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1.
Mol Cancer ; 20(1): 36, 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33608029

RESUMO

Early detection is crucial to improve breast cancer (BC) patients' outcomes and survival. Mammogram and ultrasound adopting the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) categorization are widely used for BC early detection, while suffering high false-positive rate leading to unnecessary biopsy, especially in BI-RADS category-4 patients. Plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) carrying on DNA methylation information has emerged as a non-invasive approach for cancer detection. Here we present a prospective multi-center study with whole-genome bisulfite sequencing data to address the clinical utility of cfDNA methylation markers from 203 female patients with breast lesions suspected for malignancy. The cfDNA is enriched with hypo-methylated genomic regions. A practical computational framework was devised to excavate optimal cfDNA-rich DNA methylation markers, which significantly improved the early diagnosis of BI-RADS category-4 patients (AUC from 0.78-0.79 to 0.93-0.94). As a proof-of-concept study, we performed the first blood-based whole-genome DNA methylation study for detecting early-stage breast cancer from benign tumors at single-base resolution, which suggests that combining the liquid biopsy with the traditional diagnostic imaging can improve the current clinical practice, by reducing the false-positive rate and avoiding unnecessary harms.

2.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 12(1): 19, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413606

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Radial extracorporeal shockwave (r-ESW), an innovative and noninvasive technique, is gaining increasing attention in regenerative medicine due to its mechanobiological effects. Subchondral bone stem/progenitor cells (SCB-SPCs), originating from the pivotal zone of the osteochondral unit, have been shown to have multipotency and self-renewal properties. However, thus far, little information is available regarding the influences of r-ESW on the biological properties of SCB-SPCs and their therapeutic effects in tissue regeneration. METHODS: SCB-SPCs were isolated from human knee plateau osteochondral specimens and treated with gradient doses of r-ESW in a suspension stimulation system. The optimized parameters for SCB-SPC self-renewal were screened out by colony-forming unit fibroblast assay (CFU-F). Then, the effects of r-ESW on the proliferation, apoptosis, and multipotency of SCB-SPCs were evaluated. Moreover, the repair efficiency of radial shockwave-preconditioned SCB-SPCs was evaluated in vivo via an osteochondral defect model. Potential mechanisms were explored by western blotting, confocal laser scanning, and high-throughput sequencing. RESULTS: The CFU-F data indicate that r-ESW could augment the self-renewal of SCB-SPCs in a dose-dependent manner. The CCK-8 and flow cytometry results showed that the optimized shockwave markedly promoted SCB-SPC proliferation but had no significant influence on cell apoptosis. Radial shockwave exerted no significant influence on osteogenic capacity but strongly suppressed adipogenic ability in the current study. For chondrogenic potentiality, the treated SCB-SPCs were mildly enhanced, while the change was not significant. Importantly, the macroscopic scores and further histological analysis strongly demonstrated that the in vivo therapeutic effects of SCB-SPCs were markedly improved post r-ESW treatment. Further analysis showed that the cartilage-related markers collagen II and proteoglycan were expressed at higher levels compared to their counterpart group. Mechanistic studies suggested that r-ESW treatment strongly increased the expression of YAP and promoted YAP nuclear translocation in SCB-SPCs. More importantly, self-renewal was partially blocked by the YAP-specific inhibitor verteporfin. Moreover, the high-throughput sequencing data indicated that other self-renewal-associated pathways may also be involved in this process. CONCLUSION: We found that r-ESW is capable of promoting the self-renewal of SCB-SPCs in vitro by targeting YAP activity and strengthening its repair efficiency in vivo, indicating promising application prospects.

