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1.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(10): 107002, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596602

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Particulate matter (PM) is a complex mixture. Geographic variations in PM may explain the lack of consistent associations with breast cancer. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the relationship between air pollution, PM components, and breast cancer risk in a United States-wide prospective cohort. METHODS: We estimated annual average ambient residential levels of particulate matter <2.5 µm and <10 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5 and PM10, respectively) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) using land-use regression for 47,433 Sister Study participants (breast cancer-free women with a sister with breast cancer) living in the contiguous United States. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for risk associated with an interquartile range (IQR) increase in pollutants. Predictive k-means were used to assign participants to clusters derived from PM2.5 component profiles to evaluate the impact of heterogeneity in the PM2.5 mixture. For PM2.5, we investigated effect measure modification by component cluster membership and by geographic region without regard to air pollution mixture. RESULTS: During follow-up (mean=8.4 y), 2,225 invasive and 623 ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) cases were identified. PM2.5 and NO2 were associated with breast cancer overall [HR=1.05 (95% CI:0.99, 1.11) and 1.06 (95% CI:1.02, 1.11), respectively] and with DCIS but not with invasive cancer. Invasive breast cancer was associated with PM2.5 only in the Western United States [HR=1.14 (95% CI:1.02, 1.27)] and NO2 only in the Southern United States [HR=1.16 (95% CI:1.01, 1.33)]. PM2.5 was associated with a higher risk of invasive breast cancer among two of seven identified composition-based clusters. A higher risk was observed [HR=1.25 (95% CI: 0.97, 1.60)] in a California-based cluster characterized by low S and high Na and nitrate (NO3-) fractions and for another Western United States cluster [HR=1.60 (95% CI: 0.90, 2.85)], characterized by high fractions of Si, Ca, K, and Al. CONCLUSION: Air pollution measures were related to both invasive breast cancer and DCIS within certain geographic regions and PM component clusters. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP5131.

2.
J Cell Mol Med ; 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576678

RESUMO

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a highly aggressive tumour that lacks marker for targeted diagnosis. Recently, it was reported that toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) was associated with some kind of tumours, especially in TNBC, but whether it could be used as a non-invasive monitoring target is not fully understood. Here, we established TLR5- 4T1 cell line with lentivirus-shRNA-TLR5 knock-down transfection (with tag GFP, green fluorescent protein, TLR5- 4T1) and control TLR5+ 4T1 cell line with negative control lentivirus transfection. The effect of TLR5 down-regulation was detected with qPCR and Western blot. 125 I-anti-TLR5 mAb and control isotype 125 I-IgG were prepared and injected to TLR5+/- 4T1-bearing mice models, respectively. Whole-body phosphor-autoradiography, fluorescence imaging and biodistribution were performed. Furthermore, ex vivo tumour TLR5 expression was proved through immunohistochemistry staining. We found that 125 I-anti-TLR5 mAb could bind to TLR5+ 4T1 with high affinity and specificity. Whole-body phosphor-autoradiography after 125 I-anti-TLR5 mAb injection showed TLR5+ 4T1 tumour images in 24 hours, more clearly in 48 hours. Radioactivities in tumour tissues were positively related with TLR5 expression. Biodistribution assay showed that 125 I-anti-TLR5 mAb was mainly metabolized through the liver and kidney, and 125 I-anti-TLR5 mAb was much more accumulated in TLR5+ 4T1 tumour than TLR5- 4T1. In vivo fluorescence imaging successfully showed tumour tissues clearly both in TLR5+ and TLR5- 4T1 mice compared with lentivirus untreated 4T1 tumour. Immunohistochemistry staining showed that TLR5 expression in tumours was indeed down-regulated in TLR5- 4T1 mice. Our results indicated that 125 I-antiTLR5 mAb was an ideal agent for non-invasive imaging of TLR5+ tumours; TLR5 may be as a novel molecular target for TNBC non-invasive diagnosis.

