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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 3): 151290, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34743874

RESUMO

With the increasing application of tetracycline (TC) in medical treatment, animal husbandry and aquaculture in recent decades, high quantities of TC have been frequently detected in the aquatic environment, and accordingly TC-related toxicity and environmental pollution have become a global concern. The present study was performed to explore the toxicological influences of TC exposure at its environmentally relevant concentrations on the gills of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, based on the alteration in histopathology, oxidative stress, inflammatory response, cell cycle, mitochondrial function, apoptosis, and transcriptomic analysis. Our findings revealed that TC exposure damaged the structure and function, induced oxidative stress, affected inflammatory responses, and reduced Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) activity in the gills. TC also caused the inhibition in cell cycle, resulted in mitochondrial dysfunction and activated apoptosis. Further transcriptomic analysis indicated the extensive influences of TC exposure on the gill function, and immune system was the main target to waterborne TC exposure. These results elucidated that environmental TC had more complex toxicological effects on gills of fish than previously assessed, and provided novel insight into molecular toxicology of TC on fish and good basis for assessing the environmental risk of TC.

2.
Clean Technol Environ Policy ; : 1-22, 2021 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34849112

RESUMO

Energy and environmental policies are important methods for the government to restrain carbon emissions growth. Identifying the potential dynamic trends of China's carbon emissions under different scenarios has important reference significance for the government's policy implementation. This paper firstly predicted China's carbon emissions from 2017 to 2040 based on three energy transition scenarios at the industrial level. Then, Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index decomposition model was applied to evaluate the driving forces of emissions changes during 1997-2040. Finally, the Spatial-Temporal Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index model was used to explore the emissions reduction potential and the potential reduction path at provincial level. The results showed that (1) as the reduction in energy intensity cannot offset the growth of industrial scale, the carbon emissions of all industries have shown an increasing trend from 1997 to 2017; (2) In the current policies scenario, China's carbon emissions cannot reach the peak before 2040. And only in the sustainable development scenario, the carbon emissions of the three industries will all reach the peaks before 2030. And the development of non-fossil energy will reduce carbon emissions by more than 30%; (3) Hebei, Shanxi, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia, and Heilongjiang are key provinces and improving energy efficiency of the secondary industry is a potential way to promote carbon emissions reduction. The framework and main content of this paper. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s10098-021-02240-7.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34855585

RESUMO

Weakly supervised temporal action localization aims at learning the instance-level action pattern from the video-level labels, where a challenge is action-context confusion. To overcome this challenge, one recent work builds an action-click supervision framework. It requires similar annotation costs but can steadily improve the localization performance when compared to the conventional weakly supervised methods. In this paper, we find a stronger action localizer can be trained with the same annotation costs if the labels are annotated on the background video frames, because the performance bottleneck of the existing approaches mainly comes from the background errors. To this end, we convert the action-click supervision to the background-click supervision and develop a novel method, called BackTAL. BackTAL implements two-fold modeling on the background video frames, i.e. the position modeling and the feature modeling. In position modeling, we not only conduct supervised learning on the annotated video frames but also design a score separation module to enlarge the score differences between the potential action frames and backgrounds. In feature modeling, we propose an affinity module to measure frame-specific similarities among neighboring frames and dynamically attend to informative neighbors when calculating temporal convolution. Experiments on three benchmarks demonstrate the high performance of our BackTAL.