3.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(2): 337-345, 2021 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33434492

RESUMO

Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome (MRKHS) is associated with congenital absence of the uterus, cervix, and the upper part of the vagina; it is a sex-limited trait. Disrupted development of the Müllerian ducts (MD)/Wölffian ducts (WD) through multifactorial mechanisms has been proposed to underlie MRKHS. In this study, exome sequencing (ES) was performed on a Chinese discovery cohort (442 affected subjects and 941 female control subjects) and a replication MRKHS cohort (150 affected subjects of mixed ethnicity from North America, South America, and Europe). Phenotypic follow-up of the female reproductive system was performed on an additional cohort of PAX8-associated congenital hypothyroidism (CH) (n = 5, Chinese). By analyzing 19 candidate genes essential for MD/WD development, we identified 12 likely gene-disrupting (LGD) variants in 7 genes: PAX8 (n = 4), BMP4 (n = 2), BMP7 (n = 2), TBX6 (n = 1), HOXA10 (n = 1), EMX2 (n = 1), and WNT9B (n = 1), while LGD variants in these genes were not detected in control samples (p = 1.27E-06). Interestingly, a sex-limited penetrance with paternal inheritance was observed in multiple families. One additional PAX8 LGD variant from the replication cohort and two missense variants from both cohorts were revealed to cause loss-of-function of the protein. From the PAX8-associated CH cohort, we identified one individual presenting a syndromic condition characterized by CH and MRKHS (CH-MRKHS). Our study demonstrates the comprehensive utilization of knowledge from developmental biology toward elucidating genetic perturbations, i.e., rare pathogenic alleles involving the same loci, contributing to human birth defects.


Assuntos
Transtornos 46, XX do Desenvolvimento Sexual/genética , Anormalidades Congênitas/genética , Ductos Paramesonéfricos/anormalidades , Ductos Paramesonéfricos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mutação , Ductos Mesonéfricos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Adulto , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 4/genética , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 7/genética , Códon sem Sentido , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Pleiotropia Genética , Proteínas Homeobox A10/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Humanos , Fator de Transcrição PAX8/genética , Herança Paterna , Penetrância , Proteínas com Domínio T/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Proteínas Wnt/genética , Ductos Mesonéfricos/anormalidades
4.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 20222, 2020 11 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33214604

RESUMO

Advances in next-generation sequencing technology have enabled whole genome sequencing (WGS) to be widely used for identification of causal variants in a spectrum of genetic-related disorders, and provided new insight into how genetic polymorphisms affect disease phenotypes. The development of different bioinformatics pipelines has continuously improved the variant analysis of WGS data. However, there is a necessity for a systematic performance comparison of these pipelines to provide guidance on the application of WGS-based scientific and clinical genomics. In this study, we evaluated the performance of three variant calling pipelines (GATK, DRAGEN and DeepVariant) using the Genome in a Bottle Consortium, "synthetic-diploid" and simulated WGS datasets. DRAGEN and DeepVariant show better accuracy in SNP and indel calling, with no significant differences in their F1-score. DRAGEN platform offers accuracy, flexibility and a highly-efficient execution speed, and therefore superior performance in the analysis of WGS data on a large scale. The combination of DRAGEN and DeepVariant also suggests a good balance of accuracy and efficiency as an alternative solution for germline variant detection in further applications. Our results facilitate the standardization of benchmarking analysis of bioinformatics pipelines for reliable variant detection, which is critical in genetics-based medical research and clinical applications.

5.
Onco Targets Ther ; 13: 11301-11313, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33177838

RESUMO

Background: The aberrantly expressed circular RNAs (circRNAs) are implicated in the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). CircRNA hsa_circ_0006916 (circ_0006916) is dysregulated in HCC, but the function and mechanism of this circRNA in HCC development remain uncertain. Methods: Thirty paired HCC and normal tissues were collected. circ_0006916, microRNA (miR)-599 and serine/arginine rich splicing factor 2 (SRSF2) abundances were examined via quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction or Western blot. Cell viability, colony ability, migration, invasion, cell cycle and apoptosis were tested via cell counting kit-8, colony formation, wound healing analysis, transwell analysis, and flow cytometry. The interaction between miR-599 and circ_0006916 or SRSF2 was analyzed via dual-luciferase reporter and RNA immunoprecipitation analyses. The function of circ_0006916 on cell growth in vivo was analyzed via xenograft model. Results: circ_0006916 expression was increased in HCC tissues and cell lines. circ_0006916 knockdown reduced cell viability, colony formation, migration and invasion and caused cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. miR-599 was targeted via circ_0006916, and miR-599 knockdown reversed the influence of circ_0006916 silence on HCC progression. SRSF2 was targeted via miR-599, and miR-599 overexpression suppressed cell viability, colony formation, migration and invasion and promoted cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via decreasing SRSF2. circ_0006916 could regulate SRSF2 expression via miR-599. circ_0006916 knockdown decreased HCC cell growth in the xenograft model. Conclusion: circ_0006916 knockdown represses the progression of HCC via regulating miR-599 and SRSF2.

