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1.
Chemosphere ; 280: 130670, 2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33971419

RESUMO

Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) is a congenital disease characterized by the absence of enteric neurons, which is derived from the failure of the proliferation, differentiation or migration of the enteric neural crest cells (ENCCs). HSCR is associated with multiple risk factors, including polygenic inheritance factors and environmental factors. Genetic studies have been extensively performed, whereas studies related to environmental factors remain insufficient. Benzophenone-3 (BP-3), one important component of the ultraviolet (UV) filters, has been proved to have cytotoxicity and neurotoxicity which might be associated with HSCR. In this study, we used zebrafish as a model to investigate the relationship between BP-3 exposure and the development of the enteric nervous system (ENS) in vivo. Embryos exposed to BP-3 showed an average of 46% reduction of the number of the enteric neurons number. Besides, the ENCCs specific markers (ret and hand2) were downregulated upon BP-3 exposure. Moreover, we identified potential targets of BP-3 through Network Pharmacology Analysis and Autodock and demonstrated that the attenuation of the MAPK/ERK signaling might be the potential mechanism underlying the inhibition of the ENS development by BP-3. Importantly, MAPK/ERK signaling agonist could be used to rescue the ENS defects of zebrafish induced by BP-3. Overall, we characterized the influence of BP-3 on ENS development in vivo and explored possible molecular mechanisms.

2.
Transl Behav Med ; 2021 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33963866

RESUMO

Face mask recommendations are conflicting across the world during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. While universal face mask wearing is a useful non-pharmaceutical preventive strategy, little is known about the perception of mask wearing during a pandemic. This study aimed to examine people's face mask use in China and Europe. An online survey was conducted among residents in China, Austria, Germany, and Switzerland from the 1st to 10th of April 2020. With a convenience sampling approach, 655 valid answers were received including 267 Chinese and 388 European residents (261 from Austria, 101 from Germany, 26 from Switzerland). Self-reported face mask wearing status and related perceptions were assessed. Compared with the Europeans, Chinese participants showed a stronger pro-masking tendency. Subjective norm was an important predictor of face mask wearing in public. Wearing of face masks in the Chinese sample was also associated with risk perception as well as obedience to advice from local health authority. Discrepancies in face mask wearing suggest that targeted measures to promote face mask wearing are needed in Europe. Globally coordinated guidelines on pandemics are also warranted to face the next waves of COVID-19 and other infectious respiratory diseases.

3.
AIDS Res Ther ; 18(1): 25, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933131

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Integrase inhibitors (INIs)-based antiretroviral therapies (ART) are more recommended than efavirenz (EFV)-based ART for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Yet, the advantage of integrase inhibitors in treating TB/HIV coinfection is uncertain. Therefore, the objective of this systematic review is to evaluate the effects and safety of INIs- versus EFV-based ART in TB/HIV coinfection, and demonstrate the feasibility of the regimens. METHODS: Four electronic databases were systematically searched through September 2020. Fixed-effects models were used to calculate pooled effect size for all outcomes. The primary outcomes were virologic suppression and bacteriology suppression for INIs- versus EFV-based ART. Secondary outcomes included CD4+ cell counts change from baseline, adherence and safety. RESULTS: Three trials (including 672 TB/HIV patients) were eligible. ART combining INIs and EFV had similar effects for all outcomes, with none of the point estimates argued against the INIs-based ART on TB/HIV patients. Compared to EFV-based ART as the reference group, the RR was 0.94 (95% CI 0.85 to 1.05) for virologic suppression, 1.00 (95% CI 0.95 to 1.05) for bacteriology suppression, 0.98 (95% CI 0.95 to 1.01) for adherence. The mean difference in CD4+ cell counts increase between the two groups was 14.23 cells/µl (95% CI 0- 6.40 to 34.86). With regard to safety (adverse events, drug-related adverse events, discontinuation for drugs, grade 3-4 adverse events, IRIS (grade 3-4), and death), INIs-based regimen was broadly similar to EFV-based regimens. The analytical results in all sub-analyses of raltegravir- (RAL) and dolutegravir (DTG) -based ART were valid. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis demonstrates similar efficacy and safety of INIs-based ART compared with EFV-based ART. This finding supports INIs-based ART as a first-line treatment in TB/HIV patients. The conclusions presented here still await further validation owing to insufficient data.

