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1.
J Environ Manage ; 285: 112048, 2021 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578209

RESUMO

Effective ecosystem management on the Tibetan Plateau will contribute to regional environmental sustainability, and these efforts need broad public support, especially that of residents, over the long run. Although residents' subjective perceptions often directly influence practices, the interactive effects of subjective and objective indicators at the individual level often interfere with resident participation in ecosystem management. With the objective of decoupling the effects of multiple variables on resident participation in environmental sustainability, we launched a questionnaire survey on the topic of willingness to pay (WTP) on the Tibetan Plateau, and explored the effects of single variables and pairwise variables on WTP via dummy regression and proposed specific management suggestions. The results showed that objective indicators were the key drivers of WTP. First, it not only had strong direct effects on WTP (2770.32 CNY/year) but also interacted with subjective beliefs (3805.92 CNY/year); second, it had indirect effects on participation attitudes (R = 0.79) through subjective beliefs (R = 0.38). Put differently, the challenge of achieving sustainable management in the TP is how to enhance and satisfy the sociodemographic and socio-economic attributes of indigenous residents.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33401753

RESUMO

Infectious diseases have caused some of the most feared plagues and greatly harmed human health. However, despite the qualitative understanding that the occurrence and diffusion of infectious disease is related to the environment, the quantitative relations are unknown for many diseases. Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne virus that poses a fatal threat and has spread explosively throughout the world, impacting human health. From a geographical perspective, this study aims to understand the global hotspots of ZIKV as well as the spatially heterogeneous relationship between ZIKV and environmental factors using exploratory special data analysis (ESDA) model. A geographically weighted regression (GWR) model was used to analyze the influence of the dominant environmental factors on the spread of ZIKV at the continental scale. The results indicated that ZIKV transmission had obvious regional and seasonal heterogeneity. Population density, GDP per capita, and landscape fragmentation were the dominant environmental factors affecting the spread of ZIKV, which indicates that social factors had a greater influence than natural factors on the spread of it. As SARS-CoV-2 is spreading globally, this study can provide methodological reference for fighting against the pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecção por Zika virus , Animais , Humanos , Mosquitos Vetores , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Zika virus , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/transmissão
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 770: 144833, 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33508670

RESUMO

Long-term afforestation has important implications on soil properties and quality in semi-arid areas. A large-scale afforestation project has been carried out in the Loess Plateau in the last 20 years. This work aims to study the afforestation (Robinia pseudoacacia, Caragana korshinskii and natural grassland recover 10, 20, 30, and 40 years after) impacts on soil properties and quality. The results showed that coverage and root biomass (RB) was the highest 30 years after the restoration in Robinia pseudoacacia and Caragana korshinskii treatments, while the highest 40 years post-restoration in natural grasslands. Sand content and BD showed the highest values 10 years post afforestation in all study areas. Clay, Silt, mean weight diameter (MWD), and geometric mean diameter (GMD) in Robinia pseudoacacia, Caragana korshinskii had the highest values 30 years after the afforestation, while in natural grasslands, this was observed 40 years after. In Robinia pseudoacacia, Caragana korshinskii treatments, soil moisture content (SMC) reached the highest levels 30 years post afforestation at 20-40 and 40-60 cm. Regarding natural grasslands, SMC had the highest values 40 years post-afforestation. Sand content and BD increased with soil depth, while the opposite was identified in RB, clay, silt, MWD, GMD and SMC. In Robinia pseudoacacia and Caragana korshinskii treatments, soil organic matter, total nitrogen, available nitrogen, total phosphorous, and available phosphorus had the highest levels 40 years post-restoration at 0-20 cm, while at 20-40 and 40-60 cm, the highest concentrations were identified 30 years after. In all the treatments, the soil quality index (SQI) was the highest 40 years post-restoration. The values of SQI were always higher in natural grasslands than in Robinia pseudoacacia and Caragana korshinskii treatments. Overall, natural recovery (natural grasslands) is more efficient than afforestation (Robinia pseudoacacia and Caragana korshinskii treatments) in soil quality.

