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1.
Phytochemistry ; 193: 113011, 2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34775270

RESUMO

Metabolites from fungi are a major source of natural small molecule drugs in addition to plants, while fungal derived terpenoids have been confirmed to have great potentials in many diseases. Aspergillus fungi are distributed in every corner of the earth, and their terpenoid metabolites exhibit promising diversity in term of both their chemistry and bioactivity. This review attempted to provide timely and comprehensive coverage of chemical, biosynthesis, and biological studies on terpenoids discovered from the genus Aspergillus, including mono-, sesqui-, di-, sester-, tri-, and meroterpenoids, in the last decade. The structural characteristics, biosynthesis, and pharmacological activities of 288 terpenoids were introduced.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34817812

RESUMO

Pond aquaculture has become the most important and broadest breeding model in China, and an extremely important source of aquatic products, but the potential hazard factors of potential pathogenic bacteria (PPB), antibiotic resistance bacteria (ARB), and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in aquaculture environment are largely invisible. In the present study, the bacterial communities in the larvae, juvenile, rearing, and harvesting culture stages of great grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) ponds were investigated and the structure of microbial flora analysis showed that the larvae culture stage has the highest abundance and the most dominant phyla were Proteobacteria (27.8%). A total of 123 significant Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway annotations and the relative abundance of nine bacterial phenotypes implied that the larvae culture stage had the most abundance of pathogenic potential and mobile elements. The correlation analyses of environmental factors showed that temperature, stocking density, pH, and transparency showed the significant impacts on both the distribution of microbiome and the PPB. More importantly, a total of 40 ARB were identified, and 16 ARGs have the detection rates of 100%, which revealed that they are widely distributed and highly enriched in the aquaculture production. Notably, this is the first robust report to analyze and understand the PPB, ARB, and ARGs characteristics and dynamic changes in the pond aquaculture.

3.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 193(Pt A): 847-855, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740680

RESUMO

Herein, the effects of chitosan (CH) coating with different water-soluble polyphenol extracts (pomegranate peel (PPE), grape seed (GSE) and green tea (GTE)) through vacuum impregnation on the quality retention and microflora of refrigerated grass carp fillets were studied. Generally, the quality degradation of carp fillets was remarkably alleviated using coatings when compared to the control. As suggested by microbial enumeration and high-throughput sequencing, protective coatings were conductive to inhibit bacteria growth, especially spoilage bacteria of Pseudomonas. As a result, the indicator related to bacteria such as total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) and K value had lower levels in coating groups than that in control. In addition, coating also slowed down the deterioration of physical properties of color, texture and water holding capacity in fillets, giving fillets a better edible quality. By contrast, the fillets treated by composite coatings had better quality during storage when compared to chitosan coating alone, and a relatively good synergistic antibacterial effect between chitosan and extracts was also observed, especially for CH-GTE. Overall, the best performance to inhibit quality deterioration was recorded in CH-GTE, with the lowest values of TVB-N, TBARS, K-value and water loss, and highest values of shear force and sensory preference among groups.

4.
Food Chem ; : 131619, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810018

RESUMO

This study aimed to reveal the effects of vacuum-impregnated carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) coating with pomegranate peel extract (PPE) on quality retention of fish flesh during refrigeration. Herein, CMCS-PPE coating was effective in attenuating quality loss of grass carp fillets. Compared to Control, the levels of drip loss, total volatile base nitrogen, and K value in coated samples were sharply decreased (p < 0.05) by 24.5%, 35.3% and 25.2% on day 9, respectively. Meanwhile, the coating also helped inhibit oxidation, bioamine accumulation, and texture softening in fillets. Moreover, the microbial enumeration was reduced by >1.4 lg cfu/g as compared to Control on day 6 afterward, and high throughput sequencing analysis further showed the active coating contributed to the notable growth suppression of spoilage bacteria like Shewanella. Additionally, the positive effect of the coating scheme was also verified in longsnout catfish and snakehead, further confirming its good applicability for fish flesh preservation.

