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1.
J Clin Transl Hepatol ; 10(2): 247-253, 2022 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35528978

RESUMO

Background and Aims: Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a serious health problem worldwide. Evaluating liver injury in patients with hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-negative chronic hepatitis B (CHB) with detectable HBV DNA and normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is crucial to guide their clinical management. We aimed to investigate the stages of liver inflammation and fibrosis as well as the predictive accuracy of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase-to-platelet ratio (GPR) in these patients. Methods: A total of 184 treatment-naïve HBeAg-negative CHB patients with detectable HBV DNA and normal ALT were enrolled. The Scheuer scoring system was used to classify liver inflammation and fibrosis. Results: The distribution of patients with different liver inflammation grades were as follows: G0, 0 (0%); G1, 97 (52.7%); G2, 68 (37.0%); G3, 12 (6.5%); and G4, 7 (3.8%). The distribution of patients with different liver fibrosis stages were as follows: S0, 22 (12.0%); S1, 72 (39.1%); S2, 42 (22.8%); S3, 19 (10.3%); and S4, 29 (15.8%). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curves of GPR in predicting significant inflammation, severe inflammation, and advanced inflammation were 0.723, 0.895, and 0.952, respectively. The accuracy of GPR was significantly superior to that of ALT in predicting liver inflammation. The AUROCs of GPR in predicting significant fibrosis, severe fibrosis, and cirrhosis were 0.691, 0.780, and 0.803, respectively. The predictive accuracy of GPR was significantly higher than that of aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) and fibrosis index based on four factors (FIB-4) in identifying advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis, and it was superior to FIB-4 but comparable to APRI in identifying significant fibrosis. Conclusions: Nearly half of the HBeAg-negative CHB patients with detectable HBV DNA and normal ALT levels had significant liver inflammation or fibrosis. GPR can serve as an accurate predictor of liver inflammation and fibrosis in these patients.

2.
Neural Regen Res ; 17(11): 2497-2503, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35535902

RESUMO

An enriched environment is used as a behavioral intervention therapy that applies sensory, motor, and social stimulation, and has been used in basic and clinical research of various neurological diseases. In this study, we established mouse models of photothrombotic stroke and, 24 hours later, raised them in a standard, enriched, or isolated environment for 4 weeks. Compared with the mice raised in a standard environment, the cognitive function of mice raised in an enriched environment was better and the pathological damage in the hippocampal CA1 region was remarkably alleviated. Furthermore, protein expression levels of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6, nuclear factor κB p65, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor α, and the mRNA expression level of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 were greatly lower, while the expression level of miR-146a-5p was higher. Compared with the mice raised in a standard environment, changes in these indices in mice raised in an isolated environment were opposite to mice raised in an enriched environment. These findings suggest that different living environments affect the hippocampal inflammatory response and cognitive function in a mouse model of stroke. An enriched environment can improve cognitive function following stroke through up-regulation of miR-146a-5p expression and a reduction in the inflammatory response.

3.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 10: 814836, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35493068

RESUMO

The tumor microenvironment (TME) influences disease initiation and progression. Cross-talks of cells within TME can affect the efficacy of immunotherapies. However, a precise, concise, and comprehensive TME landscape in neuroblastoma (NB) has not been established. Here, we profiled the TME landscape of 498 NB-related patients on a self-curated gene list and identified three prognostic TMEsubgroups. The differentially expressed genes in these three TMEsubgroups were used to construct a genetic signature of the TME landscape and characterize three GeneSubgroups. The subgroup with the worst overall survival prognosis, the TMEsubgroup/GeneSubgroup3, lacked immune cell infiltration and received the highest scores of MYCN- and ALK-related signatures and lowest scores of immune pathways. Additionally, we found that the GeneSubgroup3 might be benefited from anti-GD2 instead of anti-PD-1 therapy. We further created a 48-gene signature, the TMEscore, to infer prognosis and validated it in three independent NB cohorts and a pan-cancer cohort of 9,460 patients. We did RNA-seq on 16 samples and verified that TMEscore was higher in patients with stage 3/4 than stage 1/2 diseases. The TMEscore could also predict responses for several immunotherapies. After adding clinical features, we found that the nomogram-based score system, the TMEIndex, surpassed the current risk system at predicting survivals. Our analysis explained TME at the transcriptome level and paved the way for immunotherapies in NB.