3.
Adv Colloid Interface Sci ; 273: 102022, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494337

RESUMO

Membrane distillation (MD) has been touted as a promising technology for niche applications such as desalination of surfactant- and oil-containing feed streams. Hitherto, the deployment of conventional hydrophobic MD membranes for such applications is limited and unsatisfactory. This is because the presence of surfactants and oils in aqueous feed streams reduces the surface-tension of these media significantly and the attachment of these contaminants onto hydrophobic membrane surfaces often leads to membrane fouling and pore wetting, which compromises on the quantity and quality of water recovered. Endowing MD membranes with surfaces of special wettabilities has been proposed as a strategy to combat membrane fouling and pore wetting. This involves the design of local kinetic energy barriers such as multilevel re-entrant surface structures, surfaces with ultralow surface-energies, and interfacial hydration layers to impede transition to the fully-wetted Wenzel state. This review critiques the state-of-the-art fabrication and surface-modification methods as well as practices used in the development of omniphobic and Janus MD membranes with specific emphasis on the advances, challenges, and future improvements for application in challenging surfactant- and oil-containing feed streams.

4.
J Chromatogr A ; 1604: 460471, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471133

RESUMO

The influence of chlorine substituents in chiral separation of three racemic 2-(chlorophenyl)propanoic acids by countercurrent chromatography using hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin as a chiral additive were mainly investigated in the present paper, including 2-(2-chlorophenyl)propanoic acids, 2-(3-chlorophenyl)propanoic acids and 2-(4-chlorophenyl)propanoic acids. The influences of chromatographic conditions on the retention behavior were studied by enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction experiments using the methodology of response surface It was found that 2-(3-chlorophenyl)propanoic acids could be successfully chiral separated by countercurrent chromatography, while no resolution was achieved for racemic 2-(2-chlorophenyl)propanoic acids and 2-(4-chlorophenyl)propanoic acids under optimized separation conditions. The formation of 1:1 stoichiometric inclusion compounds between 2-(3-chlorophenyl)propanoic acids and HP-ß-CD was determined by UV spectra measurements. The inclusion constants for 2-(3-chlorophenyl)propanoic acids and HP-ß-CD were determined by the Benesi-Hildebrand equation. Meanwhile, the inclusion constants of 2-(3-chlorophenyl)-propanoic acid enantiomer and HP-ß-CD were obtained by the pesudophase retention equation in countercurrent chromatography. Furthermore, the inclusion interactions of the three racemates with HP-ß-CD were also investigated by the molecular docking. The results obtained from UV spectra measurements and molecular docking showed that the racemate with chlorine substituents in meta-position presented the highest enantiorecognition while the racemates with chlorine substituents in ortho-position had the lowest enantiorecognition. The above results further indicated that forming a stable inclusion complex between racemate and chiral selector is a prerequisite for a successful enantioseparation and at the same time, the difference in inclusion capacity between the two enantiomers is also essential for the enantioseparation.

5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 796, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31510926

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The number of new rickettsial species are rapidly increasing, and increasing numbers of Rickettsia raoultii (R. raoultii) infection cases have been detected in humans. However, neurological abnormalities caused by R. raoultii are rarely reported, especially in northwestern China. CASE PRESENTATION: A 36-year-old Kazakh shepherd with an attached tick on part temporalis, presented with right eyelid droop, lethargy, fever, headache, fever (38.0-41.0 °C) and erythematous rash. The examination of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) showed cerebrospinal pressure of 200 mm H2O, leukocyte count of 300.0 × 106/L, adenosine deaminase of 2.15 U/L, and total protein concentration of 0.93 g/L. The diagnosis of R. raoultii infection was confirmed by six genetic markers, and semi-quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for rickettsial antigen. The patient gradually recovered after treatment with doxycycline and ceftriaxone. R. raoultii DNA was found both in a tick detached from this patient and in 0.18% (2/1107) of blood samples collected from local shepherds. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first reported case with neurological abnormalities caused by R. raoultii in northwestern China. It is vital to detect rickettsial agents both in blood and CSF for tick bite patients with neurological abnormalities. Public health workers and physicians should pay attention to neurological abnormalities caused by Rickettsia.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526840