6.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 15(1): 288, 2020 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33054853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Isolated macrodactyly is a severe congenital hand anomaly with functional and physiological impact. Known causative genes include PIK3CA, AKT1 and PTEN. The aim of this study is to gain insights into the genetics basis of isolated macrodactyly. RESULTS: We enrolled 24 patients with isolated macrodactyly. Four of them were diagnosed with Proteus syndrome based on skin presentations characteristic to this disease. Targeted next-generation sequencing was performed using patients' blood and affected tissues. Overall, 20 patients carry mosaic PIK3CA pathogenic variants, i.e. p.His1047Arg (N = 7), p.Glu542Lys (N = 6), p.Glu545Lys (N = 2), p.His1047Leu (N = 2), p.Glu453Lys (N = 1), p.Gln546Lys (N = 1) and p.His1047Tyr (N = 1). Four patients who met the diagnostic criteria of Proteus syndrome carry mosaic AKT1 p.Glu17Lys variant. Variant allele frequencies of these mosaic variants obtained through next-generation sequencing range from 10 to 33%. In genotype-phenotype correlation analysis of patients with PIK3CA variant, we found that patients with the macrodactyly of the lower limbs tend to carry PIK3CA variants located in the helical domain (P = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Mosaic PIK3CA and AKT1 variants can be found in all of our samples with isolated macrodactyly. Insights into phenotypic and genetic spectrum of isolated macrodactyly may be helpful in perusing a more precise and effective management of isolated macrodactyly.

7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e22564, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019468

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: At present, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has become a major public health issue throughout the world, especially in developing countries. Notably, traditional Chinese patent medicines (TCPMs) are of great significance in the treatment of T2DM combined with conventional Western medicine therapy. However, there is a lack of comparison among all the current common TCPMs for treating T2DM. Therefore, this study intends to explore the efficacy and safety of different TCPMs against T2DM through the Bayesian network meta-analysis (NMA). METHODS: We will conduct a comprehensive and systematic search for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of TCPM for the treatment of T2DM in both Chinese and English databases published till August 2020. Two researchers will be responsible for screening eligible literature, extracting data, and assessing the risk of bias of included studies independently. Then, pairwise meta-analyses and Bayesian network meta-analyses will be conducted to assess all available evidence. In the end, data will be analyzed using STATA15.0 and WinBUGS1.4.3 software. CONCLUSION: This study will compare the efficacy and safety of different TCPMs against T2DM in detail. Our findings will provide a reliable evidence for selecting clinical treatment program and guideline development of T2DM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos , Medicamentos sem Prescrição/efeitos adversos , Teorema de Bayes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metanálise em Rede , Medicamentos sem Prescrição/uso terapêutico , Prevalência , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Segurança , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 15(1): 250, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933559