4.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 60, 2021 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33957986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recurrent infections of animal hosts with avian influenza viruses (AIVs) have posted a persistent threat. It is very important to understand the avian influenza virus distribution and characteristics in environment associated with poultry and wild bird. The aim of this study was to analyze the geographic and seasonal distributions of AIVs in the 31 provinces, municipalities and autonomous region (PMA) of China, compare the AIVs prevalence in different collecting sites and sampling types, analyze the diversity of AIVs subtypes in environment. METHODS: A total of 742 005 environmental samples were collected from environmental samples related to poultry and wild birds in different locations in the mainland of China during 2014-2018. Viral RNA was extracted from the environmental samples. Real-time RT-PCR assays for influenza A, H5, H7 and H9 subtypes were performed on all the samples to identify subtypes of influenza virus. The nucleic acid of influenza A-positive samples were inoculated into embryonated chicken eggs for virus isolation. Whole-genome sequencing was then performed on Illumina platform. SPSS software was used to paired t test for the statistical analysis. ArcGIS was used for drawing map. Graphpad Prism was used to make graph. RESULTS: The nucleic acid positivity rate of influenza A, H5, H7 and H9 subtypes displayed the different characteristics of geographic distribution. The nucleic acid positivity rates of influenza A were particularly high (25.96%-45.51%) in eleven provinces covered the Central, Eastern, Southern, Southwest and Northwest of China. The nucleic acid positivity rates of H5 were significantly high (11.42%-13.79%) in two provinces and one municipality covered the Southwest and Central of China. The nucleic acid positivity rates of H7 were up to 4% in five provinces covered the Eastern and Central of China. The nucleic acid positivity rates of H9 were higher (13.07%-2.07%) in eleven PMA covered the Southern, Eastern, Central, Southwest and Northwest of China. The nucleic acid positivity rate of influenza A, H5, H7 and H9 showed the same seasonality. The highest nucleic acid positivity rates of influenza A, H5, H7, H9 subtypes were detected in December and January and lowest from May to September. Significant higher nucleic acid positivity rate of influenza A, H5, H7 and H9 were detected in samples collected from live poultry markets (LPM) (30.42%, 5.59%, 4.26%, 17.78%) and poultry slaughterhouses (22.96%, 4.2%, 2.08%, 12.63%). Environmental samples that were collected from sewage and chopping boards had significantly higher nucleic acid positivity rates for influenza A (36.58% and 33.1%), H5 (10.22% and 7.29%), H7(4.24% and 5.69%)and H9(21.62% and 18.75%). Multiple subtypes of AIVs including nine hemagglutinin (HA) and seven neuraminidase (NA) subtypes were isolated form the environmental samples. The H5, H7, and H9 subtypes accounted for the majority of AIVs in environment. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we found the avian influenza viruses characteristics of geographic distribution, seasonality, location, samples types, proved that multiple subtypes of AIVs continuously coexisted in the environment associated with poultry and wild bird, highlighted the need for environmental surveillance in China.