RESUMO

The suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) negatively regulates the responses of various immune cytokines. In this study, we identified socs3s genes of blunt snout bream. 209- and 216-aa long peptides are encoded by socs3a and socs3b genes, respectively. The socs3s mRNAs are expressed consistently during the entire process of embryonic development. Whole-mount in situ hybridization detected socs3a in the eyes and posterior somites at 12 h post fertilization (hpf), transcribed at the otic vesicle at 24 hpf, and transcribed at the eyes, brain, and otic vesicle at 36 hpf; while the socs3b mRNA was transcribed at the notochord at 12 hpf, expressed in the brain, eyes, and tailbud at 24 hpf, and detected in the brain at 36 hpf. The expression of socs3a is slightly different from that of socs3b in tissues of juvenile and adult blunt snout bream. After recombinant human growth hormone (hGH) treatment, the transcript levels of socs3s of blunt snout bream were increased in gills, spleen, kidney, and gonads. After Aerononas hydrophila infection, the mRNA levels of socs3s of blunt snout bream were significantly increased in the liver, spleen, intestine, and kidney tissues. Blunt snout bream were susceptible to various pathogenic microorganisms, we intraperitoneally injected blunt snout bream with A. hydrophila to explore the immune mechanism of socs3s. These results suggested that socs3s of blunt snout bream plays important roles in the regulation of embryonic development and tissue growth, and that socs3s may also play key roles in regulating the bacterial-induced congenital immune response. Socs3s genes has the potential to be used as targeted genes to improve the immunity against bacteria, which is conducive to the improvement of production and breeding.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558318

RESUMO

Small guide RNA (sgRNA) is an important component of the CRISPR/Cas9 system. The gene editing efficiency of the CRISPR/Cas9 system could be enhanced by using highly active U6 promoters to drive the expression of sgRNA. Therefore, we constructed various expression vectors based on the 11 GmU6 promoters predicted and cloned in the whole soybean genome. The expression of truncated GUS driven by 11 GmU6 promoters was tested in hairy roots and by Arabidopsis thaliana transformation. The results indicated that higher transcriptional levels were driven by 5 GmU6 promoters (GmU6-4, GmU6-7, GmU6-8, GmU6-10 and GmU6-11) in both soybean hairy roots and Arabidopsis thaliana. In addition, three genes, Glyma03g36470, Glyma14g04180 and Glyma06g136900, were selected as targets to detect the transcriptional levels of multiple GmU6 promoters. Mutations in these three genes were detected in soybean hairy roots after Agrobacterium rhizogenes infection, indicating efficient target gene editing, including nucleotide insertion, deletion, and substitution. Mutation efficiencies differed among the 11 GmU6 promoters, ranging from 2.8% to 20.6%, and markedly higher efficiencies were obtained with all three genes using the GmU6-8 (20.3%) and GmU6-10 (20.6%) promoters. These two GmU6 promoters also showed higher ability to drive truncated GUS transcription in both soybean hairy roots and transformed Arabidopsis thaliana. These results will help to construct an efficient CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing system and promote the application of the CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing system in soybean molecular breeding.

8.
Epigenomics ; 2019 09 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536415

RESUMO

Aim: Cigarette smoking influences DNA methylation genome wide, in newborns from pregnancy exposure and in adults from personal smoking. Whether a unique methylation signature exists for in utero exposure in newborns is unknown. Materials & methods: We separately meta-analyzed newborn blood DNA methylation (assessed using Illumina450k Beadchip), in relation to sustained maternal smoking during pregnancy (9 cohorts, 5648 newborns, 897 exposed) and adult blood methylation and personal smoking (16 cohorts, 15907 participants, 2433 current smokers). Results & conclusion: Comparing meta-analyses, we identified numerous signatures specific to newborns along with many shared between newborns and adults. Unique smoking-associated genes in newborns were enriched in xenobiotic metabolism pathways. Our findings may provide insights into specific health impacts of prenatal exposure on offspring.

