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1.
J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces ; 127(1): 125-132, 2023 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36660092

RESUMO

Li3YX6 (X = Cl, Br) materials are Li-ion conductors that can be used as solid electrolytes in all solid-state batteries. Solid electrolytes ideally have high ionic conductivity and (electro)chemical compatibility with the electrodes. It was proven that introducing Br to Li3YCl6 increases ionic conductivity but, according to thermodynamic calculations, should also reduce oxidative stability. In this paper, the trade-off between ionic conductivity and electrochemical stability in Li3YBr x Cl6-x halogen-substituted compounds is investigated. The compositions of Li3YBr1.5Cl4.5 and Li3YBr4.5Cl1.5 are reported for the first time, along with a consistent analysis of the whole Li3YBr x Cl6-x (x = 0-6) tie-line. The results show that, while Br-rich materials are more conductive (5.36 × 10-3 S/cm at 30 °C for x = 4.5), the oxidative stability is lower (∼3 V compared to ∼3.5 V). Small Br content (x = 1.5) does not affect oxidative stability but substantially increases ionic conductivity compared to pristine Li3YCl6 (2.1 compared to 0.049 × 10-3 S/cm at 30 °C). This work highlights that optimization of substitutions in the anion framework provide prolific and rational avenues for tailoring the properties of solid electrolytes.

2.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 1055996, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36458193

RESUMO

Although considerable interest in metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) has been attracted in recent years, limited data are available regarding the performance of mNGS in HIV-associated central nervous system (CNS) infection. Here, we conducted a retrospectively analyzing of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) mNGS reports and other clinical data from 80 HIV-infected patients admitted to the Second Hospital of Nanjing, China from March, 2018 to March, 2022. In our study, CSF mNGS reported negative result, mono-infection, and mixed infection in 8.8, 36.2, and 55% of the patients, respectively. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), positive in 52.5% of samples, was the most commonly reported pathogen, followed by cytomegalovirus (CMV), John Cunningham virus (JCV), torque teno virus (TTV), cryptococcus neoformans (CN), toxoplasma Gondii (TE), and mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). 76.2% of the EBV identification and 54.2% of the CMV identification were not considered clinically important, and relative less sequence reads were reported in the clinical unimportant identifications. The clinical importance of the presence of TTV in CSF was not clear. Detection of JCV, CN, or TE was 100% suggestive of specific CNS infection, however, 60% of the MTB reports were considered contamination. Moreover, of the 44 (55%) mixed infections reported by mNGS, only 4 (5%) were considered clinical important, and mNGS failed to identify one mixed infection. Additionally, except for MTB, CSF mNGS tended to have high sensitivity to identify the above-mentioned pathogens (almost with 100% sensitivity). Even all the diagnostic strategies were evaluated, the cause of neurological symptoms remained undetermined in 6 (7.5%) patients. Overall, our results suggest that mNGS is a very sensitive tool for detecting common opportunistic CNS pathogen in HIV-infected patients, although its performance in CNS tuberculosis is unsatisfactory. EBV and CMV are commonly detected by CSF mNGS, however, the threshold of a clinical important detection remains to be defined.

3.
Anal Chem ; 94(51): 17913-17921, 2022 12 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36519957

RESUMO

Nonlinearity of electroosmotic flows (EOFs) is ubiquitous and plays a crucial role in ion transport, specimen mixing, electrochemistry reaction, and electric energy storage and utilization. When and how the transition from a linear regime to a nonlinear one occurs is essential for understanding, prohibiting, or utilizing nonlinear EOF. However, due to the lack of reliable experimental instruments with high spatial and temporal resolutions, the investigation of the onset of nonlinear EOF still remains in theory. Herein, we experimentally studied the velocity fluctuations of EOFs driven by an alternating current (AC) electric field via ultrasensitive fluorescent blinking tricks. The linear and nonlinear AC EOFs are successfully identified from both the time trace and energy spectra of velocity fluctuations. The transitional electric field (EA,C) is determined by both the convection velocity (U) and AC frequency (ff) as EA,C ∼ ff0.48-0.027U. We hope the current investigation could be essential in the development of both theory and applications of nonlinear EOFs.