5.
Environ Pollut ; 293: 118523, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34793912

RESUMO

Carbendazim (CBZ), a broad-spectrum pesticide frequently detected in fruits and vegetables, could trigger potential toxic risks to mammals. To facilitate the assessment of health risks, this study aimed to characterize the cytochrome P450 (CYPs)-mediated metabolism profiles of CBZ by a combined experimental and computational study. Our results demonstrated that CYPs-mediated region-selective hydroxylation was a major metabolism pathway for CBZ in liver microsomes from various species including rat, mouse, minipig, dog, rabbit, guinea pig, monkey, cow and human, and the metabolite was biosynthesized and well-characterized as 6-OH-CBZ. CYP1A displayed a predominant role in the region-selective hydroxylation of CBZ that could attenuate its toxicity through converting it into a less toxic metabolite. Meanwhile, five other common pesticides including chlorpyrifos-methyl, prochloraz, chlorfenapyr, chlorpyrifos, and chlorothalonil could significantly inhibit the region-selective hydroxylation of CBZ, and consequently remarkably increased CBZ exposure in vivo. Furthermore, computational study clarified the important contribution of the key amino acid residues Ser122, and Asp313 in CYP1A1, as well as Asp320 in CYP1A2 to the hydroxylation of CBZ through hydrogen bonds. These results would provide some useful information for the metabolic profiles of CBZ by mammalian CYPs, and shed new insights into CYP1A-mediated metabolic detoxification of CBZ and its health risk assessment.

6.
Nano Lett ; 21(20): 8910-8916, 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34661418

RESUMO

Moiré superlattices in van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures form by stacking atomically thin layers on top of one another with a twist angle or lattice mismatch. The resulting moiré potential leads to a strong modification of the band structure, which can give rise to exotic quantum phenomena ranging from correlated insulators and superconductors to moiré excitons and Wigner crystals. Here, we demonstrate the dynamic tuning of moiré potential in a WSe2/WS2 heterostructure at cryogenic temperature. We utilize the optical fiber tip of a cryogenic scanning near-field optical microscope (SNOM) to locally deform the heterostructure and measure its near-field optical response simultaneously. The deformation of the heterostructure increases the moiré potential, which leads to a red shift of the moiré exciton resonances. We observe the interlayer exciton resonance shifts up to 20 meV, while the intralayer exciton resonances shift up to 17 meV.

7.
Life Sci ; 286: 120005, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606850

RESUMO

Renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a leading cause of acute kidney injury (AKI) and may influence renal graft survival. In this study, we investigate the involvement of SIRT3 and DRP1 in mitochondrial autophagy and AKI in a mouse model of IRI. Autophagy was detected in the absence of SIRT3, and hypoxic reoxygenation (H/R) experiments using renal tubular epithelial cells NRK52E were performed in vitro to validate these results. We found that autophagosomes increased following IRI and that the expression of autophagy-related genes was up-regulated. The inhibition of autophagy with 3-methyladenine exacerbated IRI, whereas the DRP1 inhibitor Mdivi-1 reversed this inhibition. Mdivi-1 did not reverse the inhibition of autophagy in the absence of SIRT3. During IRI, Mdivi-1 reduced autophagy and DRP1 expression, whereas SIRT3 overexpression attenuated this condition. Rescue experiment showed that autophagy was increased when both SIRT3 or DRP1 were over- or under-expressed or just DRP1 was under-expressed but expression was reduced when just SIRT3 was under-expressed. However, the expression of DRP1-related molecules was reduced when SIRT3 was overexpressed and when DRP1 was under-expressed. Taken together, these findings indicate that SIRT3 protects against kidney damage from IRI by modulating the DRP1 pathway to induce mitochondrial autophagy.