5.
Sci Total Environ ; 761: 144257, 2021 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33352341

RESUMO

Investigating the spatial distribution characteristics of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and exploring the influence of environmental factors that drive it is the basis for formulating rational and efficient prevention and control countermeasures. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the spatial distribution characteristics of COVID-19 pandemic in Beijing and its relationship with the environmental factors. Based on the incidences of new local COVID-19 cases in Beijing from June 11 to July 5, the spatial clustering characteristics of the COVID-19 pandemic in Beijing was investigated using spatial autocorrelation analysis. The relation between COVID-19 cases and environmental factors was assessed using the Spearman correlation analysis. Finally, geographically weighted regression (GWR) was applied to explore the influence of environmental factors on the spatial distribution of COVID-19 cases. The results showed that the development of COVID-19 pandemic in Beijing from June 11 to July 5 could be divided into two stages. The first stage was the outward expansion from June 11 to June 21, and the second stage (from June 22 to July 5) was the growth of the transmission in areas with existing previous cases. In addition, there was a ring of low value clusters around the Xinfadi market. This area was the key area for prevention and control. Population density and distance to Xinfadi market were the most critical factors that explained the pandemic development. The findings of this study can provide useful information for the global fighting against COVID-19.


Assuntos
Pandemias , Pequim/epidemiologia , Humanos , Análise Espacial , Regressão Espacial
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 738: 140270, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32806368

RESUMO

Soil physical and chemical properties are prerequisites to soil functionality, which depend importantly on land use, climate, and topography. However, previous works gave little consideration to the inherent causalities between properties under environmental influences. Here, we sampled 0-20 cm soil from 82 sites across the entire Yanhe watershed, including forest, shrubland, grassland, and agriculture. We applied structural equation modelling (SEM) to explore the environmental impacts on soil properties. The results showed that clay content (Clay%) in forest and grassland was significantly higher than in the agriculture area and shrubland. Redundancy analysis indicated that the variations of soil properties were explained by environmental factors, specifically in the forest (51.3%), shrubland (71.6%), grassland (77.6%), and agriculture area (95.5%). Hierarchical partition analysis independently extracted dominant factors and found that latitude, precipitation, and elevation were critical in forest and grassland; elevation and precipitation in shrubland; elevation and latitude in agriculture area. SEM identified soil organic carbon (SOC) was directly influenced by total nitrogen (TN) and total potassium (TK) in forest; by TK in shrubland; by TK and bulk density (BD) in grassland; by total phosphorus (TP) and BD in agriculture area. Path analysis on SOC identified different paths in forest, grassland, and agriculture, and the mediators included TN, BD, pH, and TP. These findings indicate that the influence of environmental factors on soil properties should take into account the interactions within soil conditions. Grassland has a good potential regional carbon sequestration.

8.
Sci Total Environ ; 738: 140206, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32660774

RESUMO

United Nations established 2021-2030 as the decade for ecosystem restoration and "prevent, halt and reverse the degradation of ecosystems worldwide". Ecosystem and land degradation are a global phenomenon. As a consequence of land degradation, in the late 1990s, the "Grain for Green Program" (GFGP) was established in Loess Plateau (China). It converted slope farmlands to forest or grassland over the, resulting in a visible "greening" trend. Other effects of GFGP on soil properties, land production, hydrological conditions, ecosystem services, and policy implications are the topics of this Special Issue. This Special Issue includes 17 contributions that cover recent research carried out in Loess Plateau in the mentioned topics at different spatial and temporal scales. The collection of papers presented in this Special Issue discusses critical issues in vegetation restoration and sustainable land management in the region. This Special Issue will contribute to United Nations strategy for ecosystems restoration.