Assuntos
Eletricidade , Eletro-Osmose , Eletroquímica , Transporte de Íons
4.
Eur J Med Chem ; 244: 114874, 2022 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36332551

RESUMO

Transforming acidic coiled coil containing protein 3 (TACC3) is emerging as an attractive anticancer target in recent years, however, few TACC3 small-molecular inhibitors have been reported up to now. In this study, fifteen compounds were designed and synthesized based on the lead compound KHS101 to find more potent TACC3 inhibitors. Among them, the most potent compound 7g exhibited about 10-folds more potent antiproliferative activities than KHS101 in various cancer cell lines. Two different protein-drug binding assays including DARTS, and CETSA revealed TACC3 as a biologically relevant target of compound 7g. In addition, compound 7g induced cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and induced cell apoptosis. Furthermore, compound 7g depolarized the MMP and induced ROS generation in a dose-dependent manner in U87 cells. More importantly, 7g reduced tumor weight by 72.7% in U87 xenograft model at a dose of 20 mg/kg/day without obvious toxicity. Altogether, compound 7g deserved further investigations as a novel, safe and efficacious TACC3 inhibitor for the treatment of GBM.


Assuntos
Glioblastoma , Humanos , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos , Tiazóis/farmacologia , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular
5.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 7088, 2022 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36400780

RESUMO

A reaction intermediate is a key molecular entity that has been used in explaining how starting materials converts into the final products in the reaction, and it is usually unstable, highly reactive, and short-lived. Extensive efforts have been devoted in identifying and characterizing such species via advanced physico-chemical analytical techniques. As an appealing alternative, trapping experiments are powerful tools in this field. This trapping strategy opens an opportunity to discover multicomponent reactions. In this work, we report various highly diastereoselective and enantioselective four-component reactions (containing alcohols, diazoesters, enamines/indoles and aldehydes) which involve the coupling of in situ generated intermediates (iminium and enol). The reaction conditions presented herein to produce over 100 examples of four-component reaction products proceed under mild reaction conditions and show high functional group tolerance to a broad range of substrates. Based on experimental and computational analyses, a plausible mechanism of this multicomponent reaction is proposed.


Assuntos
Álcoois , Aldeídos , Estereoisomerismo , Álcoois/química , Indóis
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 248: 114284, 2022 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36395653

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Associations of air pollution with anxiety and depression were found in previous studies. However, whether air pollution exposure during pregnancy contributes to prenatal anxiety and depression or not is under-investigated. In this study, we aimed to analyze associations between fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure with anxiety and depression during pregnancy and to explore the critical window of PM2.5 exposure. METHODS: This study was based on the Shanghai Maternal-Child Pairs Cohort (Shanghai MCPC). We used a gap-filling random forest model to estimate PM2.5 exposure concentration during pregnancy of each participant. The Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) and the Center for Epidemiological Survey-Depression Scale (CES-D) were used to quantify the anxiety and depression levels in late pregnancy. Covariate information was obtained from medical records and questionnaires. We performed generalized linear regression and logistic regression models to assess the association and the critical window. RESULTS: Totally 3731 pregnant women were included, with the age of 28.85 ± 3.97 years old. Anxiety and depression rates were 10.8 % and 11.5 % respectively, according to the cut-off value of SAS and CES-D. Generalized linear regression results showed that the increase of PM2.5 concentration in three stages (gestational 0-13 weeks, 0-26 weeks, 0-36 weeks) was related to the increase of scale score. The PM2.5 concentration in 0-13 weeks could increase the risk of anxiety and depression by approximately 23 % and 25 %, respectively. And the gestational weeks 4th-13th were the suspicious critical window of PM2.5 exposure. CONCLUSION: The increased risk of anxiety or depression was related to PM2.5 exposure during pregnancy, especially early pregnancy.