8.
Fitoterapia ; 155: 105054, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626737

RESUMO

ß-Carboline alkaloid harmaline (HA) is a candidate drug molecule that has been proven to have broad and significant biological activity. Herein, the effects of HA on the riboflavin (RF)-sensitized photooxidation under aerobic conditions were studied for the first time. The photooxidation reaction of HA catalyzed by RF is triggered by UV light at 365 nm and shows a time-dependent stepwise reaction process. Seven transformed products, including five undescribed compounds, oxoharmalines A-E (1-4 and 7), and two known compounds, N-(2-(6-Methoxy-2-oxoindolin-3-yl)ethyl)acetamide (5) and harmine (6), were isolated and identified from the reaction system, following as the gradual oxidation mechanisms. The rare polymerization and dehydrogenation processes in radical-mediated photocatalytic reactions were involved in the process. The transformed products 2-7 exhibited significant neuroprotective activity in a model of H2O2-introduced injury in SH-SY5Y cells, which suggested that the products of the interaction between HA and vitamins may be beneficial to health.

9.
Phytochemistry ; 193: 112974, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34653908

RESUMO

Intestinal commensal fungi are vital to human health, and their metabolites play a key role in the reciprocal relationship. In the present work, eighteen alkaloids and seven monoterpenoids were isolated from the fermentation of the human intestinal fungus Penicillium oxalicum SL2, including seven undescribed alkaloids (penicilloxalines A-G), three undescribed monoterpenoids (penicilloxalines H-J), and fifteen reported compounds. The structures of the isolated compounds were identified by HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR, electronic circular dichroism spectra and quantum chemical calculations. Some metabolites displayed moderate agonistic effects against the pregnane X receptor (PXR), whereas (6R)3,7-dimethyl-6,7-dihydroxy-2(Z)-octenoic acid displayed a significant agonistic effect against the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) with an EC50 value of 0.43 µM, which was verified by investigating FXR downstream target genes and proteins, such as small heterodimer partner 1 (SHP1), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), and bile salt export pump (BSEP).

10.
Transplant Proc ; 53(8): 2503-2508, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482997

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with early-stage renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are considered to be eligible donors. Although preliminary experience in using kidneys of specific pathologic types, mainly those with small renal masses (SRMs), have been established, multiorgan utilization of the same donor with SRMs is limited. METHODS: One deceased donor whose left-side kidney was diagnosed with Fuhrman grade I RCC was included. The tumor mass in the kidney was removed through partial nephrectomy according to the gold standard. Then, 3 transplant surgeries were performed, in which 1 recipient accepted kidney transplant after tumor exeresis, 1 simultaneous heart-kidney (the contralateral one) transplant, and 1 liver transplant. Recipients were followed up according to our standard protocol for renal cancers. (All allografts were allocated in compliance with the Declaration of Helsinki and the Declaration of Istanbul.) RESULTS: After 32 months, no radiographic findings showed any morphologic changes of the lesion, and all patients were in good condition, with neither tumor recurrence nor allograft rejection or infection. No complaints such as pain, oliguria, dyspnea, nausea, or fatigue were recorded. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of knowledge, this initial work takes the lead in elaborating the organ utilization of multiorgan donors with SRMs. We hope the experience will provide support for cross discussion concerned with multiorgan transplant from tumor-affected donors in clinical practices, further expand the donor pool and address the donor shortage problem.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais , Neoplasias Renais , Transplante de Rim , Carcinoma de Células Renais/cirurgia , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/cirurgia , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Doadores de Tecidos
11.
Nature ; 597(7878): 650-654, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34588665