6.
J Physiol Biochem ; 2021 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33893994

RESUMO

The objective of this study is to evaluate the role of miR-137 in low-intensity shear stress-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and cell apoptosis in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). HAECs were transfected with miR-137 mimic, miR-137 inhibitor, or the corresponding negative control and then exposed to pulsatile shear stress in a parallel-plate flow chamber at 1, 2, 5, 10, and 15 dyn/cm2 for 3 h. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to detect mRNA expression of miR-137 and SDS22. A dual-luciferase reporter assay was employed to verify the direct interaction between miR-137 and SDS22. The internal morphology of cells and cell apoptosis was assessed by TUNEL staining observed under a transmission electron microscope. Meanwhile, the protein expression of oxidative stress-related, apoptosis-related, and activated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/activator protein-1 (AP-1) signaling-related genes were analyzed by western blotting. Low strength shear stress (0-5 dyn/cm2) caused a negative change of HAEC surface and internal morphology in an intensity-dependent manner, and these changes were gradually weakened when shear stress was increased more than 5 dyn/cm2. Furthermore, low-intensity shear stress promoted oxidative stress response, accelerated cell apoptosis, and upregulated miR-137 expression and JNK/AP-1 signaling in HAECs. MiR-137 directly targets SDS22. Knockdown of miR-137 noticeably reduced activation of JNK/AP-1 signaling, oxidative stress response, and cell apoptosis induced by shear stress. MiR-137 regulated low-intensity shear stress-induced human aortic endothelial cell ER stress and cell apoptosis via JNK/AP-1 signaling.

7.
Turk J Gastroenterol ; 32(1): 76-81, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33893769

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: C-C motif ligand 5 (CCL5) is reported to play a key role in acute and chronic liver diseases. However, the association between CCL5 and chronic hepatitis B (CHB) remains to be explored. We aimed to investigate the CCL5 expression in the liver tissues of CHB patients and compared the CCL5 expression among CHB patients with different stages of liver inflammation and fibrosis. METHODS: Liver tissue specimens from 51 CHB patients who underwent liver biopsy and twelve healthy liver donors were included in the present study. CCL5 expression in the liver tissues was analyzed using immunohistochemistry. The hepatic inflammation grades and fibrotic stages of CHB patients were assessed by the Scheuer classification system. RESULTS: Livers of CHB patients exhibited significantly accumulated CCL5+ cells when compared to those of healthy controls (42.80 ± 4.37 vs. 7.25 ± 0.99/HPF, P < .001). CHB patients with higher hepatic inflammation grades had more CCL5+ cells in their livers than those with lower grades (P < .05). However, the numbers of CCL5+ cells were not correlated with the fibrotic stages in CHB patients (r = .073, P = .61). The number of CCL5+ cells in the liver tissues of CHB patients was positively correlated with alanine transaminase levels (r = .278, P = .041) and aspartate aminotransferase levels (r = .328, P = .009). CONCLUSIONS: CHB patients have a significant accumulation of CCL5+ cells in the liver, and CCL5 may play a pathological role in hepatic inflammation of CHB.

9.
Environ Microbiol ; 2021 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33876543

RESUMO

Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are phylogenetically diverse prokaryotes that can produce intracellular chain-assembled nanocrystals of magnetite (Fe3 O4 ) or greigite (Fe3 S4 ). Compared with their wide distribution in the Alpha-, Eta- and Delta-proteobacteria classes, few MTB strains have been identified in the Gammaproteobacteria class, resulting in limited knowledge of bacterial diversity and magnetosome biomineralization within this phylogenetic branch. Here, we identify two magnetotactic Gammaproteobacteria strains (tentatively named FZSR-1 and FZSR-2 respectively) from a salt evaporation pool in Bohai Bay, at the Fuzhou saltern, Dalian City, eastern China. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that strain FZSR-2 is the same species as strains SHHR-1 and SS-5, which were discovered previously from brackish and hypersaline environments respectively. Strain FZSR-1 represents a novel species. Compared with strains FZSR-2, SHHR-1 and SS-5 in which magnetite particles are assembled into a single chain, FZSR-1 cells form relatively narrower magnetite nanoparticles that are often organized into double chains. We find a good relationship between magnetite morphology within strains FZSR-2, SHHR-1 and SS-5 and the salinity of the environment in which they live. This study expands the bacterial diversity of magnetotactic Gammaproteobacteria and provides new insights into magnetosome biomineralization within magnetotactic Gammaproteobacteria.