9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(19)2019 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547486

RESUMO

CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing is a powerful technology that has been used for the genetic modification of a number of crop species. In order to evaluate the efficacy of CRISPR/Cas9 technology in the root crop, sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), two starch biosynthetic pathway genes, IbGBSSI (encoding granule-bound starch synthase I), and IbSBEII (encoding starch branching enzyme II), were targeted in the starch-type cultivar Xushu22 and carotenoid-rich cultivar Taizhong6. I. batatas was transformed using a binary vector, in which the Cas9 gene is driven by the Arabidopsis AtUBQ promoter and the guide RNA is controlled by the Arabidopsis AtU6 promoter. A total of 72 Xushu22 and 35 Taizhong6 transgenic lines were generated and analyzed for mutations. The mutation efficiency was 62-92% with multi-allelic mutations in both cultivars. Most of the mutations were nucleotide substitutions that lead to amino acid changes and, less frequently, stop codons. In addition, short nucleotide insertions or deletions were also found in both IbGBSSI and IbSBEII. Furthermore, a 2658 bp deletion was found in one IbSBEII transgenic line. The total starch contents were not significantly changed in IbGBSSI- and IbSBEII-knockout transgenic lines compared to the wild-type control. However, in the allopolyploid sweet potato, the IbGBSSI-knockout reduced, while the IbSBEII-knockout increased, the amylose percentage. Our results demonstrate that CRISPR/Cas9 technology is an effective tool for the improvement of starch qualities in sweet potato and breeding of polyploid root crops.

10.
Prostate ; 79(14): 1589-1596, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376183

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Molecular studies have tried to address the unmet need for prognostic biomarkers in prostate cancer (PCa). Some gene expression tests improve upon clinical factors for prediction of outcomes, but additional tools for accurate prediction of tumor aggressiveness are needed. METHODS: Based on a previously published panel of 23 gene transcripts that distinguished patients with metastatic progression, we constructed a prediction model using independent training and testing datasets. Using the validated messenger RNAs and Gleason score (GS), we performed model selection in the training set to define a final locked model to classify patients who developed metastatic-lethal events from those who remained recurrence-free. In an independent testing dataset, we compared our locked model to established clinical prognostic factors and utilized Kaplan-Meier curves and receiver operating characteristic analyses to evaluate the model's performance. RESULTS: Thirteen of 23 previously identified gene transcripts that stratified patients with aggressive PCa were validated in the training dataset. These biomarkers plus GS were used to develop a four-gene (CST2, FBLN1, TNFRSF19, and ZNF704) transcript (4GT) score that was significantly higher in patients who progressed to metastatic-lethal events compared to those without recurrence in the testing dataset (P = 5.7 × 10-11 ). The 4GT score provided higher prediction accuracy (area under the ROC curve [AUC] = 0.76; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.69-0.83; partial area under the ROC curve [pAUC] = 0.008) than GS alone (AUC = 0.63; 95% CI = 0.56-0.70; pAUC = 0.002), and it improved risk stratification in subgroups defined by a combination of clinicopathological features (ie, Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment-Surgery). CONCLUSION: Our validated 4GT score has prognostic value for metastatic-lethal progression in men treated for localized PCa and warrants further evaluation for its clinical utility.