RESUMO

The Wigner crystal1 has fascinated condensed matter physicists for nearly 90 years2-14. Signatures of two-dimensional (2D) Wigner crystals were first observed in 2D electron gases under high magnetic field2-4, and recently reported in transition metal dichalcogenide moiré superlattices6-9. Direct observation of the 2D Wigner crystal lattice in real space, however, has remained an outstanding challenge. Conventional scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) has sufficient spatial resolution but induces perturbations that can potentially alter this fragile state. Here we demonstrate real-space imaging of 2D Wigner crystals in WSe2/WS2 moiré heterostructures using a specially designed non-invasive STM spectroscopy technique. This employs a graphene sensing layer held close to the WSe2/WS2 moiré superlattice. Local STM tunnel current into the graphene layer is modulated by the underlying Wigner crystal electron lattice in the WSe2/WS2 heterostructure. Different Wigner crystal lattice configurations at fractional electron fillings of n = 1/3, 1/2 and 2/3, where n is the electron number per site, are directly visualized. The n = 1/3 and n = 2/3 Wigner crystals exhibit triangular and honeycomb lattices, respectively, to minimize nearest-neighbour occupations. The n = 1/2 state spontaneously breaks the original C3 symmetry and forms a stripe phase. Our study lays a solid foundation for understanding Wigner crystal states in WSe2/WS2 moiré heterostructures and provides an approach that is generally applicable for imaging novel correlated electron lattices in other systems.

12.
Neuron ; 109(21): 3486-3499.e7, 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469773

RESUMO

Persistent activity underlying short-term memory encodes sensory information or instructs specific future movement and, consequently, has a crucial role in cognition. Despite extensive study, how the same set of neurons respond differentially to form selective persistent activity remains unknown. Here, we report that the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical (CBTC) circuit supports the formation of selective persistent activity in mice. Optogenetic activation or inactivation of the basal ganglia output nucleus substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr)-to-thalamus pathway biased future licking choice, without affecting licking execution. This perturbation differentially affected persistent activity in the frontal cortex and selectively modulated neural trajectory that encodes one choice but not the other. Recording showed that SNr neurons had selective persistent activity distributed across SNr, but with a hotspot in the mediolateral region. Optogenetic inactivation of the frontal cortex also differentially affected persistent activity in the SNr. Together, these results reveal a CBTC channel functioning to produce selective persistent activity underlying short-term memory.

13.
Bioorg Chem ; 116: 105356, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34560562

RESUMO

Two undescribed ent-abietane-type diterpenoid dimers with nonacyclic backbone formed by intermolecular [4 + 2] cycloaddition into a spirocyclic skeleton, bisfischoids A (1) and B (2), along with a known one fischdiabietane A (3), were identified from Euphorbia fischeriana Steud. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis, ECD and NMR calculation combined with DP4+ probability analysis, as well as X-ray diffraction. The anti-inflammatory potential of dimers 1-3 were examined using their inhibitory effects on soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), which revealed that 1 and 2 exhibited promising activities with inhibition constant (Ki) of 3.20 and 1.95 µM, respectively. Further studies of molecular docking and molecular dynamics indicated that amino acid residue Tyr343 in the catalytic cavity of sEH was the key site for their inhibitory function.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34342824

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a global pandemic. Some studies have suggested a negative association between sunlight intensity and COVID-19 infection, alluding to the belief that it might be safe to go out on sunny days. This paper examined whether solar radiation mitigated the association between human mobility and COVID-19 infection in Europe using a dynamic panel data model to investigate the effect of human mobility, solar radiation, and their interaction on COVID-19 infection. The results revealed that outgoing mobility was positively correlated and solar radiation was negatively correlated with COVID-19 infection at lag levels of 1, 2, and 3 weeks. The coefficients of the interaction items indicated that solar radiation negatively moderated the relationship between outgoing mobility and the number of daily new confirmed cases at 2- and 3-week lag levels. However, the moderating effect was limited and unable to eliminate the positive effect of outgoing mobility on COVID-19 infection. Thus, these results suggested that solar radiation only weakly mitigated the relationship between human mobility and COVID-19 infection, providing policy implications that mobility should still be restricted on sunny days during the COVID-19 pandemic.