Assuntos
Depressão , Gestantes , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Depressão/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Vitaminas , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos
7.
J Psychosom Res ; 163: 111069, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36335711

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between the tryptophan-kynurenine (TRP-KYN) pathway and painful physical symptoms (PPS) in major depressive disorder (MDD). METHODS: Eighty-four patients with MDD (40 patients with PPS and 44 without PPS) and forty-six healthy controls (HC) were recruited. The serum levels of tryptophan (TRP), kynurenine(KYN), kynurenic acid (KA), quinolinic acid (QA), 3-hydroxy-kynurenine (3-HK), serotonin (5-HT) were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Depression, anxiety and pain were assessed using Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD), Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) and Short-form McGill pain questionnaire (SFMPQ) respectively. RESULTS: Patients in the MDD group exhibited significantly lower KA and 5-HT levels than HC, whereas MDD patients with PPS showed higher KYN and QA levels, and a higher KYN/TRP ratio than those without. There was a positive correlation between the scores of SFMPQ and QA levels and a negative correlation between the scores of SFMPQ and TRP levels or KA/QA ratios in MDD patients with PPS group. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that the KYN/TRP ratios, the KA/QA ratios, and the HAMD scores were significant predictor factors for SFMPQ scores. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrated that the TRP-KYN pathway may play a role in the pathophysiology of pain in patients with major depressive disorder, suggesting that further studies of this pathway as a potential biomarker or therapeutic target are required.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Cinurenina , Humanos , Cinurenina/metabolismo , Triptofano/metabolismo , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/complicações , Serotonina , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Ácido Cinurênico , Ácido Quinolínico , Dor
8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17424, 2022 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36261577

RESUMO

Ambrosia artemisiifolia and Ambrosia trifida are annual invasive plants that cause serious harm to agriculture, animal husbandry, and human health. Based on the important characteristic of high-density, cluster distribution of their populations, it is speculated that its autotoxins have an effect on density regulation. This study explored the regulation of autotoxicity on intraspecific density. We used water extracts from two plants to compare and verify the autotoxicity of seed germination, analysed the components of autotoxins. The results showed that A. artemisiifolia and A. trifida had significant autotoxicity, and the highest inhibition rates on seed germination were 27.21% and 77.94%, respectively; ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis revealed that chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, and vanillin were the main autotoxins of the two plants. After the seeds were washed with water, the germination recovery rate of seeds increased with the increased of inhibition degree of autotoxins treatment. Therefore, this study verified the autotoxicity of A. artemisiifolia and A. trifida, which can promote and inhibit the seed germination of A. artemisiifolia and A. trifida to regulate intraspecific competition.


Assuntos
Ambrosia , Ácido Clorogênico , Humanos , Ácido Clorogênico/farmacologia , Germinação , Sementes/fisiologia , Água/farmacologia
9.
Nano Lett ; 22(18): 7441-7448, 2022 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36099337

RESUMO

Rashba spin-orbit coupling (SOC) could facilitate an efficient interconversion between spin and charge currents. Among various systems, BiTeI holds one of the largest Rashba-type spin splittings. Unlike other Rashba systems (e.g., Bi/Ag and Bi2Se3), an experimental investigation of the spin-to-charge interconversion in BiTeI remains to be explored. Through performing an angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) measurement, such a large Rashba-type spin splitting with a Rashba parameter αR = 3.68 eV Å is directly identified. By studying the spin pumping effect in the BiTeI/NiFe bilayer, we reveal a very large inverse Rashba-Edelstein length λIREE ≈ 1.92 nm of BiTeI at room temperature. Furthermore, the λIREE monotonously increases to 5.00 nm at 60 K, indicating an enhanced Rashba SOC at low temperature. These results suggest that BiTeI films with the giant Rashba SOC are promising for achieving efficient spin-to-charge interconversion, which could be implemented for building low-power-consumption spin-orbitronic devices.