11.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 5666-5673, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31363077

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is a gynecological malignancy that is associated with high mortality. Annexin A10 (ANXA10) is variably expressed in several types of human malignancy, but its role and clinical significance in EOC remain unknown. This study aimed to investigate the role of ANXA10 in EOC cells in vitro and to study the association between the protein expression levels of the ANXA10 in tumor tissue from patients with serous EOC and clinical outcome. MATERIAL AND METHODS The expression of ANXA10 was studied in 118 cases of serous EOC and in the ovarian cancer cell lines, SKOV-3, HO9810, HO8910PM, and OVCAR3 with immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Correlation between ANXA10 expression and clinicopathological variables and patient outcome were evaluated, including with Kaplan-Meier survival curves, univariate analysis with the log-rank test, and the multivariate analysis with the Cox-regression model. RESULTS ANXA10 was expressed by cells in the ovarian cancer cell lines. Patients with low expression and high expression of ANXA10 were 61.86% (73/118) and 38.14% (45/118), respectively. High expression of ANXA10 was correlated with poor response to chemotherapy (P=0.034), the presence of lymphatic invasion (P=0.043), and the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) advanced stage (P=0.033), which were all associated with lower survival rates of serous EOC. Increased expression of ANXA10 was identified as an independent prognostic biomarker of serous EOC (HR=1.73; 95% CI, 1.01-2.98; P=0.046). CONCLUSIONS Increased expression of ANXA10 was an independent prognostic marker in patients with serous EOC.

12.
In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim ; 55(8): 586-597, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31367859

RESUMO

Rotavirus (RV) is the leading cause of viral gastroenteritis in neonates and VP6 protein has been discussed as a potential candidate vaccine. CRISPR/Cas9 was the latest generation of gene editing tools that can mediate the site-specific knock-in of exogenous genes, providing strong support for the expression of recombinant proteins. Here, seeking to design a rotavirus vaccine that would be suitable for both mammary-gland-based production and milk-based administration, rabbit ß-casein (CSN2) locus was chosen as the target site to integrate the VP6 gene. The efficiency of inducing mutations in different target sites of rabbit CSN2 locus was analyzed and g4 site seems to be the best one to generate mutations (g4 72.76 ± 0.32% vs g1 30.14 ± 1.93%, g2 38.53 ± 0.75%, g3 52.26 ± 1.16%, P < 0.05). We further compared the knock-in efficiency through cytoplasmic injection of two group mixtures (containing 100 ng/µL Cas9 mRNA or Cas9 protein, 20 ng/µL sgRNA4, and 100 ng/µL donor vector) in rabbit zygotes, though the Cas9 mRNA group induced an HDR efficiency as high as 20.0% ± 2.6% than Cas9 protein group (10.3% ± 3.1%), 37.5% of the knock-in events were partial integration in the target site, when Cas9 protein used in the CRISPR/Cas9 system, all of the positive blastocysts showed completely integrated, results showed that the use of Cas9 protein is better than Cas9 mRNA to integrate the correct exogenous gene into the target site. Moreover, the transgenic rabbit that harbored correct integration of VP6 gene was obtained using Cas9 protein group and was used to produce an experimental milk-based rotavirus vaccine. Our research provides a novel strategy to produce rotavirus subunit vaccine and make a foundation for building broader milk-based vaccine protection against other pathogens.