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We previously reported a novel clinically distinguishable subtype of congenital scoliosis (CS), namely, TBX6-associated congenital scoliosis (TACS). We further developed the TBX6-associated CS risk score (TACScore), a multivariate phenotype-based model to predict TACS according to the patient's clinical manifestations. In this study, we aimed to evaluate whether using the TACScore as a screening method prior to performing whole-exome sequencing (WES) is more cost-effective than using WES as the first-line genetic test for CS. METHODS: We retrospectively collected the molecular data of 416 CS patients in the Deciphering disorders Involving Scoliosis and COmorbidities (DISCO) study. A decision tree was constructed to estimate the cost and the diagnostic time required for the two alternative strategies (TACScore versus WES). Bootstrapping simulations and sensitivity analyses were performed to examine the distributions and robustness of the estimates. The economic evaluation considered both the health care payer and the personal budget perspectives. RESULTS: From the health care payer perspective, the strategy of using the TACScore as the primary screening method resulted in an average cost of $1074.2 (95%CI: $1044.8 to $1103.5) and an average diagnostic duration of 38.7d (95%CI: 37.8d to 39.6d) to obtain a molecular diagnosis for each patient. In contrast, the corresponding values were $1169.6 (95%CI: $1166.9 to $1172.2) and 41.4d (95%CI: 41.1d to 41.7d) taking WES as the first-line test (P < 0.001). From the personal budget perspective, patients who were predicted to be positive by the TACScore received a result with an average cost of $715.1 (95%CI: $594.5 to $835.7) and an average diagnostic duration of 30.4d (95%CI: 26.3d to 34.6d). Comparatively, the strategy of WES as the first-line test was estimated to have significantly longer diagnostic time with an average of 44.0d (95%CI: 43.2d to 44.9d), and more expensive with an average of $1193.4 (95%CI: $1185.5 to $1201.3) (P < 0.001). In 100% of the bootstrapping simulations, the TACScore strategy was significantly less costly and more time-saving than WES. The sensitivity analyses revealed that the TACScore strategy remained cost-effective even when the cost per WES decreased to $8.8. CONCLUSIONS: This retrospective study provides clinicians with economic evidence to integrate the TACScore into clinical practice. The TACScore can be considered a cost-effective tool when it serves as a screening test prior to performing WES.

9.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 8(10): e1453, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32815649

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Congenital scoliosis (CS) is a spinal deformity due to vertebral malformations. Although insufficiency of TBX6 dosage contributes to a substantial proportion of CS, the molecular etiology for the majority of CS remains largely unknown. TBX6-mediated genes involved in the process of somitogenesis represent promising candidates. METHODS: Individuals affected with CS and without a positive genetic finding were referred to this study. Proband-only exome sequencing (ES) were performed on the recruited individuals, followed by analysis of TBX6-mediated candidate genes, namely MEOX1, MEOX2, MESP2, MYOD1, MYF5, RIPPLY1, and RIPPLY2. RESULTS: A total of 584 patients with CS of unknown molecular etiology were recruited. After ES analysis, protein-truncating variants in RIPPLY1 and MYF5 were identified from two individuals, respectively. In addition, we identified five deleterious missense variants (MYOD1, n = 4; RIPPLY2, n = 1) in TBX6-mediated genes. We observed a significant mutational burden of MYOD1 in CS (p = 0.032) compared with the in-house controls (n = 1854). Moreover, a potential oligogenic disease-causing mode was proposed based on the observed mutational co-existence of MYOD1/MEOX1 and MYOD1/RIPPLY1. CONCLUSION: Our study characterized the mutational spectrum of TBX6-mediated genes, prioritized core candidate genes/variants, and provided insight into a potential oligogenic disease-causing mode in CS.

10.
J Asian Nat Prod Res ; 22(10): 905-913, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32654511

RESUMO

Three new (1-3) and 11 known (4-14) cycloartane-type triterpenoids were isolated from the root of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analyses and chemical methods. Cycloartane-type triterpenoids are a class of major bioactive constituents in the root of A. membranaceus var. mongholicus, and the discovery of compounds 1-3 added new members of this kind of natural product. [Formula: see text].


Assuntos
Astragalus propinquus , Triterpenos , Estrutura Molecular
11.
Bioorg Chem ; 101: 104043, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629286

RESUMO

Nine new N-methoxy-ß-carboline alkaloids (NMCAs) (1a/1b-3a/3b and 4-6) and two known NMCAs (7 and 8) were isolated from the stems of Picrasma quassioides. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic data analyses, quantum chemical calculations, and single-crystal X-ray crystallographic data. An analysis of the 13C NMR chemical shifts of the N-methoxy groups in these NMCAs and 41 gathered known compounds reveals the phenomenon that the chemical shifts of all these N-methoxy groups are greater than δC 62, which can be used to recognize the N-methoxy group rapidly. In addition, the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and Aß42 aggregation inhibitory activities of 1-8 were evaluated. Compounds 1, 2, 7, and 8 displayed AChE inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 14.9, 13.2, 17.6, and 43.9 µM, respectively. Compound 2 showed inhibition activity against Aß42 aggregation with an IC50 value of 10.1 µM.