10.
Front Neurol ; 13: 922823, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35968310

RESUMO

Introduction: Post-stroke fatigue (PSF) is a common complication in the patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). This prospective study aimed to investigate the relationship between red blood cell distribution width (RDW) at admission and PSF in the acute phase. Methods: The AIS patients were enrolled in Nantong Third People's Hospital, consecutively. PSF in the acute phase was scored according to the Fatigue Severity Scale. Levels of RDW were measured at admission. The associations were analyzed using multivariate regression and restricted cubic splines (RCS). Results: From April 2021 to March 2022, a total of 206 AIS patients (mean age, 69.3 ± 10.7 years; 52.9% men) were recruited. After the adjustment for potential confounding factors, RDW at admission remained the independent associated factor with PSF in the acute phase (OR [odds ratio], 1.635; 95% CI [confidence interval], 1.153-2.318; P = 0.006). The linear dose-response associations of RDW with PSF in the acute phase were found, based on the RCS model (P for non-linearity = 0.372; P for linearity = 0.037). These results remained significant in other models. Conclusions: RDW at admission could serve as a novel biomarker of PSF in the acute phase of AIS.

11.
Animals (Basel) ; 12(15)2022 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35953969

RESUMO

Camera traps are widely used in wildlife research, conservation, and management, and abundant images are acquired every day. Efficient real-time instance segmentation networks can help ecologists label and study wild animals. However, existing deep convolutional neural networks require a large number of annotations and labels, which makes them unsuitable for small datasets. In this paper, we propose a two-stage method for the instance segmentation of wildlife, including object detection and contour approximation. In the object detection stage, we use FSOD (few-shot object detection) to recognize animal species and detect the initial bounding boxes of animals. In the case of a small wildlife dataset, this method may improve the generalization ability of the wild animal species recognition and even identify new species that only have a small number of training samples. In the second stage, deep snake is used as the contour approximation model for the instance segmentation of wild mammals. The initial bounding boxes generated in the first stage are input to deep snake to approximate the contours of the animal bodies. The model fuses the advantages of detecting new species and real-time instance segmentation. The experimental results show that the proposed method is more suitable for wild animal instance segmentation, in comparison with pixel-wise segmentation methods. In particular, the proposed method shows a better performance when facing challenging images.

12.
Nano Lett ; 22(15): 6320-6327, 2022 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35894743

RESUMO

Ultrathin films of intrinsic magnetic topological insulator MnBi2Te4 exhibit fascinating quantum properties such as the quantum anomalous Hall effect and the axion insulator state. In this work, we systematically investigate the evolution of the electronic structure of MnBi2Te4 thin films. With increasing film thickness, the electronic structure changes from an insulator type with a large energy gap to one with in-gap topological surface states, which is, however, still in drastic contrast to the bulk material. By surface doping of alkali-metal atoms, a Rashba split band gradually emerges and hybridizes with topological surface states, which not only reconciles the puzzling difference between the electronic structures of the bulk and thin-film MnBi2Te4 but also provides an interesting platform to establish Rashba ferromagnet that is attractive for (quantum) anomalous Hall effect. Our results provide important insights into the understanding and engineering of the intriguing quantum properties of MnBi2Te4 thin films.