10.
Nature ; 592(7854): 353, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33850319
11.
Cytokine ; 142: 155500, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33810947

RESUMO

We quantified the serum levels of 34 cytokines/chemokines in 30 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Elevated levels of IP-10 and IL-7 were detected in the acute and convalescent stages of the infection and were highly associated with disease severity.


Assuntos
/sangue , Quimiocina CXCL10/sangue , Interleucina-7/sangue , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
Front Immunol ; 12: 610789, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33815365

RESUMO

Natural killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes primarily involved in innate immunity and possess important functional properties in anti-viral and anti-tumor responses; thus, these cells have broad potential for clinical utilization. NK cells originate from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) through the following two independent and continuous processes: early commitment from HSCs to IL-15-responsive NK cell progenitors (NKPs) and subsequent differentiation into mature NK cells in response to IL-15. IL-15 is the most important cytokine for NK cell development, is produced by both hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells, and functions through a distinct delivery process termed transpresentation. Upon being transpresented to NK cells, IL-15 contributes to NK cell development via the activation of several downstream signaling pathways, including the Ras-MEK-MAPK, JAK-STAT5, and PI3K-ATK-mTOR pathways. Nonetheless, the exact role of IL-15 in NK cell development has not been discussed in a consecutive and comprehensive manner. Here, we review current knowledge about the indispensable role of IL-15 in NK cell development and address which cells produce IL-15 to support NK cell development and when IL-15 exerts its function during multiple developmental stages. Specifically, we highlight how IL-15 supports NK cell development by elucidating the distinct transpresentation of IL-15 to NK cells and revealing the downstream target of IL-15 signaling during NK cell development.

13.
Leukemia ; 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33824464

RESUMO

Although chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T) therapy produces a high complete remission rate among patients with relapsed/refractory B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, relapse remains an urgent issue. It is uncertain whether consolidative haploidentical-allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (haplo-HSCT) is suitable for achieving sustainable remission. Therefore, we aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of bridging CAR-T therapy to haplo-HSCT. Fifty-two patients with relapsed/refractory Philadelphia chromosome-negative B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia who underwent haplo-HSCT after CAR-T therapy were analyzed. The median time from CAR-T therapy to haplo-HSCT was 61 days. After a median follow-up of 24.6 months, the 1-year probabilities of event-free survival, overall survival, and cumulative incidence of relapse were 80.1% (95% confidence interval (CI), 69.0-90.9), 92.3% (95% CI, 85.0-99.5), and 14.1% (95% CI, 10.7-17.4), respectively, while the corresponding 2-year probabilities were 76.0% (95% CI, 64.2-87.7), 84.3% (95% CI, 74.3-94.3), and 19.7% (95% CI, 15.3-24.0), respectively. No increased risk of 2-year cumulative incidence of graft-versus-host disease, treatment-related mortality, or infection was observed. A pre-HSCT measurable residual disease-positive status was an independent factor associated with poor overall survival (hazard radio: 4.201, 95% CI: 1.034-17.063; P = 0.045). Haplo-HSCT may be a safe and effective treatment strategy to improve event-free survival and overall survival after CAR-T therapy.