13.
Gen Comp Endocrinol ; 284: 113243, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408625

RESUMO

The suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) is an essential feedback regulator extensively involved in many different cytokine signaling pathways, such as regulation of the immune system and growth of organism. However, the molecular and functional information on socs1 genes in freshwater fish is unclear. In the present paper, we identified and characterized the full-length closely related but distinct socs1 genes (socs 1a and -1b) in blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala). The bioinformatic analysis results showed that duplicated socs1s shared majority conserved motifs with other vertebrates. Both socs1a and -1b mRNAs were detected throughout embryogenesis, and gradually increase and then constantly expressed after 16 hpf. Whole-mount in situ hybridization demonstrated that socs1a and socs1b mRNAs were detected in the brain at 12hpf and 24hpf, and in the notochord and brain at 36hpf. In adult fish, the socs1a mRNA were strongly expressed in the heart, eye, kidney, spleen and gonad, but were found to be relatively low in the intestine and liver. On the other hand, the expression of socs1b mRNA was significantly high in the muscle, eye and spleen, and relatively low in the intestine, liver, skin and heart. The results of hGH treatment experiment showed that socs1a and 1b mRNAs were upregulated markedly in the kidney, muscle and liver. Overexpression of socs1s significantly inhibit the GH and JAK/STAT factor stat3 and the inhibitory effect of SOCS1s on GH may be involved in JAK-STAT signaling pathway. These results indicate that SOCS1 plays an important role in regulating growth and development.

14.
J BUON ; 24(3): 1027-1037, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31424657

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect on breast cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis after silencing the HCCR-1 and to study its mechanism. METHODS: HCCR-1 siRNA was transfected into the breast cancer cell line MCF -7, and mRNA and protein level of HCCR-1 and Bax were evaluated by real-time quatitative PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting, respectively. The cell proliferation and apoptosis were studied by MTT assay and flow cytometry. RESULTS: The apoptosis rate in the experimental, control and blank groups were 32.57±2.35%, 3.53±0.60% and 3.15±0.46% respectively. The apoptosis rate of MCF-7 cells was significantly increased in the experimental group, compared with the other two groups (p<0.05). The A490 value in the experimental, control and blank groups were: 24h: 0.78±0.06, 1.18±0.05, 1.24±0.05; 48h: 1.09±0.05, 1.48±0.02, 1.54±0.04; 72h: 1.29±0.01, 1.81±0.02, 1.84±0.04. The proliferation of MCF-7 cells was significantly decreased in the experimental group, compared with the other two groups (p<0.05). The mRNA levels of HCCR-1 and Bax in the experimental, control and blank groups were: HCCR-1 0.46±0.03, 1.01±0.11, 1.00; and Bax 4.40±0.99, 1.03±0.10, 1.00. The protein levels were: HCCR-1 0.62±0.07, 0.89±0.09, 0.94±0.17; and Bax 0.95±0.22, 0.67±0.19, 0.69±0.11. The expressions of mRNA and protein of HCCR-1 were significantly reduced, however the expressions of mRNA and protein of Bax were significantly increased in the experimental group compared with the other two groups (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: HCCR-1 siRNA transfection causes significant increase in the apoptosis and decreases in the proliferation of MCF-7 cells.These effects are related to the upregulation of the Bax expression in the MCF-7 cells.

15.
Exp Mol Med ; 51(7): 84, 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337748

RESUMO

Focal cortical dysplasia type II (FCDII) is a cerebral cortex malformation characterized by local cortical structure disorganization, neuronal dysmorphology, and refractory epilepsy. Brain somatic mutations in several genes involved in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway are associated with FCDII, but they are only found in a proportion of patients with FCDII. The genetic causes underlying the development FCDII in other patients remain unclear. Here, we carried out whole exome sequencing and targeted sequencing in paired brain-blood DNA from patients with FCDII and identified a brain somatic doublet mutation c.(A104T, C105A) in the Ras homolog, mTORC1 binding (RHEB) gene, which led to the RHEB p.Y35L mutation in one patient with FCDII. This RHEB mutation carrier had a dramatic increase of ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation, indicating mTOR activation in the region of the brain lesion. The RHEB p.Y35L mutant protein had increased GTPλS-binding activity compared with wild-type RHEB. Overexpression of the RHEB p.Y35L variant in cultured cells also resulted in elevated S6 phosphorylation compared to wild-type RHEB. Importantly, in utero electroporation of the RHEB p.Y35L variant in mice induced S6 phosphorylation, cytomegalic neurons, dysregulated neuron migration, abnormal electroencephalogram, and seizures, all of which are found in patients with FCDII. Rapamycin treatment rescued abnormal electroencephalograms and alleviated seizures in these mice. These results demonstrate that brain somatic mutations in RHEB are also responsible for the pathogenesis of FCDII, indicating that aberrant activation of mTOR signaling is a primary driver and potential drug target for FCDII.