4.
Front Surg ; 9: 793439, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35495758

RESUMO

Objective: Previous studies have reported that platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) may enhance the efficacy of fat grafts in facial lipofilling. However, these studies either lacked objective data or were not randomized, controlled trials. Thus, we aimed to objectively evaluate the efficacy of PRF in facial lipofilling. Methods: A controlled, split-face, randomized trial (January 2018 to May 2019) based on 18 patients who underwent fat grafts for bilateral temple lipofilling was performed. Each patient received a combination of an autologous fat graft and PRF on one side and a fat graft combined with an equal volume of saline on the other side. The effects of PRF were evaluated by comparing the remaining bilateral fat graft volumes through a digital three-dimensional reconstruction technique. Improvements in the appearance and recovery time of each temple were assessed by both a surgeon and patients who were blinded to the treatment assignment. Complications were also recorded. Results: Bilateral temple lipofilling showed no evidence of fat embolism, vascular/nerve injury, infection, massive edema, or prolonged bruising. Three-dimensional reconstruction data and the assessments from both the surgeon and patients revealed no significant differences in fat graft retention volume between the PRF-positive and PRF-negative lipofilling groups. However, recovery time in the PRF-positive lipofilling sites was significantly shortened compared with that of the PRF-negative lipofilling sites. Conclusion: Facial filling with autologous fat grafts is effective and safe. Our results show that PRF does not markedly improve fat graft volume retention in the temple but significantly reduces postoperative recovery time. Trial Registration Number: ChiCTR2100053663.

5.
Front Immunol ; 13: 861262, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35464458

RESUMO

Interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) constitute a family of transcription factors that synchronize interferon (IFN) antiviral response through translocating to nucleus and binding to the promoters of IFN and IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). Fish contain 11 IRF members; however, whether or how fish IRF family genes function in IFN response remains limited. Herein, we determine the regulatory roles of 11 zebrafish IRF family members in IFN response relevant to their subcellular localization and promoter binding. Zebrafish IRF family members display three patterns of constitutive localization, only in nucleus (IRF1/2/9/11), only in cytoplasm (IRF3/5/7), and largely in nucleus with small amounts in cytoplasm (IRF4b/6/8/10). DNA pull-down assays confirm that all zebrafish IRF proteins are capable to bind fish IFN promoters, albeit to various degrees, thus regulating IFN gene transcription as activators (IRF1/3/5/6/7/8/9/11) or repressors (IRF2/4b/10). Further characterization of distinct IFN gene activation reveals that IRF1/3/5/6/7/8/9/11 efficiently stimulate zebrafish IFNφ1 expression, and IRF1/7/11 are responsible for zebrafish IFNφ3 expression. Two conserved basic residues within the helix α3 of DNA binding domains (DBDs) contribute to constitutive or inducible nuclear import for all zebrafish IRF family members and DNA binding for most members, thereby enabling them to function as transcription factors. Our results reveal a conserved and general mechanism that specifies zebrafish IRF family proteins to nuclear import and DNA binding, thereby regulating fish IFN response.


Assuntos
Interferons , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Fatores Reguladores de Interferon/metabolismo , Interferons/genética , Interferons/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
6.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(7)2022 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35476714

RESUMO

The recent rise in the frequency of influenza A(H5N6) infections in China has raised serious concerns about whether the risk for human infection has increased. We surveyed epidemiologic, clinical, and genetic data of human infections with A(H5N6) viruses. Severe disease occurred in 93.8% of cases, and the fatality rate was 55.4%. Median patient age was 51 years. Most H5N6 hemagglutinin (HA) genes in human isolates in 2021 originated from subclade 2.3.4.4b; we estimated the time to most recent common ancestor as June 16, 2020. A total of 13 genotypes with HA genes from multiple subclades in clade 2.3.4.4 were identified in human isolates. Of note, 4 new genotypes detected in 2021 were the major causes of increased H5N6 virus infections. Mammalian-adapted mutations were found in HA and internal genes. Although we found no evidence of human-to-human transmission, continuous evolution of H5N6 viruses may increase the risk for human infections.