4.
Sci Total Environ ; : 151098, 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34743880

RESUMO

As household CO2 emissions (HCEs) are a key source of China's CO2 emissions, exploring the mitigation potential of HCEs is significant to achieve China's 2030 emission target. However, rare literatures analyzed the future evolution of HCEs from the provincial perspective. Here, we employ the STIRPAT model and build three scenarios (i.e., baseline, low and high scenarios) to investigate the trajectories and peak times of HCEs in 30 provinces up to 2040. The results show that 25 provinces can peak HCEs before 2030 in at least one scenario, while 5 provinces cannot achieve the 2030 emission target in any scenarios. Moreover, Guangxi and Hainan will maintain growth up to 2040 in all three scenarios. At the national level, China's household sector can achieve HCEs peak in all three scenarios. Further reduction of emission intensity helps national HCEs reach the peak around 2025 in the high scenario at 1063 MtCO2. The findings suggest that Guangdong, Jiangsu, Hebei, Henan, Zhejiang and Anhui are key provinces for future HCEs reductions, because they account for more than 40% of national HCEs in 2040 in all three scenarios. Energy efficiency improvement and clean energy applications will be effective for emission reductions.

5.
Technol Cancer Res Treat ; 20: 15330338211045506, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34817293

RESUMO

C-terminal tensin-like (CTEN) belongs to the tensin gene family, which encodes proteins that localize to focal adhesions and modulate integrin function. Accumulating studies have reported that CTEN expression can be upregulated or downregulated in different types of cancers, suggesting that CTEN has both oncogenic and tumor suppressor functions. In this study, by analyzing the expression level of CTEN in the human breast cancer (BRCA) samples from the clinically annotated genomic database, The Cancer Genome Atlas, we found that CTEN was downregulated in different BRCA subclasses, including luminal, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive and triple-negative BRCA. Consistently, the protein level of CTEN was also reduced in BRCA based on the Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium. In contrast, vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), a signal protein that stimulates the formation of blood vessels, was upregulated in BRCA. CTEN overexpression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and MCF7 significantly suppressed the expression of VEGFA, inhibited cell proliferation, migration, and tube formation in vitro. Mechanistically, CTEN bind to casitas B-lineage lymphoma (c-Cbl), an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase, and decreased the ß-catenin expression. In turn, the downregulation of ß-catenin reduced the expression of VEGFA. Rescuing ß-catenin expression effectively ameliorated the effect of CTEN overexpression in cell proliferation, migration, and tube formation. In conclusion, CTEN inhibited tumor angiogenesis by targeting VEGFA through c-Cbl-mediated down-regulation of ß-catenin and may serve as a tumor suppressor in BRCA.

6.
J Nutr Biochem ; : 108883, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34653601

RESUMO

Oxidative stress can induce occurrence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Nrf2 is a central regulator of cellular oxidative stress and also participates in the control of lipid deposition and metabolism. Here, we hypothesize that oxidative stress-mediated Nrf2 activation participates in the regulation of the Cu-induced lipid deposition. We found that Cu excess activated oxidative stress and autophagy, up-regulated lipogenesis and lipid metabolism, suppressed Keap1 expression and activated Nrf2 signaling. Moreover, Cu induced lipid deposition via oxidative stress and the mitochondrial dysfunction. Oxidative stress mediated Cu-induced activation of Nrf2 and autophagy. The activation of autophagy helps to alleviate Cu-induced lipid deposition and accordingly provided a protective role against Cu-induced NAFLD. Meantime, Cu-induced oxidative stress promoted Nrf2 recruitment to the PPARγ promoter, inducing target gene transcription, and subsequent lipogenesis. Our findings, for the first time, provide direct evidences for Nrf2 function in the modulation of lipogenic metabolism via the transcriptional activation of PPARγ, and elucidate the mechanisms by which Nrf2 functions as the central regulator of lipogenic genes and highlights the significance of Nrf2 as potential therapeutic targets for oxidative stress-associated obesity and NAFLD for fish and human beings.