12.
J Neurochem ; 2020 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621322

RESUMO

Voltage-gated potassium channels (Kv) are important regulators of neuronal excitability for its role of regulating resting membrane potential and repolarization. Recent studies show that Kv channels participate in neuropathic pain, but the detailed underlying mechanisms are far from being clear. In this study, we used siRNA, miR-137 agomir, and antagomir to regulate the expression of Kv1.2 in spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of naïve and chronic constriction injury (CCI) rats. Kv currents and neuron excitability in DRG neurons were examined by patch-clamp whole-cell recording to verify the change in Kv1.2 function. The results showed that Kv1.2 was down-regulated in DRG and spinal dorsal horn (SDH) by CCI. Knockdown of Kv1.2 by intrathecally injecting Kcna2 siRNA induced significant mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity in naïve rats. Concomitant with the down-regulation of Kv1.2 was an increase in the expression of the miR-137. The targeting and regulating of miR-137 on Kcna2 was verified by dual-luciferase reporter system and intrathecal injecting miR-137 agomir. Furthermore, rescuing the expression of Kv1.2 in CCI rats, achieved through inhibiting miR-137, restored the abnormal Kv currents and excitability in DRG neurons, and alleviated mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. These results indicate that the miR-137-mediated Kv1.2 impairment is a crucial etiopathogenesis for the nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain and can be a novel potential therapeutic target for neuropathic pain management.

13.
J Nat Prod ; 83(7): 2093-2101, 2020 07 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659087

RESUMO

Seven new (1-7) and 11 known diterpenoids were isolated and identified from Caryopteris aureoglandulosa. These diterpenoids were structurally determined by HRESIMS and NMR spectroscopic analyses, single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and ECD data. Structurally, aureoglandulosin A (1) is a highly oxygenated abietane diterpenoid with an unprecedented 7/6/6/5-ring system. Aureoglandulosins B (2) and C (3) represent naturally occurring new diterpenoids with an unusual 6/6/6/5-ring system. Additionally, the configurations of two known abietane diterpenoids 11 and 12 were determined by X-ray crystallographic data analysis for the first time. A plausible biosynthetic pathway for compounds 1-3 is proposed. The cytotoxicity of all isolates was evaluated, and compounds 1 and 11 exhibited significant cytotoxic activity against some cell lines with IC50 values in the range 1.6-8.2 µM.

14.
Molecules ; 25(12)2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32549218

RESUMO

Sirtuins (SIRT1-7) are a family of NAD+-dependent deacetylases. They regulate many physiological processes and play important roles in inflammation, diabetes, cancers, and neurodegeneration diseases. Sirtuin inhibitors have potential applications in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and various cancers. Herein, we identified new sirtuin inhibitors based on the scaffold of 8-mercapto-3,7-dihydro-1H-purine-2,6-dione. To elucidate the inhibitory mechanism, the binding modes of the inhibitors in SIRT3 were established by molecular docking, showing that the inhibitors occupy the acetyl lysine binding site and interact with SIRT3, mainly through hydrophobic interactions. The interactions were validated by site-directed mutagenesis of SIRT3 and structure-activity relationship analysis of the inhibitors. Consistently, enzyme kinetic assays and microscale thermophoresis showed that these compounds are competitive inhibitors to the acetyl substrate, and mix-type inhibitors to NAD+. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the compounds are potent SIRT1/2/3/5 pan-inhibitors. This study provides novel hits for developing more potent sirtuin inhibitors.