7.
Nat Plants ; 8(4): 373-388, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35449401

RESUMO

To improve our understanding of the origin and evolution of mycoheterotrophic plants, we here present the chromosome-scale genome assemblies of two sibling orchid species: partially mycoheterotrophic Platanthera zijinensis and holomycoheterotrophic Platanthera guangdongensis. Comparative analysis shows that mycoheterotrophy is associated with increased substitution rates and gene loss, and the deletion of most photoreceptor genes and auxin transporter genes might be linked to the unique phenotypes of fully mycoheterotrophic orchids. Conversely, trehalase genes that catalyse the conversion of trehalose into glucose have expanded in most sequenced orchids, in line with the fact that the germination of orchid non-endosperm seeds needs carbohydrates from fungi during the protocorm stage. We further show that the mature plant of P. guangdongensis, different from photosynthetic orchids, keeps expressing trehalase genes to hijack trehalose from fungi. Therefore, we propose that mycoheterotrophy in mature orchids is a continuation of the protocorm stage by sustaining the expression of trehalase genes. Our results shed light on the molecular mechanism underlying initial, partial and full mycoheterotrophy.


Assuntos
Micorrizas , Orchidaceae , Micorrizas/genética , Orchidaceae/genética , Orchidaceae/metabolismo , Orchidaceae/microbiologia , Simbiose , Trealase/metabolismo , Trealose/metabolismo
8.
J Appl Microbiol ; 2022 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35437874

RESUMO

AIMS: To evaluate changes in short-chain fatty acid levels and G protein-coupled receptor 43 expression and distribution in gut microbiota and explore their relationships in obese diabetic mice after sleeve gastrectomy. METHODS AND RESULTS: Diet-induced obese mice and obese diabetic ob/ob mice were established. Changes in glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism, gut microbiota, metabolite short-chain fatty acids, and G protein-coupled receptor 43 expressions were assessed in both models 10 weeks postoperatively. Mice that underwent sleeve gastrectomy exhibited sustained weight loss and reduced glucose, insulin, leptin, and cholesterol levels. Metagenomic sequencing revealed significant characteristic alterations in gut microbiota after sleeve gastrectomy, which were correlated with changes in faecal short-chain fatty acid levels. Postoperatively, G protein-coupled receptor 43 expression in the colon tissue was upregulated in both models, whereas its expression in the adipose tissue was downregulated in the diet-induced obese mouse model. CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic improvement in obese and diabetic mice after sleeve gastrectomy is associated with alterations in gut microbiota, short-chain fatty acid levels, and G protein-coupled receptor 43 expressions. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF STUDY: Our findings reveal a possible mechanism through which sleeve gastrectomy improves obesity and diabetes via changes in bacteria producing short-chain fatty acids and G protein-coupled receptor 43.

9.
Nanotechnology ; 33(31)2022 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35443235

RESUMO

The use of microbial adsorption for metal ions to prepare novel carbon-supported metal nanomaterials has attracted growing research attention. However, the relationship between the adsorbed metal content and catalytic performance of the resulting nanomaterials is unclear. In this work,Pichia pastoris residueswas utilized to adsorb Ce(Ⅲ) at different metal ion concentrations, and then CeO2@C nanomaterials were prepared by pyrolysis. The effects of solution pH and adsorption behavior were investigated. The prepared nanostructures were characterized using electron microscopy and different spectroscopy methods, and their catalytic performances in the removal of salicylic acid from solution by catalytic ozonation were invested. The microbial residue had a metal uptake of 172.00 ± 2.82 mg· g-1at pH 6. In addition, the efficiency of total organic carbon (TOC) removal increased from 21.54% to 34.10% with an increase in metal content in the catalysts from 0 mg· g-1to 170.05 mg· g-1. After pyrolysis, the absorbed Ce(Ⅲ) metal transformed to CeO2metal nanoparticles embedded in a carbon matrix and had a core-shell CeO2@C structure. Therefore, this work not only reveals a relationship between metal content and catalytic performance, but also provides an approach for studying performance of materials with different metal contents loaded on various carriers.