7.
J Nutr Biochem ; : 108882, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34655756

RESUMO

High dietary carbohydrate intake leads to lipid accumulation in the intestinal tract, but the molecular mechanism remains unknown. In the present study, using yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) as a model, we found that (1) high carbohydrate diets (HCD) and high glucose (HG) increased lipid deposition, up-regulated lipogenesis and fatty acid ß-oxidation, activated autophagy and induced oxidative stress in the intestinal tissues and intestinal epithelial cells (IECs); (2) lipophagy alleviated HG-induced lipid accumulation via the up-regulation of fatty acid ß-oxidation; (3) Akt interacted directly with Beclin1; (4) HG suppressed Akt1 phosphorylation, downregulated Akt1-mediated phosphorylation of Beclin1, activated lipophagy and alleviated the increment of TG deposition induced by HG with S87 and S292 being the key phosphorylation residues of Beclin1 in response to HG; (5) ROS generation mediated HG-induced activation of lipophagy and HG-induced suppression of AKT phosphorylation, activated AMPK and alleviated HG-induced increase of TG deposition. Our study provides mechanistic evidence that high carbohydrate- and glucose-induced lipophagy in intestine and IECs is associated with ROS-AKT-Beclin1-dependent activation of autophagy, which alleviates glucose-induced lipid accumulation. Our findings are important since the regulation of autophagy can be used as potential molecular targets for the prevention and treatment of lipotoxicity in the intestine of vertebrates, including humans.

8.
Opt Lett ; 46(17): 4228-4231, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469981

RESUMO

Respiration and heartbeat monitoring during sleep is essential in the assessment of personal health. However, conventional monitoring systems are complex, expensive, and uncomfortable. In this Letter, a mat embedded with a macrobending optical fiber sensor is proposed for non-contact vital signs monitoring during sleep based on vibration sensing. Exploiting the whispering gallery mode, a small-core fiber is adopted and pre-bent to enhance sensitivity to subtle vibrations. The mat sensing system can simultaneously detect and track respiration and ballistocardiography. With high vibration sensitivity, high reliability, and good stability, the mat provides a non-contact and low-cost alternative for long-term monitoring of vital signs, especially for daily home use.

9.
Chemosphere ; 282: 131110, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470162

RESUMO

Fibrous activated carbon has attracted emerging research interests due to its remarkable adsorption performance for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Though this adsorption behavior for VOCs is closely related to the pore structure on the surface of activated carbon fiber (ACF), few researchers paid attentions to the influence of textural properties of this adsorption process. Especially, cotton-based activated carbon fiber (CACF) for adsorbing benzene pollutant is rarely reported. Herein, in order to develop a high-performance adsorbent for the removal of VOCs pollutants, this work studied the influence of textural properties of CACF on the adsorption of benzene. The results showed that the increase of carbonization temperature would lead to the reduction of mesopores but the increase of micropores for CACF; the embedment of phosphoric acid and its derivatives into the carbon layers contributed to the formation of pore structure for CACF; furthermore, specific surface area of CACF can also be enlarged by increasing the concentration of phosphoric acid. More importantly, it was found that the adsorption capacity of CACF for benzene was strongly dependent on the specific surface area and volume of micropores within CACF because micropores can provide more favorable binding sites. This adsorption process preferred to occur on the wall of micropores, then the accumulated benzene would slowly fill the pores. Interestingly, the decrease of pore size of micropores can unexpectedly improve the affinity of CACF to benzene on the contrary. This work provides a new strategy to develop porous structured ACF materials for the high-performance adsorption of VOCs.


Assuntos
Benzeno , Carvão Vegetal , Adsorção , Fibra de Carbono , Porosidade
10.
Curr Biol ; 31(21): 4845-4852.e2, 2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534442