13.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 14(13): 5464-5477, 2022 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35802536

RESUMO

Medulloblastoma (MB) is a malignant tumor in the fourth ventricle of children. The clinical treatment is mainly surgical resection combined with radiotherapy and chemotherapy, but the curative effect is not ideal, and the 3-year survival rate is very low. Previous study confirmed that curcumin attenuated the proliferation of medulloblastoma both in vitro and in vivo. In present study, we found a curcumin analogue named BDDD-721, exhibited more potent anti-tumor activity than curcumin. Compared with curcumin, BDDD-721 more effectively inhibited the proliferation, migration, invasion, and increased apoptosis of medulloblastoma cells. Furthermore, BDDD-721 treatment led to activation of glioma-associated oncogene homolog (Gli), reduced expression of Shh and its downstream target Smo, Gli1 and Ptch1. In addition, SAG (Shh signaling pathway agonist) antagonized the pro-apoptotic effects of BDDD-721 on medulloblastomas as confirmed by CCK8 assays and flow cytometry; while cyclopamine (Shh signaling pathway inhibitor) enhanced its effects on medulloblastomas. In conclusion, these results indicate that curcumin analogue BDDD-721 has more potent anticancer effects than curcumin on medulloblastomas by targeting Shh/Gli1 signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Cerebelares , Curcumina , Meduloblastoma , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias Cerebelares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cerebelares/patologia , Curcumina/farmacologia , Curcumina/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo , Humanos , Meduloblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Meduloblastoma/patologia , Transdução de Sinais , Proteína GLI1 em Dedos de Zinco/genética , Proteína GLI1 em Dedos de Zinco/metabolismo
14.
Front Plant Sci ; 13: 861806, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35646043

RESUMO

Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) is an invasive annual weed that invades heavily disturbed habitats and natural habitats less disturbed by human activities with native plant species in need of protection. Achieving effective control of A. artemisiifolia for the protection of native organisms and the local ecological environment is an ongoing challenge. Based on the growth and development characteristics of A. artemisiifolia, we examined the effectiveness of herbicides in controlling this species and the optimal time for application in the field with the aim of reducing herbicide dosage. Additionally, we analyzed whether the efficiency of low-dose applications for controlling this species might improve with increasing native plant species richness. Our findings indicate that aminopyralid (33 g ai ha-1) was the most suitable herbicide for chemical control of A. artemisiifolia, with optimum application time being during vegetative growth (BBCH 32-35). Application of aminopyralid was found to kill approximately 52% of A. artemisiifolia plants, and more than 75% of the surviving plants did not bloom, thereby reducing seed yield of the population by more than 90%. Compared with the application of high-dose herbicide, the phytotoxicity of aminopyralid to native plants at the applied dose was substantially reduced. After 2 years of application, the relative coverage of A. artemisiifolia significantly decreased, with few plants remaining, whereas the relative coverage of native plants more than doubled, representing an eco-friendly control. Further, there was an increase in the A. artemisiifolia control rate in the plant community with higher native plant species richness at the same herbicide rates and a reduction in seed yield of A. artemisiifolia. Our findings help toward developing control measures to reduce the invasiveness of A. artemisiifolia with low-dose herbicides meanwhile protecting native plants, and then using the species richness of native plant communities to indirectly promote the effectiveness of low-dose herbicide application.

15.
J Environ Manage ; 317: 115468, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35660828

RESUMO

Giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida L.), an invasive weed, has an expanding distribution area and has recently started to spread in grasslands. This unusual event threatens grasslands worldwide. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the changes in the grassland soil seed banks caused by the giant ragweed invasion in Yili Valley, Xinjiang, China. Using the space-for-time substitution approach, we compared and quantified the soil seed bank communities in a grassland over eight years following giant ragweed invasion and after its removal. The results showed that the duration of invasion determined whether giant ragweed might pose a significant threat to the native seed bank community. Four years after the invasion, the in-site seed bank density of native community significantly decreased (30.44%), while the relative coverage of giant ragweed aboveground reached 83.75%. Furthermore, the species richness in the seed bank decreased significantly (12.36%), while the relative coverage of giant ragweed reached 100% six years after the invasion. Eight years after the invasion, the seed bank density and species richness of the native community decreased by 83.28% and 39.33%, respectively, whereby the seed banks tended to be homogeneous. After the removal of giant ragweed, the potential for regeneration was limited by the residual seed bank densities of the native community. Although the native seed bank density had increased significantly after three years of restoration, new growth was dominated by weedy species, rather than by the distinctive components of the grassland habitat. Our study clarifies the process by which giant ragweed causes damage to grasslands and serves as a reference for grassland restoration and management efforts.