10.
Front Psychol ; 13: 794201, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35432127

RESUMO

This study used the Social Cognitive Theory and Broaden-and-Build Theory to propose and validate a chain mediation model. In total, 417 Chinese college students were studied to explore the effects of parent-child relationships on their academic performance. In addition, we investigated the chain-mediating roles of gratitude and psychological capital. The results showed that (1) the parent-child relationship significantly and positively affected the academic performance of college students; (2) gratitude partially mediated the parent-child relationship and the academic performance of college students; (3) psychological capital partially mediated the parent-child relationship and the academic performance of college students; and (4) gratitude and psychological capital exerted a chain-mediating effect between parent-child relationships and the academic performance of college students. Based on the results of the study, we conclude that the parent-child relationship not only directly affects the academic performance of college students but also indirectly affects it through the chain mediation of gratitude and psychological capital. Moreover, we proposed reasonable suggestions on how colleges and universities can guide students to deal with parent-child relationships, strengthen gratitude education, and improve psychological capital.

11.
Science ; 376(6589): eabl5282, 2022 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35389803

RESUMO

Adoptive cell therapy using engineered T cell receptors (TCRs) is a promising approach for targeting cancer antigens, but tumor-reactive TCRs are often weakly responsive to their target ligands, peptide-major histocompatibility complexes (pMHCs). Affinity-matured TCRs can enhance the efficacy of TCR-T cell therapy but can also cross-react with off-target antigens, resulting in organ immunopathology. We developed an alternative strategy to isolate TCR mutants that exhibited high activation signals coupled with low-affinity pMHC binding through the acquisition of catch bonds. Engineered analogs of a tumor antigen MAGE-A3-specific TCR maintained physiological affinities while exhibiting enhanced target killing potency and undetectable cross-reactivity, compared with a high-affinity clinically tested TCR that exhibited lethal cross-reactivity with a cardiac antigen. Catch bond engineering is a biophysically based strategy to tune high-sensitivity TCRs for T cell therapy with reduced potential for adverse cross-reactivity.


Assuntos
Imunoterapia Adotiva , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T , Linfócitos T , Antígenos de Neoplasias , Reações Cruzadas , Complexo Principal de Histocompatibilidade , Miocárdio/imunologia , Peptídeos , Linfócitos T/metabolismo
12.
J Vis Exp ; (181)2022 03 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35404353

RESUMO

Invasive Candida albicans infection is a significant opportunistic fungal infection in humans because it is one of the most common colonizers of the gut, mouth, vagina, and skin. Despite the availability of antifungal medication, the mortality rate of invasive candidiasis remains ~50%. Unfortunately, the incidence of drug-resistant C. albicans is increasing globally. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) may offer an alternative or adjuvant treatment to inhibit C. albicans biofilm formation and overcome drug resistance. Rose bengal (RB)-mediated aPDT has shown effective cell killing of bacteria and C. albicans. In this study, the efficacy of RB-aPDT on multidrug-resistant C. albicans is described. A homemade green light-emitting diode (LED) light source is designed to align with the center of a well of a 96-well plate. The yeasts were incubated in the wells with different concentrations of RB and illuminated with varying fluences of green light. The killing effects were analyzed by the plate dilution method. With an optimal combination of light and RB, 3-log growth inhibition was achieved. It was concluded that RB-aPDT might potentially inhibit drug-resistant C. albicans.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Fotoquimioterapia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Biofilmes , Candida albicans/fisiologia , Candidíase , Feminino , Humanos , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Rosa Bengala/farmacologia
13.
Natl Sci Rev ; 9(4): nwab150, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35386922