RESUMO

Enantiornithes are the most successful group of Mesozoic birds, arguably representing the first global avian radiation,1-4 and commonly resolved as the sister to the Ornithuromorpha, the clade within which all living birds are nested.1,3 The wealth of fossils makes it feasible to comparatively test evolutionary hypotheses about the pattern and mode of eco-morphological diversity of these sister clades that co-existed for approximately 65 Ma. Here, we report a new Early Cretaceous enantiornithine, Yuanchuavis kompsosoura gen. et. sp. nov., with a rectricial fan combined with an elongate central pair of fully pennaceous rachis-dominated plumes, constituting a new tail plumage previously unknown among nonavialan dinosaurs and Mesozoic birds but which strongly resembles the pintail in many neornithines. The extravagant but aerodynamically costly long central plumes, as an honest signal of quality, likely evolved in enantiornithines through the handicap process of sexual selection. The contrasting tail morphotypes observed between enantiornithines and early ornithuromorphs reflect the complex interplay between sexual and natural selections and indicate that each lineage experienced unique pressures reflecting ecological differences. As in neornithines, early avialans repeatedly evolved extravagant structures highlighting the importance of sexual selection in shaping the plumage of feathered dinosaurs, even early in their evolutionary history.

11.
Front Oncol ; 11: 684996, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34540662

RESUMO

Objective: This study aimed to develop a radiomics model to predict early recurrence (<1 year) in grade II glioma after the first resection. Methods: The pathological, clinical, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data of patients diagnosed with grade II glioma who underwent surgery and had a recurrence between 2017 and 2020 in our hospital were retrospectively analyzed. After a rigorous selection, 64 patients were eligible and enrolled in the study. Twenty-two cases had a pathologically confirmed recurrent glioma. The cases were randomly assigned using a ratio of 7:3 to either the training set or validation set. T1-weighted image (T1WI), T2-weighted image (T2WI), and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted image (T1CE) were acquired. The minimum-redundancy-maximum-relevancy (mRMR) method alone or in combination with univariate logistic analysis were used to identify the most optimal predictive feature from the three image sequences. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was then used to develop a predictive model using the screened features. The performance of each model in both training and validation datasets was assessed using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, calibration curve, and decision curve analysis (DCA). Results: A total of 396 radiomics features were initially extracted from each image sequence. After running the mRMR and univariate logistic analysis, nine predictive features were identified and used to build the multiparametric radiomics model. The model had a higher AUC when compared with the univariate models in both training and validation data sets with an AUC of 0.966 (95% confidence interval: 0.949-0.99) and 0.930 (95% confidence interval: 0.905-0.973), respectively. The calibration curves indicated a good agreement between the predictable and the actual probability of developing recurrence. The DCA demonstrated that the predictive value of the model improved when combining the three MRI sequences. Conclusion: Our multiparametric radiomics model could be used as an efficient and accurate tool for predicting the recurrence of grade II glioma.

12.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 13: 697494, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34421574

RESUMO

Proper functioning of the cerebellum is crucial to motor balance and coordination in adult mammals. Purkinje cells (PCs), the sole output neurons of the cerebellar cortex, play essential roles in cerebellar motor function. Tripartite motif-containing protein 32 (TRIM32) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that is involved in balance activities of neurogenesis in the subventricular zone of the mammalian brain and in the development of many nervous system diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, the role of TRIM32 in cerebellar motor function has never been examined. In this study we found that motor balance and coordination of mid-aged TRIM32 deficient mice were poorer than those of wild-type littermates. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to assess cerebella morphology and TRIM32 expression in PCs. Golgi staining showed that the extent of dendritic arborization and dendritic spine density of PCs were decreased in the absence of TRIM32. The loss of TRIM32 was also associated with a decrease in the number of synapses between parallel fibers and PCs, and in synapses between climbing fibers and PCs. In addition, deficiency of TRIM32 decreased Type I inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 5-phosphatase (INPP5A) levels in cerebellum. Overall, this study is the first to elucidate a role of TRIM32 in cerebellar motor function and a possible mechanism, thereby highlighting the importance of TRIM32 in the cerebellum.