9.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 51(3): 312-319, 2020 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32543135

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the effects of short hairpin RNA (shRNA) on the proliferation, invasion, apoptosis and tumor formation of non-small cell lung cancer cisplatin-resistant cell line (A549/DDP) via silencing of colon cancer associated transcript 2 ( CCAT2). Methods: TA549/DDP cells were transfected with shRNA- CCAT2 (sh- CCAT2) or shRNA-negative control (shRNA-NC), and untransfected A549/DDP cells were used as the control group. CCAT2 mRNA expression in three groups of A549/DDP cells was detected by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The proliferation of three groups of A549/DDP cells treated with different mass concentrations of DDP (0-8 mg/L) was detected by MTT. According to the proliferation experiment results, 2 mg/L was selected as DDP concentration for subsequent experiments. The effects of 2 mg/L DDP treatment on the proliferation, apoptosis, and invasion ability of each group of cells (with untreated A549/DDP cells as the control group) were tested by clone formation experiments, flow cytometry analysis and Transwell experiments. The expression levels of cell proliferation marker proteins (Ki67, PCNA), apoptosis marker proteins (Caspase-3, Caspase-9) and invasion marker proteins (VEGF, MMP-14) were detected by Western blot. Nude mice were injected subcutaneously with A549/DDP cells, A549/DDP cells transfected with shRNA-NC or A549/DDP cells transfected with sh- CCAT2. DDP was intraperitoneally injected at the concentration of 2 mg per kilogram of mice body weight totally for 7 times with an interval of 3 d. A control group was injected subcutaneously with A549/DDP cells, and an equal volume of normal saline instead of DDP was injected intraperitoneally. The tumor volume was detected every 5 d for a total of 30 d. Mice were sacrificed and tumor tissues were taken out 30 d later. CCAT2 mRNA expression level in tumor tissues was detected by RT-PCR, and tumor cell apoptosis was detected by TUNEL staining. Results: Compared with the control group and the shRNA-NC transfection group, the expression level of CCAT2 mRNA was decreased in sh- CCAT2 transfected A549/DDP cells ( P<0.01). The decrease degree of cell proliferation was more pronounced after treating with 2 to 8 mg/L of DDP ( P<0.01). Compared with the control group, in the three groups that treated with DDP, the formation of clones and the expression of proliferation marker proteins Ki67 and PCNA were reduce ( P<0.01), while the rate of apoptosis and the expression of apoptosis marker proteins Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 were increased ( P<0.01). Also, the number of invasion cell and the expression of invasion marker proteins VEGF and MMP-14 were reduced in the three groups that treated with DDP ( P<0.01). Among the three groups of DDP-treated cells, the changes in sh- CCAT2 transfected cells was the most obvious ( P<0.01). Compared with the control group, the tumor volume of the three DDP treatment groups was smaller and the differences were statistically significant at 30 d ( P<0.01). The expression of CCAT2 mRNA was decreased in tumor tissues ( P<0.01), while apoptosis increased ( P<0.01). Among the three DDP treatment groups, the A549/DDP cell group transfected with sh- CCAT2 showed the most notable changes ( P<0.01). Conclusion: sh- CCAT2 can inhibit the proliferation of A549/DDP cells, induce apoptosis and reduce the cell invasion ability, thereby inhibiting the growth of A549/DDP cells.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias do Colo , Neoplasias Pulmonares , RNA Interferente Pequeno , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , RNA Longo não Codificante , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética
11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1066, 2020 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32103013

RESUMO

Around 70 Mha of land cover changes (LCCs) occurred in Europe from 1992 to 2015. Despite LCCs being an important driver of regional climate variations, their temperature effects at a continental scale have not yet been assessed. Here, we integrate maps of historical LCCs with a regional climate model to investigate air temperature and humidity effects. We find an average temperature change of -0.12 ± 0.20 °C, with widespread cooling (up to -1.0 °C) in western and central Europe in summer and spring. At continental scale, the mean cooling is mainly correlated with agriculture abandonment (cropland-to-forest transitions), but a new approach based on ridge-regression decomposing the temperature change to the individual land transitions shows opposite responses to cropland losses and gains between western and eastern Europe. Effects of historical LCCs on European climate are non-negligible and region-specific, and ignoring land-climate biophysical interactions may lead to sub-optimal climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies.