RESUMO

Interannual variability of the terrestrial ecosystem carbon sink is substantially regulated by various environmental variables and highly dominates the interannual variation of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations. Thus, it is necessary to determine dominating factors affecting the interannual variability of the carbon sink to improve our capability of predicting future terrestrial carbon sinks. Using global datasets derived from machine-learning methods and process-based ecosystem models, this study reveals that the interannual variability of the atmospheric vapor pressure deficit (VPD) was significantly negatively correlated with net ecosystem production (NEP) and substantially impacted the interannual variability of the atmospheric CO2 growth rate (CGR). Further analyses found widespread constraints of VPD interannual variability on terrestrial gross primary production (GPP), causing VPD to impact NEP and CGR. Partial correlation analysis confirms the persistent and widespread impacts of VPD on terrestrial carbon sinks compared to other environmental variables. Current Earth system models underestimate the interannual variability in VPD and its impacts on GPP and NEP. Our results highlight the importance of VPD for terrestrial carbon sinks in assessing ecosystems' responses to future climate conditions.

14.
Neuron ; 2022 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35443154

RESUMO

Empathic pain has attracted the interest of a substantial number of researchers studying the social transfer of pain in the sociological, psychological, and neuroscience fields. However, the neural mechanism of empathic pain remains elusive. Here, we establish a long-term observational pain model in mice and find that glutamatergic projection from the insular cortex (IC) to the basolateral amygdala (BLA) is critical for the formation of observational pain. The selective activation or inhibition of the IC-BLA projection pathway strengthens or weakens the intensity of observational pain, respectively. The synaptic molecules are screened, and the upregulated synaptotagmin-2 and RIM3 are identified as key signals in controlling the increased synaptic glutamate transmission from the IC to the BLA. Together, these results reveal the molecular and synaptic mechanisms of a previously unidentified neural pathway that regulates observational pain in mice.

15.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 70(4): 283-285, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35370205

RESUMO

A novel alkaloid caulophyine A (1) was isolated from the roots of Caulophyllum robustum Maxim., along with six known alkaloids 2-7. The structure of 1 was elucidated by extensive NMR and high resolution-time-of-flight (HR-TOF)-MS analyses, it is a rare nitrogen containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. The in vitro bioassays revealed that 2 presented remarkable cytotoxicity against A549 with an IC50 value of 3.83 µM in comparison with the positive control etoposide (IC50 = 11.63 µM). Compounds 1 and 2 also displayed weak Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 123.03 and 80.74 µM respectively.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Caulophyllum , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Alcaloides/química , Caulophyllum/química , Estrutura Molecular , Raízes de Plantas/química
16.
Materials (Basel) ; 15(6)2022 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35329524

RESUMO

Large magnetostrain can be demonstrated in Ni-Mn-X (X = In, Sn, Sb) meta-magnetic shape memory alloys by resuming the predeformed martensite through magnetic-field-induced reverse martensitic transformation. However, owing to the constraint from the self-accommodated microstructure and randomly distributed crystallographic orientation, spontaneous magnetostrain without predeformation in polycrystalline alloys remains low. Here, by combining microstructure texturing and superelastic training, enhanced spontaneous magnetostrain was achieved in a directionally solidified Ni44.5Co4.9Mn37.5In13.1 alloy with strong <0 0 1>A preferred orientation. After superelastic training through cyclic compressive loading/unloading on the directionally solidified alloy, a large spontaneous magnetostrain of ~0.65% was obtained by applying a magnetic field of 5 T, showing great improvement when compared to that of the untrained situation, i.e., ~0.45%. Such enhanced magnetoresponse is attributed to the internal stress generated through superelastic training, which affects the variant distribution and the resultant output strain in association with the martensitic transformation.