15.
Ann Palliat Med ; 9(4): 1648-1659, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32576003

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traditional Chinese medicine decoction and modern concentrated-granules are two kinds of Chinese herbal medicine forms used in clinic at present. The former is extracted by traditional boiling method of a pre-mixed multi-herbal medicine according to the doctor's prescription. The latter is a mixture of extract active ingredients from a single variety of herbs by modern technology. It is not clear whether there is a difference in the content and efficacy of the active components between the two methods. METHODS: The effective components of Huangqi-Ezhu (HQ-EZ) traditional decoction and concentratedgranules were determined by HPLC, and the subcutaneous transplanted tumor model of tumor-bearing mice was established to compare the anti-tumor effect. HQ-EZ traditional decoction and concentrated-granules were given respectively by continuous intragastric administration for 15 days. After the last administration the tumor tissue, liver and kidney were removed completely, and the corresponding indexes were detected. RESULTS: Active components of concentrated-granules and traditional decoction are basically the same. Both of TCM forms have great anti-tumor effect against lung cancer, without toxify to liver and kidney. CONCLUSIONS: The two preparation methods have their own advantages in effective components, and the compatibility of HQ-EZ can inhibit the tumor growth of tumor-bearing mice, and has no liver and kidney toxicity.

16.
Am J Med Genet A ; 182(7): 1664-1672, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369272

RESUMO

Vertebral malformations (VMs) are caused by alterations in somitogenesis and may occur in association with other congenital anomalies. The genetic etiology of most VMs remains unknown and their identification may facilitate the development of novel therapeutic and prevention strategies. Exome sequencing was performed on both the discovery cohort of nine unrelated probands from the USA with VMs and the replication cohort from China (Deciphering Disorders Involving Scoliosis & COmorbidities study). The discovery cohort was analyzed using the PhenoDB analysis tool. Heterozygous and homozygous, rare and functional variants were selected and evaluated for their ClinVar, HGMD, OMIM, GWAS, mouse model phenotypes, and other annotations to identify the best candidates. Genes with candidate variants in three or more probands were selected. The replication cohort was analyzed by another in-house developed pipeline. We identified rare heterozygous variants in KIAA1217 in four out of nine probands in the discovery cohort and in five out of 35 probands in the replication cohort. Collectively, we identified 11 KIAA1217 rare variants in 10 probands, three of which have not been described in gnomAD and one of which is a nonsense variant. We propose that genetic variations of KIAA1217 may contribute to the etiology of VMs.

17.
J Med Genet ; 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32381727

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early-onset scoliosis (EOS), defined by an onset age of scoliosis less than 10 years, conveys significant health risk to affected children. Identification of the molecular aetiology underlying patients with EOS could provide valuable information for both clinical management and prenatal screening. METHODS: In this study, we consecutively recruited a cohort of 447 Chinese patients with operative EOS. We performed exome sequencing (ES) screening on these individuals and their available family members (totaling 670 subjects). Another cohort of 13 patients with idiopathic early-onset scoliosis (IEOS) from the USA who underwent ES was also recruited. RESULTS: After ES data processing and variant interpretation, we detected molecular diagnostic variants in 92 out of 447 (20.6%) Chinese patients with EOS, including 8 patients with molecular confirmation of their clinical diagnosis and 84 patients with molecular diagnoses of previously unrecognised diseases underlying scoliosis. One out of 13 patients with IEOS from the US cohort was molecularly diagnosed. The age at presentation, the number of organ systems involved and the Cobb angle were the three top features predictive of a molecular diagnosis. CONCLUSION: ES enabled the molecular diagnosis/classification of patients with EOS. Specific clinical features/feature pairs are able to indicate the likelihood of gaining a molecular diagnosis through ES.

18.
BMC Med Genet ; 21(1): 115, 2020 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460719

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED) is a skeletal disorder characterized by delayed and irregular ossification of the epiphyses and early-onset osteoarthritis. At least 66% of the reported autosomal dominant MED (AD-MED) cases are caused by COMP mutations. METHODS: We recruited a four-generation Chinese family with early-onset hip osteoarthritis, flatfoot, brachydactyly, and mild short stature. An assessment of the family history, detailed physical examinations, and radiographic evaluations were performed on the proband and other family members, followed by the performance of whole-exome sequencing (WES). The pathogenicity of the candidate mutation was also analyzed. RESULTS: An AD-MED family with 10 affected members and 17 unaffected members was recruited. The main radiographic findings were symmetrical changes in the dysplastic acetabulum and femoral heads, irregular contours of the epiphyses, a shortened femoral neck, and flatfoot. Lower bone density was also observed in the ankle joints, wrist joints, and knees, as well as irregular vertebral end plates. In the proband, we identified the missense mutation c.1153G > T (p. Asp385Tyr), located in exon 11 of the COMP gene. This mutation was assessed as 'pathogenic' because of its low allele frequency and its high likelihood of co-segregation with disease in the reported family. Sanger sequencing validated the novel heterozygous mutation c.1153G > T (p. Asp385Tyr) in exon 11 of COMP in all affected individuals in the family. CONCLUSIONS: Our results underlined a key role of the Asp385 amino acid in the protein function of COMP and confirmed the pathogenicity of the COMP (c.1153G > T; p. Asp385Tyr) mutation in AD-MED disease. We have therefore expanded the known mutational spectrum of COMP and revealed new phenotypic information for AD-MED.