Assuntos
Banco de Sementes , Solo , Ambrosia , Ecossistema , Pradaria , Sementes
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 841: 156747, 2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35716750

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Prenatal fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure has been linked to adverse neurodevelopment. However, epidemiological evidence remains inconclusive and little information about the effects of various PM2.5 components on child neurodevelopment is currently known. The underlying mechanism was also not elucidated. The study aimed to evaluate the effects of PM2.5 and components exposure on child neurodevelopmental delays and the role of placental small extracellular vesicles (sEVs)-derived miRNAs in the associations. METHODS: We included 267 mother-child pairs in this analysis. Prenatal PM2.5 and components (i.e. elements, water-soluble ions, and PAHs) exposure during three trimesters were monitored through personal PM2.5 sampling. Child neurodevelopment at 2, 6, and 12 months old were evaluated by Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ). We isolated sEVs from placental tissue to analyze the change of sEVs-derived miRNAs in response to PM2.5. Associations between the PM2.5-associated miRNAs and child neurodevelopment were evaluated using multivariate linear regression models. RESULTS: The PM2.5 exposure levels in the three trimesters range from 2.51 to 185.21 µg/m3. Prenatal PM2.5 and the components of Pb, Al, V and Ti exposure in the second and third trimester were related to decreased ASQ scores communication, problem-solving and personal-social domains in children aged 2 or 6 months. RNA sequencing identified fifteen differentially expressed miRNAs. The miR-101-3p and miR-520d-5p were negatively associated with PM2.5 and Pb component. miR-320a-3p expression was positively associated with PM2.5 and V component. Meanwhile, the miR-320a-3p was associated with decreased ASQ scores, as reflected by ASQ-T (ß: -2.154, 95 % CI: -4.313, -0.516) and problem-solving domain (ß: -0.605, 95 % CI: -1.111, -0.099) in children aged 6 months. CONCLUSION: Prenatal exposure to PM2.5 and its Pb, Al, V & Ti component were associated with infant neurodevelopmental delays. The placenta sEVs derived miRNAs, especially miR-320a-3p, might contribute to an increased risk of neurodevelopmental delays.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Vesículas Extracelulares , MicroRNAs , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Vesículas Extracelulares/química , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Chumbo/análise , Exposição Materna , MicroRNAs/genética , Material Particulado/análise , Placenta/química , Gravidez
18.
Environ Pollut ; 307: 119481, 2022 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35597481