13.
Front Oncol ; 11: 634879, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34307119

RESUMO

Purpose: To develop and validate a clinical-radiomic nomogram for the preoperative prediction of the aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) risk in patients with unilateral adrenal adenoma. Patients and Methods: Ninety consecutive primary aldosteronism (PA) patients with unilateral adrenal adenoma who underwent adrenal venous sampling (AVS) were randomly separated into training (n = 62) and validation cohorts (n = 28) (7:3 ratio) by a computer algorithm. Data were collected from October 2017 to June 2020. The prediction model was developed in the training cohort. Radiomic features were extracted from unenhanced computed tomography (CT) images of unilateral adrenal adenoma. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression model was used to reduce data dimensions, select features, and establish a radiomic signature. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used for the predictive model development, the radiomic signature and clinical risk factors integration, and the model was displayed as a clinical-radiomic nomogram. The nomogram performance was evaluated by its calibration, discrimination, and clinical practicability. Internal validation was performed. Results: Six potential predictors were selected from 358 texture features by using the LASSO regression model. These features were included in the Radscore. The predictors included in the individualized prediction nomogram were the Radscore, age, sex, serum potassium level, and aldosterone-to-renin ratio (ARR). The model showed good discrimination, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.900 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.807 to 0.993], and good calibration. The nomogram still showed good discrimination [AUC, 0.912 (95% CI, 0.761 to 1.000)] and good calibration in the validation cohort. Decision curve analysis presented that the nomogram was useful in clinical practice. Conclusions: A clinical-radiomic nomogram was constructed by integrating a radiomic signature and clinical factors. The nomogram facilitated accurate prediction of the probability of APA in patients with unilateral adrenal nodules and could be helpful for clinical decision making.

14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208159

RESUMO

B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and cytochrome c (Cycs) are two important proteins relevant to cellular apoptosis. In this study, we characterized the functions of the promoter regions of two apoptosis-related genes, Bcl-2 and Cycs, in yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. We obtained a 1989 bp Bcl-2 promoter and an 1830 bp Cycs promoter and predicted several key transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) on the promoters, such as Kruppel-like factor 4 (KLF4), signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 3 (STAT3), forkhead box O (FOXO), metal-responsive element (MRE) and hepatocyte nuclear factor 1α (HNF-1α). Zinc (Zn) increased the activities of the Bcl-2 promoter but decreased the activities of the Cycs promoter. Metal-responsive transcription factor 1 (MTF-1) and HNF-1α directly bound with Bcl-2 and Cycs promoters, and they positively regulated the activity of the Bcl-2 promoter but negatively regulated the activity of the Cycs promoter. Zn promoted the binding ability of HNF-1α to the Bcl-2 promoter but decreased its binding ability to the Cycs promoter. However, Zn had no significant effect on the binding capability of MTF-1 to the regions of Bcl-2 and Cycs promoters. Zn upregulated the mRNA and total protein expression of Bcl-2 but downregulated the mRNA and total protein expression of Cycs. At the same time, Annexin V-FITC/PI staining showed that Zn significantly reduced the apoptosis of primary hepatocytes. For the first time, our study provides evidence for the MRE and HNF-1α response elements on the Bcl-2 and Cycs promoters, offering new insight into the mechanism by which Zn affects apoptosis in vertebrates.


Assuntos
Apoptose/genética , Peixes-Gato/genética , Citocromos c/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Zinco/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Sequência de Bases , Sítios de Ligação , Citocromos c/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Deleção de Sequência
15.
Anticancer Drugs ; 32(10): 1105-1110, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232943

RESUMO

Recombinant human interferon-α1b (IFN-α1b) is the first genetic engineered drug of China and is approved for cancer treatment by Chinese Food and Drug Administration. Although recombinant IFN-α1b is biologically and therapeutically active, its long-term efficacy against advanced melanoma is unknown. Ninety patients who were diagnosed with stage IV melanoma and received recombinant IFN-α1b therapy in our department were included in this study. The safety and efficacy of IFN-α1b were analyzed. IFN-α1b was overall well tolerated, with only 7.8% of the patients showing grade 3 toxicity and none with grade 4 toxicity or treatment-related death. The most common adverse effect was fever (78.9%). Furthermore, increasing the drug dosage showed no increase in the incidence of adverse events. The median overall survival (mOS) of the cohort was 14.1 months (95% confidence interval, 11.3-16.9 months). There was no significant difference of the mOS between samples of various primary sites. In the 42 patients who had not received prior adjuvant interferon therapy, the objective response rate, disease control rate and clinical benefit rate were 7.1, 28.5 and 21.4%, respectively. Our findings suggest that systemic IFN-α1b treatment is a relatively safe therapy and could prolong the survival of patients with unresectable metastatic melanoma.