12.
Environ Res ; 182: 109009, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846896

RESUMO

Watersheds are coupled with human-water systems where human, and water resources interact and coevolve with each other. Restoration management not only affects the ecosystem itself but also alters the mutual feedback relationship between humans and water, resulting in additional effects and impeding the ecological restoration process. Taking the lower reaches of the Heihe River as an example (Inner Mongolia, PR China), this study investigated the evolution of the human-water system after the implementation of ecological water conveyance using multiple data sources (e.g., remote sensing data, hydrological data, field data and socioeconomic data). We found that (1) after the implementation of ecological water conveyance, vegetation recovered in the last 15 years with an NDVI increasing from 0.10 to 0.13 across the region except some degraded areas near the river; (2) besides restoring the target ecosystem, ecological water conveyance also promoted socioeconomic development and affected the water resources utilization; (3) after 15 years' water conveyance, the coupled human-water system changed from the early ecological water deficit to the present ecological-socioeconomic water-use trade-off with negative impact resulted from agriculture expansion and water usage conflict between the middle and the lower reaches. These effects impeded the restoration of the ecological environment and aggravated the conflicts of water resources utilization within the whole Heihe watershed, consistent with of the hypothesized disturbance effect transmutation. Our results highlighted that analysis on the mutual feedback effect in the coupled human-water system, and dynamic adjustments for restoration measures are needed for sustainable watershed management.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Recursos Hídricos , Água , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Humanos , Rios
13.
J Environ Manage ; 251: 109615, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581043

RESUMO

Rapid environment change and urbanization process have profoundly altered the socio-ecological relationships and influenced on how local residents perceive ecosystem services (ES) and human well-being (HW). However, the quantified socio-cultural valuation of rural-urban comparison is still insufficient. In this study, we investigated the perception on provisioning, regulating, and cultural ES importance and HW satisfaction degree of basic materials, health, security, and social relations. Subsequently, we explored the linkages between and within ES and HW by face-to-face interviews with urban and rural residents. The results showed that rural residents valued more genetic resources, flood regulation, erosion regulation, and aesthetics ES, while urban residents gave high importance to wood & fiber ES. Overall, urban residents valued provisioning ES, while rural residents valued regulating ES. No difference was observed in cultural ES. For HW, rural residents felt more satisfied with security and health, while urban residents were more satisfied with basic materials. We observed strong relationships among provisioning and regulating ES in rural and urban communities, and the same was observed as in health and security HW. Principal component analysis (PCA) results showed the different variable associations in rural ES and urban HW as well as different groups in urban ES and rural HW. Through confirmation factor analysis (CFA), we screened out freshwater, water purification, air purification, and cultural value as dominant ES indicators for rural and urban population according to the framework of Millennium Ecosystem Assessment in Yanhe watershed. The assessment of people's perception can contribute to the integration of socio-cultural values into the policymaking process.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , China , Ecologia , Humanos , População Rural
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 697: 134103, 2019 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476500

RESUMO

The thinking of landscape sustainability discussed the win-win goal of landscape management for both ecological conservation and social development. The China-proposed Belt and Road Initiative has a pathway of green development towards sustainability, which could be benefited from a corporation on transnational landscape management. Although previous remote sensing observations showed that the ecosystem improvement and social development can coexist in most of the Belt and Road region, whether the change tendencies can be sustained have been neglected. Based on the continuous vegetation index, nighttime light and landcover datasets between 1980s-2010s, a detailed observation of the landscape evolution was obtained in this study. Depending on the identifications of temporal breakpoints, the time series was separated to identify the former and latter tendencies, and the evolution score were evaluated. The results showed that the vegetation greening trend weakened in nearly half of the region, and the arid region mostly experienced vegetation browning lately. The evolution patterns of ecological landscape and social landscape were coincided distributed in China and India, and in Southeast Asia was not scored high for both ecological conservation and social development. Consequently, we should not be overly optimistic about the synergy between ecosystem improvement and social development.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Ecossistema , Mudança Social , Transportes , Ecologia
15.
J Environ Manage ; 249: 109315, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442906