16.
Restor Neurol Neurosci ; 37(4): 397-407, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306143

RESUMO

Stroke often leads to neuronal injury and neurological functional deficits. Whilst spontaneous neurogenesis and axon regeneration are induced by ischemic stroke, effective pharmacological treatments are also essential for the improvement of neuroplasticity and functional recovery after stroke. However, no pharmacological therapy has been demonstrated to be able to effectively improve the functional recovery after stroke. Bumetanide is a specific Na+-K+-Cl- co-transporter inhibitor which can maintain chloride homeostasis in neurons. Therefore, many studies have focused on this drug's effect in stroke recovery in recent years. Here, we first review the function of Na+-K+-Cl- co-transporter in neurons, then how bumetanide's role in reducing brain damage, promoting neuroplasticity, leading to functional recovery after stroke, is elucidated. Finally, we discuss current limitations of bumetanide's efficiency and their potential solutions. These results may provide new avenues for further exploring mechanisms of post-stroke functional recovery as well as promising therapeutic targets for functional disability rehabilitation after ischemic stroke.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31274473

RESUMO

Background/Aim: The prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is very dismal and the targeted drugs of HCC are limited. Studies of HCC prognostic biomarkers have made little progress, though many new techniques such as high-throughput sequencing have been applied. FOS-like antigen 1 (FOSL1) is generally accepted as a proto-oncogene but its clinical significance in HCC has never been elucidated. Materials and Methods: In our study, we investigated the expression of FOSL1 in 114 paraffin-embedded HCC tissues, and detected FOSL1 mRNA levels in 20 pairs of fresh HCC tissues and their corresponding tumor adjacent tissues. The correlations between FOSL1 expression and clinicopathological factors were analyzed and the prognostic significance of FOSL1 was evaluated with univariate and multivariate analysis. Moreover, we detected the function of FOSL1 in HCC proliferation with experiments in vitro. Results: FOSL1 mRNAs in HCCs were significantly higher than those in tumor adjacent tissues. The percentage of high expression and low expression of FOSL1 accounted for 46% (53/114) and 54% (61/114), respectively. High expression of FOSL1 was significantly associated with larger tumor size (P = 0.021), hepatitis B virus infection (P = 0.014), advanced T stage (P = 0.014), and tumor necrosis metastasis stage (P = 0.014). Moreover, high expression of FOSL1 was significantly correlated with poor prognosis of HCC and could be identified as an independent prognostic biomarker of HCC (hazard ratio = 5.60, 95% confidence interval = 3.00-10.45, P < 0.001). With in vitro function assay, we demonstrated that FOSL1 played an essential role in HCC proliferation. Conclusions: High expression of FOSL1 is an independent risk factor of HCC predicting unfavorable prognosis, indicating that FOSL1 detection could stratify patients with high risk, and anti-FOSL1 therapy may be a promising way to treat HCC.