16.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-13, 2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34085611

RESUMO

The study was conducted to determine the effects of three dietary Se sources, such as sodium-selenite (S-S), seleno-yeast (S-Y) and seleno-methionine (S-M), on Se concentration, glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and TXNRD activities, and mRNA expression of fifteen representative selenoproteins, and protein expression of four endoplasmic reticulum-resided selenoproteins in a wide range of tissues of yellow catfish. Compared with S-S and S-M groups, dietary S-Y significantly decreased growth performance and feed utilisation of yellow catfish. Dietary Se sources significantly influenced Se contents in the spleen, dorsal muscle and the kidney, GPX activities in spleen, kidney, intestine, muscle and mesenteric fat, and TXNRD activities in the heart, intestine and mesenteric fat. Among ten tested tissues, dietary Se sources influenced mRNA expression of GPX4 and SELENOK in three tissues; GPX3, SELENOS and TXNRD2 in four tissues; SELENOF, SELENON and DIO2 in five tissues; SELENOM, GPX1/2 and TXNRD3 in six tissues; SELENOW in seven tissue and SELENOP and SELENOT in eight tissues. Based on these observations above, S-S and S-M seem to be suitable Se sources for improving growth performance and feed utilisation of yellow catfish. Dietary Se sources differentially influence the expression of selenoproteins in various tissues of yellow catfish. For the first time, we determined the expression of selenoproteins in fish in responses to dietary Se sources, which contributes to a better understanding of the functions and regulatory mechanisms of selenoporteins.

17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3498, 2021 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34108452

RESUMO

Plant genomes vary greatly in size, organization, and architecture. Such structural differences may be highly relevant for inference of genome evolution dynamics and phylogeny. Indeed, microsynteny-the conservation of local gene content and order-is recognized as a valuable source of phylogenetic information, but its use for the inference of large phylogenies has been limited. Here, by combining synteny network analysis, matrix representation, and maximum likelihood phylogenetic inference, we provide a way to reconstruct phylogenies based on microsynteny information. Both simulations and use of empirical data sets show our method to be accurate, consistent, and widely applicable. As an example, we focus on the analysis of a large-scale whole-genome data set for angiosperms, including more than 120 available high-quality genomes, representing more than 50 different plant families and 30 orders. Our 'microsynteny-based' tree is largely congruent with phylogenies proposed based on more traditional sequence alignment-based methods and current phylogenetic classifications but differs for some long-contested and controversial relationships. For instance, our synteny-based tree finds Vitales as early diverging eudicots, Saxifragales within superasterids, and magnoliids as sister to monocots. We discuss how synteny-based phylogenetic inference can complement traditional methods and could provide additional insights into some long-standing controversial phylogenetic relationships.


Assuntos
Genoma de Planta/genética , Magnoliopsida/genética , Filogenia , Sintenia , Evolução Molecular , Genes de Plantas/genética , Magnoliopsida/classificação , Modelos Genéticos , Família Multigênica/genética
18.
Arch Pharm (Weinheim) ; 354(10): e2100145, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34131943

RESUMO

A series of novel pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-one derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their anti-phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) activity. A total of 28 compounds, containing alkyl and aryl groups at the 1-N and 3-C positions on the pyrazole ring, and also bearing different alkyl substituents on the piperazine ring were synthesized. Four compounds (4d, 5d, 6d, and 5o) were found to have better inhibitory activity against PDE-5 (IC50 < 10 nM). All four of the most active compounds contain a phenyl ring at the N1 position. Compounds containing a 3,5-dimethylpiperazinyl group show better activity than others. These results suggest that compound 5o can be used as a lead structure for developing new inhibitors of PDE-5.