15.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5039, 2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34413291

RESUMO

Surface plasmons, collective electromagnetic excitations coupled to conduction electron oscillations, enable the manipulation of light-matter interactions at the nanoscale. Plasmon dispersion of metallic structures depends sensitively on their dimensionality and has been intensively studied for fundamental physics as well as applied technologies. Here, we report possible evidence for gate-tunable hybrid plasmons from the dimensionally mixed coupling between one-dimensional (1D) carbon nanotubes and two-dimensional (2D) graphene. In contrast to the carrier density-independent 1D Luttinger liquid plasmons in bare metallic carbon nanotubes, plasmon wavelengths in the 1D-2D heterostructure are modulated by 75% via electrostatic gating while retaining the high figures of merit of 1D plasmons. We propose a theoretical model to describe the electromagnetic interaction between plasmons in nanotubes and graphene, suggesting plasmon hybridization as a possible origin for the observed large plasmon modulation. The mixed-dimensional plasmonic heterostructures may enable diverse designs of tunable plasmonic nanodevices.

16.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(16)2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450801

RESUMO

Recent achievements in the field of computer vision, reinforcement learning, and locomotion control have largely extended legged robots' maneuverability in complex natural environments. However, little research focuses on sensing and analyzing the physical properties of the ground, which is crucial to robots' locomotion during their interaction with highly irregular profiles, deformable terrains, and slippery surfaces. A biomimetic, flexible, multimodal sole sensor (FMSS) designed for legged robots to identify the ontological status and ground information, such as reaction force mapping, contact situation, terrain, and texture information, to achieve agile maneuvers was innovatively presented in this paper. The FMSS is flexible and large-loaded (20 Pa-800 kPa), designed by integrating a triboelectric sensing coat, embedded piezoelectric sensor, and piezoresistive sensor array. To evaluate the effectiveness and adaptability in different environments, the multimodal sensor was mounted on one of the quadruped robot's feet and one of the human feet then traversed through different environments in real-world tests. The experiment's results demonstrated that the FMSS could recognize terrain, texture, hardness, and contact conditions during locomotion effectively and retrain its sensitivity (0.66 kPa-1), robustness, and compliance. The presented work indicates the FMSS's potential to extend the feasibility and dexterity of tactile perception for state estimation and complex scenario detection.


Assuntos
Robótica , Percepção do Tato , Biomimética , Humanos , Locomoção
17.
Eur J Med Chem ; 224: 113731, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352712

RESUMO

Intestinal commensal fungi are vital to human health, and their secondary metabolites play a key role in the reciprocal relationship. In the present study, the first example of 2,3-seco ergot alkaloids belonging to clavine-type were isolated from the fermentation of human intestinal fungus Aspergillus fumigatus CY018, including two pairs of diastereoisomers, secofumigaclavines A (3) and B (4) and secofumigaclavines C (5) and D (6), one analogue features a highly unsaturated skeleton, secofumigaclavine E (7), along with two known ones, fumigaclavines C (1) and D (2). Their structures were identified based on extensive spectroscopic data in a combination of quantum chemical calculations. Moreover, a single-step operation of semi-synthetic reaction based on riboflavin (RF)-dependent photocatalysis was performed to obtain the novel 2,3-seco ergot alkaloids 3 and 5 from their biosynthetic precursors 1 and 2. All the isolated compounds were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity. Among them, secofumigaclavine B (4) could bind to MD2 with a low micromole level of the equilibrium dissociation constant measured by surface plasmon resonance (SPR), and suppress TLR4-mediated NF-κB signaling pathway in RAW264.7 cells, resulting in its anti-inflammatory effect. Molecular dynamics revealed that amino acid residue Tyr131 played a key role in the interaction of secofumigaclavine B (4) with MD2. These findings suggested that secofumigaclavine B (4) could be considered as a potential candidate for the development of MD2 inhibitors.