RESUMO

The perspective of ecosystem services bundle is virtually a spatial clustering on landscape to mapping the relationship between ecosystem services and support the spatial strategy of landscape management. However, the efficiency of various clustering algorithms for geographically different regions are still in obscurity. In this study, we provided landscape functional zoning as a planning tool based on the ecosystem services bundles formed by carbon sequestration, soil retention and water yield. Then we used four landscape pattern indices to evaluate the performance of six clustering algorithms on landscape functional zoning. The case counties include Lankao, Jinggangshan and Luquan in China. The results showed the Natural Breaks (Jenks) scheme should be the most reasonable zone because of its high aggregated distribution and low diversity. This scheme was adjusted using some other schemes and has been employed as the final 7 kinds of zoning types. There were 5 types appeared in Lankao and Jinggangshan, and 6 types appeared in Luquan. We discussed that landscape functional zone can be a nexus connecting landscape planning and social policy. Rural reconstructing process on landscape was depicted, and landscape functional zone was proposed a practical planning tool bridged human wellbeing. The task of landscape functional zoning with the management indications may provide interdisciplinary support to decision-makers and natural resource users on landscape management.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Algoritmos , China , Planejamento de Cidades , Humanos
16.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 9707, 2019 07 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273266

RESUMO

The streamflow of major global rivers changes under the influences of climate change and human activities and varies greatly in different regions. The Yellow River has undergone a dramatic shift during the last six decades. Its streamflow gradually dwindled away and even dried-up severely in the late 20th century, but in recent years it has recovered and remains stable. Comprehensive understanding of the river streamflow change and its driving forces promotes effective water resource management within this complex human-natural system. Here, we develop a runoff identity attribution approach to analyze 61 years of streamflow observations from the Yellow River. We find that between the 1950s and the 1980s, human water consumption contributed more than 90% to streamflow reduction, but from the 1970s onwards, land cover change became the major factor to decrease streamflow. Since 2000, government management schemes have prevented streamflow from declining further and guarantee its stability. Based on the analysis framework we propose, persistent droughts, which are related to abrupt streamflow abatement, may be the most uncontrollable factor in the future. A more resilient management system should be therefore built to grapple with the expected increased frequency of such extreme climate events in the future.

17.
Sci Total Environ ; 648: 943-954, 2019 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30144762

RESUMO

In the context of global climate change as well as local climate warming and drying on the Loess Plateau of China, understanding the relationship between soil particle size and soil water distribution during years of atypical precipitation is important. In this study, fractal geometry theory is used to describe the mechanical composition and texture of soils to improve our understanding of hydropedology and ecohydrology in the critical zone on the Loess Plateau. One grassland slope and two shrubland slopes were selected in the hilly and gully region of the Loess Plateau, and soils were sampled along hillslope transects at depths of 0-500 cm. Fractal theory and redundancy analysis (RDA) were used to identify relationships between the fractal dimension of soil particle-size distributions and the corresponding van Genuchten parameters for the soil-water-characteristic curves. The oven-drying method was used to measure soil water content, and the high-speed centrifugation method was used to generate soil-water-characteristic curves. The results show that (1) the soil water that can be used by Caragana korshinskii during a drought year is distributed below 2 m from the surface, whereas the soil water that can be used by grass is below 1.2 m; (2) Caragana korshinskii promotes the conservation of fine soil particles more than does natural restored grass, and the soil particle-size distribution fractal dimension changes with depth and position; and (3) soil hydraulic properties correlate strongly with soil pedological properties such as bulk density and the soil particle-size distribution fractal dimension. These results provide a case study of the relationships among soil distributions, hydrologic and geomorphic processes for vegetation restoration in drylands with a thick vadose zone. More studies on soil property changes are needed to provide case studies and empirical support for ecological restoration in the Loess Plateau of China.