18.
Hypertension ; 74(2): 375-383, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230546

RESUMO

Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) are associated with low birth weight, shorter gestational age, and increased risk of maternal and offspring cardiovascular diseases later in life. The mechanisms involved are poorly understood, but epigenetic regulation of gene expression may play a part. We performed meta-analyses in the Pregnancy and Childhood Epigenetics Consortium to test the association between either maternal HDP (10 cohorts; n=5242 [cases=476]) or preeclampsia (3 cohorts; n=2219 [cases=135]) and epigenome-wide DNA methylation in cord blood using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. In models adjusted for confounders, and with Bonferroni correction, HDP and preeclampsia were associated with DNA methylation at 43 and 26 CpG sites, respectively. HDP was associated with higher methylation at 27 (63%) of the 43 sites, and across all 43 sites, the mean absolute difference in methylation was between 0.6% and 2.6%. Epigenome-wide associations of HDP with offspring DNA methylation were modestly consistent with the equivalent epigenome-wide associations of preeclampsia with offspring DNA methylation (R2=0.26). In longitudinal analyses conducted in 1 study (n=108 HDP cases; 550 controls), there were similar changes in DNA methylation in offspring of those with and without HDP up to adolescence. Pathway analysis suggested that genes located at/near HDP-associated sites may be involved in developmental, embryogenesis, or neurological pathways. HDP is associated with offspring DNA methylation with potential relevance to development.

19.
J Cell Biochem ; 120(10): 17709-17722, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31161607

RESUMO

This study was aimed to verify whether there existed any associations between long noncoding RNA MEG3/miR-219a-5p/EGFR axis and the development of ovarian cancer (OC). As a whole, we gathered 317 pairs of OC tissues and surgical marginal normal tissues and simultaneously acquired four OC cell lines (ie, A2780, Caov-3, OVCAR-3, and SKOV-3) and human normal ovarian surface epithelial cell line. Moreover, pcDNA3.1-MEG3, si-MEG3, miR-219a-5p mimic, miR-219a-5p inhibitor, pcDNA3.1-EGFR, and si-EGFR were, respectively, transfected into the OC cells, and their impacts on viability, proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, and migration of OC cells were assessed via conduction of MTT assay, colony formation assay, flow cytometry assay, transwell assay, and scratch assay. Ultimately, dual-luciferase reporter gene assay was performed to testify the targeted relationships among maternally expressed gene 3 (MEG3), miR-219a-5p, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (EGFR). It was indicated that underexpressed MEG3 and miR-219a-5p were significantly associated with unfavorable prognosis of patients with OC when compared with overexpressed MEG3 and miR-219a-5p (P < .05). In addition, the OC cells transfected with si-MEG3 or miR-219a-5p inhibitor exhibited stronger viability, proliferation, invasion, and migration than untreated cells (P < .05). Correspondingly, the apoptotic percentage of OC cells was reduced observably under treatments of si-MEG3 and miR-219a-5p inhibitor (P < .05). Moreover, MEG3 exerted modulatory effects on the expression of miR-219a-5p (P < .05), and there was a sponging relationship between them (P < .05). Finally, EGFR expression was modified by both MEG3 and miR-219a-5p significantly (P < .05), and raising EGFR expression could changeover the impacts of MEG3 and miR-219a-5p on the above-mentioned activity of OC cells (P < .05). Conclusively, MEG3 could serve as a promising biomarker for diagnosis and treatment of OC, considering its involvement with OC etiology via regulation of miR-219a-5p/EGFR axis.

20.
J Sep Sci ; 42(16): 2734-2742, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207064

RESUMO

Four stereoisomeric components were produced during the synthesis of the antidepressant drug (1S, 4S)-sertraline hydrochloride due to the two chiral carbon centers in its chemical structure, including (1S, 4S), (1R, 4R), (1S, 4R), and (1R, 4S)-isomer. Stereoselective separation of the target isomer (1S, 4S)-sertraline from the medicinal reaction mixtures by countercurrent chromatography using hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin as the stereoselective selector was investigated. A biphasic solvent system composed of n-hexane/0.20 mol/L phosphate buffer solution with pH 7.6 containing 0.10 mol/L of hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin (1:1, v/v) was selected for separation of cis-sertraline and trans-sertraline using reverse phase elution mode and (1S, 4S)-sertraline was separated with (1R, 4R)-sertraline using recycling elution mode. A fabricated in-house analytical countercurrent chromatographic apparatus was used for optimization of the separation conditions. Stationary phase retention and peak resolution were investigated for separation of cis-sertraline and trans-sertraline by the analytical apparatus.

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