Assuntos
Proteína de Matriz Oligomérica de Cartilagem/genética , Família , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação , Osteocondrodisplasias/diagnóstico , Osteocondrodisplasias/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Osso e Ossos/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso e Ossos/patologia , Proteína de Matriz Oligomérica de Cartilagem/química , Criança , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Moleculares , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Conformação Proteica , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Adulto Jovem
19.
Kidney Int ; 98(4): 1020-1030, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32450157

RESUMO

Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUTs) are the most common cause of chronic kidney disease in children. Human 16p11.2 deletions have been associated with CAKUT, but the responsible molecular mechanism remains to be illuminated. To explore this, we investigated 102 carriers of 16p11.2 deletion from multi-center cohorts, among which we retrospectively ascertained kidney morphologic and functional data from 37 individuals (12 Chinese and 25 Caucasian/Hispanic). Significantly higher CAKUT rates were observed in 16p11.2 deletion carriers (about 25% in Chinese and 16% in Caucasian/Hispanic) than those found in the non-clinically ascertained general populations (about 1/1000 found at autopsy). Furthermore, we identified seven additional individuals with heterozygous loss-of-function variants in TBX6, a gene that maps to the 16p11.2 region. Four of these seven cases showed obvious CAKUT. To further investigate the role of TBX6 in kidney development, we engineered mice with mutated Tbx6 alleles. The Tbx6 heterozygous null (i.e., loss-of-function) mutant (Tbx6+/‒) resulted in 13% solitary kidneys. Remarkably, this incidence increased to 29% in a compound heterozygous model (Tbx6mh/‒) that reduced Tbx6 gene dosage to below haploinsufficiency, by combining the null allele with a novel mild hypomorphic allele (mh). Renal hypoplasia was also frequently observed in these Tbx6-mutated mouse models. Thus, our findings in patients and mice establish TBX6 as a novel gene involved in CAKUT and its gene dosage insufficiency as a potential driver for kidney defects observed in the 16p11.2 microdeletion syndrome.

20.
Comput Biol Med ; 119: 103700, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32339112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The lack of mass transfer in microgravity might be the underlying cause of disuse osteoporosis in astronauts after long-term space flights. The osteons are cylindrical structures and are the main structural units of the diaphysis in long bones. METHODS: A multi-scale 3D fluid-solid coupled finite element model of osteon with a two-stage pore structure was developed using COMSOL software in order to investigate solute transport behaviors in the lacunar-canalicular system (LCS) induced by physiological strain loading. Certain small molecules that are necessary as solutes in tissue fluid for osteocyte metabolism were simplified to micro-particles. A comparative analysis of solute transport behaviors in the LCS induced by physiological strain loading was conducted with a frequency of 0.2-2.5 Hz in microgravity and the Earth's gravitational fields. RESULTS: The average velocity of solute transport in lacunae in microgravity was 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than in Earth's gravitational field. The number of particles that represented solute transport quantity in the middle and deep lacunae increased steadily with a load frequency within the Earth's gravitational field. However, it differed based on the load frequency in microgravity, with the number of particles increasing with frequencies in the range of 0.2-0.5 Hz and 0.8-2 Hz, and decreasing with frequencies in the range of 0.5-0.8 Hz. CONCLUSIONS: A moving load with appropriate frequency could promote solute transport to the middle and deep lacunae, effectively preventing apoptosis of deep osteocytes due to a lack of nutrients. The results of this study provided theoretical guidance for preventing bone loss in astronauts during long-term space flights.

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