18.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(7): 6937-6947, 2019 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30525422

RESUMO

Spinel cathode materials (e.g., LiMn2O4 and LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4) with strongly bonded surface coatings are desirable for delivering improved electrochemical performance in long-term cycling. Here, we report that the introduction of bridging ions such as Fe and Co, which can diffuse into both the spinel cathode materials and Li3PO4, the latter is found to cover the spinel surface in the form of dense and uniform particles (∼2-3 nm). Detailed structural analysis of the surface reveals that the bridging ions diffuse into the 16c site of the spinel structure to form ion-doped spinel cathode materials, which contribute to the formation of strong bonds between the surface and Li3PO4, possibly via spinel-(surface bridging ions)-Li3PO4 bonds. The critical role of the surface bridging ions is further investigated by heating the as-formed Li3PO4-coated spinel cathode materials (with bridging ions) to high temperatures, resulting in further diffusion of bringing ions from the surface to the interior of the spinel materials and consequently depletion of the surface spinel-(surface bridging ions)-Li3PO4 bonds. This leads to the gradual growth of surface Li3PO4 particles (∼20 nm) and the exposure of the spinel surface.

19.
Sci Total Environ ; 651(Pt 1): 979-989, 2019 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30257235

RESUMO

Large-scale vegetation restoration has important impacts on plant species diversity, which then influences plant community stability and resilience. The purpose of this paper is to compare the diversity of plantations as well as the diversity of artificially restored and naturally restored grasslands under different years of recovery and to identify the plots with the highest species diversity by vegetation type and restoration duration to determine strategies for vegetation restoration in hilly and gully regions of the Loess Plateau. Stands of Robinia pseudoacacia and Caragana korshinskii of different ages (10, 20, 30 and 40 years old) in the Danangou catchment on the Loess Plateau of China were selected as a case study to analysis effects of afforestation on the structure and function of ecosystems. The results showed that (1) under different numbers of years of recovery, the species diversity of woodland changes with changes in the coverage of woody plants, and the species diversity of R. pseudoacacia plantations planted on sunny slopes and R. pseudoacacia and C. korshinskii plantations planted on shady slopes reaches its maximum when coverage reaches a minimum value after 20 and 30 years of recovery, respectively; (2) soil moisture (in both shallow and deep layers) is the key factor controlling species diversity in woodlands, as the soil moisture changes with the coverage of woody plants following different numbers of years of recovery, which then influences the species diversity; (3) compared to the woodlands, the natural grassland exhibited higher species diversity under all recovery duration. Therefore, natural recovery is recommended if only species diversity is considered rather than human demand for wood, but if demand for materials is considered, we recommend thinning R. pseudoacacia on sunny and shady slopes at the ages of 10-20 and 10-30 years, respectively.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , China , Ecossistema
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 648: 285-292, 2019 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30118941

RESUMO

With the proliferation of woody plant species in much of the world's grasslands, human has manipulated landscape fire to return their forage provisioning service. Yet other ecosystem services (e.g., carbon sequestration, biodiversity conservation, erosion control) in the post-managed areas compared to those previously available in the shrub-encroached area are largely unknown, including trade-offs between ecosystem services. Using data from previous publications, we quantitatively synthesized the sustainability of fire as shrub management practice, expressed as its efficacy to control shrubs and its capacity to maintain different ecosystem services. A simple indicator (δ), defined as the ratio of an observed ecological attribute between area experiencing shrub management and untreated control, was used to quantify the changes. Our results showed that fire could be an effective strategy to control shrubs and to increase forage provisioning service (δherbaceous biomass = 1.39). However, there are possible trade-offs with other ecosystem services (e.g., erosion control, nutrient cycling) when a 54% increase in bare soil cover (δbare soil = 1.54) and ~74% loss of biological soil crusts cover (δbiological crust = 0.26) were found. Because increasing forage provisioning at the cost of other ecosystem services might not be sustainable, management should focus on strategies to minimize such trade-offs, which may include but not limited to rotational grazing, adjustment in stocking rate, or supplementary external inputs (e.g., fertilizer). Unless those measures are employed, there is possible emergence of a novel crash (i.e., vegetation- and resource-poor scabland) resulting from a combination of soil erosion and high vulnerability of burnt landscape to exotic species invasion.

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