17.
Front Pediatr ; 10: 834465, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35311041

RESUMO

Background: Pneumovesicoscopic ureteral reimplantation (PVUR) has gained popularity due to its minimal invasiveness. However, most of the reported PVUR procedures were based on the Cohen technique. Only few studies reported their experience of PVUR using the Politano-Leadbetter technique (PVUR-PL). Here, we reported our experience of PVUR-PL using a novel technique to facilitate locating the retrovesical ureter during the procedure. Materials and Methods: The medical records of the patients who underwent PVUR-PL between January 2018 and December 2020 in our institution were retrospectively reviewed. The patients were classified into two groups: the modified group that accepted PVUR-PL using our novel technique (using urethral sound to facilitate identifying the retrovesical ureter) and the traditional group that accepted PVUR-PL not using the novel technique. Clinical data were collected retrospectively. Results: There were 22 patients who underwent PVUR-PL, with 13 in the traditional group and nine in the modified group. The mean operating time for unilateral cases in the modified group was significantly shorter than that in the traditional group (154.5 vs. 195.5 min, p < 0.001). For bilateral cases, the mean operating time was also significantly reduced (from 263.0 to 221.3 min, p = 0.022) in the modified group. There were no severe complications in each of the two groups. The peritoneum was perforated in one case from the traditional group, while no peritoneum perforation occurred in the modified group. Conclusion: The use of urethral sound to help to identify the retrovesical ureter during PVUR-PL is a safe and effective technique. This simple but effective technique could shorten the operating time of PVUR-PL and reduce the risk of peritoneum perforation.

18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5229, 2022 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35347176

RESUMO

The manipulation of surface plasmon polaritons plays a pivotal role in plasmonic science and technology, however, the modulation efficiency of the traditional method suffers from the weak light-matter interaction. Herein, we propose a new method to overcome this obstacle by directly controlling the couple of photon and electron. In this paper, a hybrid graphene-dielectric- interdigital electrode structure is numerically and experimentally investigated. The plasmon is excited due to the confined carrier which is regulated by the potential wells. The frequency of plasmon can be tuned over a range of ~ 33 cm-1, and the obtained maximum extinction ratio is 8% via changing the confined area and the density of carrier. These findings may open up a new path to design the high efficiency all-optical modulator because the electrons can also be driven optically.

19.
Nat Methods ; 19(4): 461-469, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35314838

RESUMO

The promise of single-objective light-sheet microscopy is to combine the convenience of standard single-objective microscopes with the speed, coverage, resolution and gentleness of light-sheet microscopes. We present DaXi, a single-objective light-sheet microscope design based on oblique plane illumination that achieves: (1) a wider field of view and high-resolution imaging via a custom remote focusing objective; (2) fast volumetric imaging over larger volumes without compromising image quality or necessitating tiled acquisition; (3) fuller image coverage for large samples via multi-view imaging and (4) higher throughput multi-well imaging via remote coverslip placement. Our instrument achieves a resolution of 450 nm laterally and 2 µm axially over an imaging volume of 3,000 × 800 × 300 µm. We demonstrate the speed, field of view, resolution and versatility of our instrument by imaging various systems, including Drosophila egg chamber development, zebrafish whole-brain activity and zebrafish embryonic development - up to nine embryos at a time.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Drosophila , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Microscopia de Fluorescência/métodos
20.
Am J Chin Med ; 50(3): 723-732, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35331086

RESUMO

Constipation is a very common medical condition worldwide, negatively affecting patients' quality of life and healthcare system. Rhubarb, senna leaf, and aloe are three frequently used herbal medications for achieving regular bowel movement. Rhubarb is also a key ingredient in MaZiRenWan, a Chinese medicine formula used every so often for constipation in oriental countries. We reviewed and summarized the major chemical components from these three botanicals, including dianthrones, anthraquinone glycosides, free anthraquinones, and other polyphenols. The purgative actions of these constituents have been compared. Anthraquinone, especially its dianthrone compounds such as sennoside A and sennoside B, as natural stimulant laxatives, possesses significant effects to promote gastrointestinal motility and relieve functional constipation. Furthermore, the safety, reported side effects, and other benefits of anthraquinone compounds are presented. To date, many anti-constipation natural products are being used but their research is relatively limited, and thus, more investigations in this field are indeed needed.


Assuntos
Plantas Medicinais , Rheum , Antraquinonas/uso terapêutico , Constipação Intestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Qualidade de Vida , Rheum/química , Senosídeos
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