18.
Chem Biol Interact ; 345: 109571, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34217688

RESUMO

Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is a potential drug target to treat inflammation and neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we found that the extract of Inula britanica exhibited significantly inhibitory effects against sEH, therefore, we investigated its phytochemical constituents to obtain seven new compounds together with sixteen known ones (1-20), including two pairs of novel enantiomers, (2S,3S)-britanicafanin A (1a), (2R,3R)-britanicafanin A (1b), (2R,3S)-britanicafanin B (2a), and (2S,3R)-britanicafanin B (2b), and three new lignans britanicafanins C-E (3-5). Their structures were determined by HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR, and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra as well as quantum chemical computations. All the isolates were evaluated for their inhibitory effects against sEH, compounds 1-3, 5-7, 9, 10, 13, 14, and 17-20 showed significant inhibitory effects against sEH with IC50 values from 3.56 µM to 26.93 µM. The inhibition kinetics results indicated that compounds 9, 10, 13, and 19 were all uncompetitive inhibitors, and their inhibition constants (Ki) values were 7.11, 1.99, 4.06, and 8.78 µM, respectively. Their potential interactions were analyzed by molecular docking and molecular dynamics (MD), which suggested that amino acid residues Asp335 and Asn359, especially Gln384, played an important role in the inhibition of compounds 10 and 13 on sEH, and compounds 10 and 13 could be considered as the potential candidates for the development of sEH inhibitors.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/metabolismo , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Epóxido Hidrolases/antagonistas & inibidores , Epóxido Hidrolases/metabolismo , Inula/química , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Inibidores Enzimáticos/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Epóxido Hidrolases/química , Cinética , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Solubilidade
19.
Rep Prog Phys ; 84(9)2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34192673

RESUMO

Thermoelectric (TE) materials have great potential for waste-energyrecycling and solid-state cooling. Their conversion efficiency has attracted huge attention to the development of TE devices, and largely depends on the thermal and electrical transport properties. Magnetically enhanced thermoelectrics open up the possibility of making thermoelectricity a future leader in sustainable energy development and offer an intriguing platform for both fundamental physics and prospective applications. In this review, state-of-the-art TE materials are summarized from the magnetism point of view, via diagrams of the charges, lattices, orbits and spin degrees of freedom. Our fundamental knowledge of magnetically induced TE effects is discussed. The underlying thermo-electro-magnetic merits are discussed in terms of superparamagnetism- and magnetic-transition-enhanced electron scattering, field-dependent magnetoelectric coupling, and the magnon- and phonon-drag Seebeck effects. After these topics, we finally review several thermal-electronic and spin current-induced TE materials, highlight future possible strategies for further improvingZT, and also give a brief outline of ongoing research challenges and open questions in this nascent field.

20.
Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl ; 15: 177-183, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34141566

RESUMO

The diversity of waterbirds is threatened, and haemosporidian parasite infection is considered one of the most important causative factors. However, to date, only a few studies focusing on specific parasite species have been carried out, which cannot reflect the general patterns at the community level. To test whether the reported haemosporidian diversity in waterbirds is underestimated, we estimated the prevalence and lineage diversity of avian haemosporidian parasites in 353 waterbirds from 26 species in the Tumuji National Nature Reserve, Northeast China, as well as the host-parasite associations. According to the molecular analysis of cytochrome b (cyt b) barcode sequences, 28.3% of the birds were infected by 49 distinct parasite lineages, including 11 Plasmodium, 12 Haemoproteus, and 26 Leucocytozoon lineages, of which 39 were novel. The highest prevalence was contributed by Leucocytozoon (13.31%), followed by Plasmodium (13.03%) and Haemoproteus (4.25%), which suggested that waterbirds were infected to a lesser extent by Haemoproteus than by the other two genera. Among the most sampled birds, species belonging to Anatidae appeared to be susceptible to Leucocytozoon but resistant to Plasmodium, while Rallidae presented the opposite pattern. On the phylogenetic tree, most of the Leucocytozoon lineages detected in Anatidae clustered together and formed two well-supported clades, while lineages restricted to Gruidae were distantly related to other parasites in all three genera. SW5 was the most abundant lineage and therefore might be a major threat to waterbirds; among the hosts, the common coot harboured the highest diversity of parasite lineages and thus could act as a reservoir for potential transmission. This is the first study of avian haemosporidian infections in a wild waterbird community in Asia. Our findings have doubled the number of lineages recorded in waterbirds, broadened our understanding of host-parasite associations, and addressed the importance of studying haemosporidian infections in wild waterbird conservation.

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