RESUMO

Early pregnancy is crucial for fetal growth. Maternal thyroid hormone is critical for fetal growth and can be disturbed under exogenous exposure. However, it's uncertain whether exposure to PM2.5 and inorganic constituents during early pregnancy can affect TH and fetal growth. We focused on the associations of early-pregnancy PM2.5 and inorganic constituents with fetal growth and maternal THs. PM2.5 concentration was estimated using a satellite-based spatiotemporal model. Fetal biparietal diameter (BPD), head circumference (HC), femur length (FL), and humerus length (HL) were measured by ultrasonography at median 15.6, 22.2, and 33.1 gestational weeks. Levels of 28 PM2.5 constituents were measured in a sub-group of 329 pregnancies. Maternal serum free thyroxine (fT4), free triiodothyronine, and thyroid-stimulating hormone levels were measured at 14 weeks of gestation. Mixed-effect models and multiple linear regression were applied to evaluate the associations of PM2.5 and its constituents with fetal growth measures. Mediation analysis was used to examine the mediating role of the THs. Results showed that each 10 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was associated with 0.20 mm reductions in BPD (95%CI: 0.33, -0.01), 0.27 mm decreases in FL (95%CI: 0.40, -0.13), and 0.36 decreases in HL (95%CI: 0.49, -0.23). Per 10 µg/m3 increment in PM2.5 was correlated with 5.82% decreases in the fT4 level (95% CI: 8.61%, -2.96%). FT4 accounted for 14.3% of PM2.5 exposure-induced change in BPD at first follow-up. Al (ß = -2.91, 95%CI: 5.17, -0.66), Si (ß = -1.20, 95%CI: 2.22, -0.19), K (ß = -3.09, 95%CI: 5.41, -0.77), Mn (ß = -47.20, 95%CI: 83.68, -10.79) and Zn (ß = -3.02, 95%CI: 5.55, -0.49) were associated with decreased fetal BPD, especially in first follow-up. Zn (ß = -38.12%, 95% CI: 58.52%, -8.61%) was also associated with decreased fT4 levels. Overall, early pregnancy exposure to PM2.5 and its constituents was associated with fetal growth restriction and decreased maternal fT4 levels might mediate the effect of PM2.5.


Assuntos
Material Particulado , Glândula Tireoide , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Humanos , Exposição Materna , Material Particulado/análise , Gravidez , Hormônios Tireóideos
19.
J Psychosom Res ; 157: 110787, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35344817

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is underscored by daytime dysfunction-associated features, including mood disturbances, impaired cognition, fatigue, and daytime sleepiness. Importantly, the gut-brain axis may represent a potential mechanistic link between MDD and daytime dysfunction. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the gut microbiome composition and daytime dysfunction in Chinese patients with MDD. METHODS: We enrolled 36 patients with MDD and 45 healthy controls (HCs) matched by age, sex, and body mass index (BMI). Daytime function including emotion, fatigue, and sleepiness were assessed using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA), and Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD). 16S rRNA sequencing was employed to characterize the gut microbiota in stool samples. RESULTS: The operational taxonomic units (OTUs) OTU255, OUT363 were positively correlated with HAMD and HAMA. OTU244, OTU542 and OTU221 were positively correlated with ESS, HAMD and HAMA. OTU725 and OTU80 were positively correlated with FSS, ESS, HAMD and HAMA, while OTU423 and OTU502 were negatively correlated with all above. Flavonifractor positively correlated with fatigue in patients with MDD and all individuals simultaneously. The correlation between gut microbiome and daytime function was different in MDD and HCs. CONCLUSIONS: We identified several OTUs associated with the severity of fatigue, depression, daytime sleepiness and anxiety in all individuals. Our results revealed the differences in microbiome found between patients with MDD and HCs. These findings provide insights into the potential microbiota changes that occur in MDD, and will enable the development of specific therapeutic strategies for targeting the various symptoms of depression.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Distúrbios do Sono por Sonolência Excessiva , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , China , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Fadiga , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Sonolência
20.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 963, 2022 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35181649

RESUMO

In low-dimensional systems with strong electronic correlations, the application of an ultrashort laser pulse often yields novel phases that are otherwise inaccessible. The central challenge in understanding such phenomena is to determine how dimensionality and many-body correlations together govern the pathway of a non-adiabatic transition. To this end, we examine a layered compound, 1T-TiSe2, whose three-dimensional charge-density-wave (3D CDW) state also features exciton condensation due to strong electron-hole interactions. We find that photoexcitation suppresses the equilibrium 3D CDW while creating a nonequilibrium 2D CDW. Remarkably, the dimension reduction does not occur unless bound electron-hole pairs are broken. This relation suggests that excitonic correlations maintain the out-of-plane CDW coherence, settling a long-standing debate over their role in the CDW transition. Our findings demonstrate how optical manipulation of electronic interaction enables one to control the dimensionality of a broken-symmetry order, paving the way for realizing other emergent states in strongly correlated systems.

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