-day concomitant therapy (82.40 versus 86.99%, RR 0.959 (95% CI 0.874-1.053), P = 0.382), and inferior to that of 10-day concomitant therapy (78.39 versus 83.32%, RR 0.945 (95% CI 0.907-0.984, P = 0.006); the occurrence of diarrhea was higher in 10-day concomitant therapy than that in 10-day sequential therapy. Compared with the eradication rate of sequential therapy, that of concomitant therapy was higher in metronidazole-resistant strains (RR 0.912 (95% CI 0.844-0.986, P = 0.020)) and strains resistant to metronidazole and clarithromycin (RR 0.542 (95% CI 0.308-0.956, P = 0.035)). CONCLUSION: The efficacy of concomitant therapy was duration dependent, and 10-day concomitant therapy was superior to 10-day sequential therapy. Compared to sequential therapy, concomitant therapy was more efficacious for metronidazole-resistant strains and metronidazole plus clarithromycin-resistant strains. However, diarrhea was more frequent with concomitant therapy than with sequential therapy.


Assuntos
Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Infecções por Helicobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Helicobacter pylori/efeitos dos fármacos , Esquema de Medicação , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
J Org Chem ; 82(19): 10376-10387, 2017 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28877441

RESUMO

An efficient large-scale synthesis of acid 1, a penultimate precursor to the HCV NS5A inhibitor BMS-986097, along with the final API step are described. Three routes were devised for the synthesis of 1 at the various stages of the program. The third generation route, the one that proved scalable and is the main subject of this paper, features a one-step Michael addition of t-butyl 2-((diphenylmethylene)amino)acetate (24) to (E)-benzyl 4-(1-hydroxycyclopropyl)but-2-enoate (28) followed by cyclization and chiral separation to form 27c, the core skeleton of cap piece 1. The epimerization and chiral resolution of 27c followed by further synthetic manipulations involving the carbamate formation, lactone reduction and cyclization, afforded cyclopropyl pyran 1. A detailed study of diphenylmethane deprotection via acid hydrolysis as well as a key lactone to tetrahydropyran conversion, in order to avoid a side reaction that afforded an alternative cyclization product, are discussed. This synthesis was applied to the preparation of more than 100 g of the final API BMS-986097 for toxicology studies.


Assuntos
Antivirais/síntese química , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Imidazóis/síntese química , Piranos/farmacologia , Pirrolidinas/síntese química , Compostos de Espiro/síntese química , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/farmacologia , Imidazóis/química , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Estrutura Molecular , Piranos/síntese química , Piranos/química , Pirrolidinas/química , Pirrolidinas/farmacologia , Compostos de Espiro/química , Compostos de Espiro/farmacologia , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo
15.
ACS Med Chem Lett ; 8(3): 366-371, 2017 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28337332

RESUMO

The therapeutic treatment of negative symptoms and cognitive dysfunction associated with schizophrenia is a significant unmet medical need. Preclinical literature indicates that α7 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptor agonists may provide an effective approach to treating cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia. We report herein the discovery and evaluation of 1c (BMS-933043), a novel and potent α7 nACh receptor partial agonist with high selectivity against other nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes (>100-fold) and the 5-HT3A receptor (>300-fold). In vivo activity was demonstrated in a preclinical model of cognitive impairment, mouse novel object recognition. BMS-933043 has completed Phase I clinical trials.

16.
J Med Chem ; 59(24): 11171-11181, 2016 12 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27958732

RESUMO

The design and synthesis of a series of quinuclidine-containing spirooxazolidines ("spiroimidates") and their utility as α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonists are described. Selected members of the series demonstrated excellent selectivity for α7 over the highly homologous 5-HT3A receptor. Modification of the N-spiroimidate heterocycle substituent led to (1S,2R,4S)-N-isoquinolin-3-yl)-4'H-4-azaspiro[bicyclo[2.2.2]octane-2,5'oxazol]-2'-amine (BMS-902483), a potent α7 partial agonist, which improved cognition in preclinical rodent models.


Assuntos
Ciclo-Octanos/farmacologia , Desenho de Fármacos , Agonistas Nicotínicos/farmacologia , Compostos de Espiro/farmacologia , Receptor Nicotínico de Acetilcolina alfa7/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Ciclo-Octanos/síntese química , Ciclo-Octanos/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Agonistas Nicotínicos/síntese química , Agonistas Nicotínicos/química , Compostos de Espiro/síntese química , Compostos de Espiro/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
19.
J Med Chem ; 58(19): 7775-84, 2015 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26359680

RESUMO

In search for prodrugs to address the issue of pH-dependent solubility and exposure associated with 1 (BMS-582949), a previously disclosed phase II clinical p38α MAP kinase inhibitor, a structurally novel clinical prodrug, 2 (BMS-751324), featuring a carbamoylmethylene linked promoiety containing hydroxyphenyl acetic acid (HPA) derived ester and phosphate functionalities, was identified. Prodrug 2 was not only stable but also water-soluble under both acidic and neutral conditions. It was effectively bioconverted into parent drug 1 in vivo by alkaline phosphatase and esterase in a stepwise manner, providing higher exposure of 1 compared to its direct administration, especially within higher dose ranges. In a rat LPS-induced TNFα pharmacodynamic model and a rat adjuvant arthritis model, 2 demonstrated similar efficacy to 1. Most importantly, it was shown in clinical studies that prodrug 2 was indeed effective in addressing the pH-dependent absorption issue associated with 1.


Assuntos
Organofosfatos/farmacologia , Fenilacetatos/farmacologia , Pró-Fármacos/química , Pró-Fármacos/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Artrite Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Disponibilidade Biológica , Técnicas de Química Sintética , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Macaca fascicularis , Masculino , Proteína Quinase 14 Ativada por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Estrutura Molecular , Organofosfatos/química , Fenilacetatos/química , Pró-Fármacos/farmacocinética , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Ratos Endogâmicos Lew , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Solubilidade , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
20.
J Org Chem ; 80(14): 7019-32, 2015 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26151079

RESUMO

Clopidogrel is a prodrug anticoagulant with active metabolites that irreversibly inhibit the platelet surface GPCR P2Y12 and thus inhibit platelet activation. However, gaining an understanding of patient response has been limited due to imprecise understanding of metabolite activity and stereochemistry, and a lack of acceptable analytes for quantifying in vivo metabolite formation. Methods for the production of all bioactive metabolites of clopidogrel, their stereochemical assignment, and the development of stable analytes via three conceptually orthogonal routes are disclosed.


Assuntos
Microssomos Hepáticos/metabolismo , Piperidinas/síntese química , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/síntese química , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/metabolismo , Pró-Fármacos/síntese química , Ticlopidina/análogos & derivados , Fenômenos Biológicos , Clopidogrel , Humanos , Microssomos Hepáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Piperidinas/química , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/química , Pró-Fármacos/química , Estereoisomerismo , Ticlopidina/síntese química , Ticlopidina/química , Ticlopidina/metabolismo
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