19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(43): 60798-60817, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34165758

RESUMO

As the most developed city circle in northern China, allocating CO2 emission quotas at the Bohai Rim Economic Circle (BREC) city level is essential for developing specific abatement policies. Thus, with reflecting multi-principles (fairness, efficiency, sustainability, and feasibility), this paper formulates the CO2 emission quota allocation among cities in BREC in 2030 based on the multi-objective decision approach. We first propose three allocation schemes based on the principles of fairness, efficiency, and sustainability, which are conducted by entropy method, zero-sum gains data envelopment (ZSG-DEA) model, and CO2 sequestration share method, respectively. Then, the CO2 allocation satisfaction is defined and used to measure the feasibility principle which is integrated as the objective function of the multi-objective decision model together with three allocation schemes to obtain the optimal allocation results. The results show that Beijing, Tianjin, Dalian, Shijiazhuang, Yantai, Weifang, and Linyi enjoy the largest CO2 emission quotas, having 1179.94 Mt in total and accounting for 31%. Beijing has the highest quotas, and Laiwu has the lowest emission quotas. Cities with large energy consumption and less CO2 sequestration capacity, such as Tianjin, Handan, and Tangshan, experience a decrease in the emission quota shares from 2017 to 2030, indicating that these cities would undertake large emission reduction obligations. Sensitivity analysis shows that Beijing, Zibo, and Jinan are more sensitive to minimum satisfaction changes, and the total satisfaction experiences an increase first and declines thereafter. Based on the results above, cities with large pressure to reduce CO2 emissions should not only promote economic development but also improve the capacity of CO2 sequestration by enhancing environmental protection to realize emission reduction targets.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Pequim , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , China , Cidades
20.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 678959, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34108985

RESUMO

An essential component of plant defense is the change that occurs from a constitutive to an induced state following damage or infection. Exogenous application of the plant hormone methyl jasmonate (MeJA) has shown great potential to be used as a defense inducer prior to pest exposure, and could be used as a plant protection measure. Here, we examined (1) the importance of MeJA-mediated induction for Norway spruce (Picea abies) resistance against damage by the pine weevil Hylobius abietis, which poses a threat to seedling survival, and infection by the spruce bark beetle-associated blue-stain fungus Endoconidiophora polonica, (2) genotypic variation in MeJA-induced defense (terpene chemistry), and (3) correlations among resistance to each pest. In a semi-field experiment, we exposed rooted-cuttings from nine different Norway spruce clones to insect damage and fungal infection separately. Plants were treated with 0, 25, or 50 mM MeJA, and planted in blocks where only pine weevils were released, or in a separate block in which plants were fungus-inoculated or not (control group). As measures of resistance, stem area debarked and fungal lesion lengths were assessed, and as a measure of defensive capacity, terpene chemistry was examined. We found that MeJA treatment increased resistance to H. abietis and E. polonica, but effects varied with clone. Norway spruce clones that exhibited high constitutive resistance did not show large changes in area debarked or lesion length when MeJA-treated, and vice versa. Moreover, insect damage negatively correlated with fungal infection. Clones receiving little pine weevil damage experienced larger lesion lengths, and vice versa, both in the constitutive and induced states. Changes in absolute terpene concentrations occurred with MeJA treatment (but not on proportional terpene concentrations), however, variation in chemistry was mostly explained by differences between clones. We conclude that MeJA can enhance protection against H. abietis and E. polonica, but the extent of protection will depend on the importance of constitutive and induced resistance for the Norway spruce clone in question. Trade-offs among resistances do not necessarily hinder the use of MeJA, as clones that are constitutively more resistant to either pest, should show greater MeJA-induced resistance against the other.

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