14.
Theor Appl Genet ; 2021 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33895853

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: A major QTL controlling ovule abortion and SN was fine-mapped to a 80.1-kb region on A8 in rapeseed, and BnaA08g07940D and BnaA08g07950D are the most likely candidate genes. The seed number per silique (SN), an important yield determining trait of rapeseed, is the final consequence of a complex developmental process including ovule initiation and the subsequent ovule/seed development. To explore the genetic mechanism regulating the natural variation of SN and its related components, quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping was conducted using a doubled haploid (DH) population derived from the cross between C4-146 and C4-58B, which showed significant differences in SN and aborted ovule number (AON), but no obvious differences in ovule number (ON). QTL analysis identified 19 consensus QTLs for six SN-related traits across three environments. A novel QTL on chromosome A8, un.A8, which associates with multiple traits, except for ON, was stably detected across the three environments. This QTL explained more than 50% of the SN, AON and percentage of aborted ovules (PAO) variations as well as a moderate contribution on silique length (SL) and thousand seed weight (TSW). The C4-146 allele at the locus increases SN and SL but decreases AON, PAO and TSW. Further fine mapping narrowed down this locus into an 80.1-kb interval flanked by markers BM1668 and BM1672, and six predicted genes were annotated in the delimited region. Expression analyses and DNA sequencing showed that two homologs of Arabidopsis photosystem I subunit F (BnaA08g07940D) and zinc transporter 10 precursor (BnaA08g07950D) were the most promising candidate genes underlying this locus. These results provide a solid basis for cloning un.A8 to reduce the ovule abortion and increase SN in the yield improvement of rapeseed.

16.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33773111

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although several COVID-19 vaccines have been developed so far, they will not be sufficient to meet the global demand. Development of a wider range of vaccines, with different mechanisms of action, could help control the spread of SARS-CoV-2 globally. We developed a protein subunit vaccine against COVID-19 using a dimeric form of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein as the antigen. We aimed to assess the safety and immunogenicity of this vaccine, ZF2001, and determine the appropriate dose and schedule for an efficacy study. METHODS: We did two randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 1 and phase 2 trials. Phase 1 was done at two university hospitals in Chongqing and Beijing, China, and phase 2 was done at the Hunan Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention in Xiangtan, China. Healthy adults aged 18-59 years, without a history of SARS-CoV or SARS-CoV-2 infection, an RT-PCR-positive test result for SARS-CoV-2, a history of contact with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 cases, and severe allergies to any component of the vaccine were eligible for enrolment. In phase 1, participants were randomly assigned (2:2:1) to receive three doses of the vaccine (25 µg or 50 µg) or placebo intramuscularly, 30 days apart. In phase 2, participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1:1:1) to receive the vaccine (25 µg or 50 µg) or placebo intramuscularly, 30 days apart, in either a two-dose schedule or a three-dose schedule. Investigators, participants, and the laboratory team were masked to group allocation. For phase 1, the primary outcome was safety, measured by the occurrence of adverse events and serious adverse events. For phase 2, the primary outcome was safety and immunogenicity (the seroconversion rate and the magnitude, in geometric mean titres [GMTs], of SARS-CoV-2-neutralising antibodies). Analyses were done on an intention-to-treat and per-protocol basis. These trials are registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04445194 and NCT04466085) and participant follow-up is ongoing. FINDINGS: Between June 22 and July 3, 2020, 50 participants were enrolled into the phase 1 trial and randomly assigned to receive three doses of placebo (n=10), the 25 µg vaccine (n=20), or the 50 µg vaccine (n=20). The mean age of participants was 32·6 (SD 9·4) years. Between July 12 and July 17, 2020, 900 participants were enrolled into the phase 2 trial and randomly assigned to receive two doses of placebo (n=150), 25 µg vaccine (n=150), or 50 µg vaccine (n=150), or three doses of placebo (n=150), 25 µg vaccine (n=150), or 50 µg vaccine (n=150). The mean age of participants was 43·5 (SD 9·2) years. In both phase 1 and phase 2, adverse events reported within 30 days after vaccination were mild or moderate (grade 1 or 2) in most cases (phase 1: six [60%] of ten participants in the placebo group, 14 [70%] of 20 in the 25 µg group, and 18 [90%] of 20 in the 50 µg group; phase 2: 37 [25%] of 150 in the two-dose placebo group, 43 [29%] of 150 in the two-dose 25 µg group, 50 [33%] of 150 in the two-dose 50 µg group, 47 [31%] of 150 in the three-dose placebo group, 72 [48%] of 150 in the three-dose 25 µg group, and 65 [43%] of 150 in the three-dose 50 µg group). In phase 1, two (10%) grade 3 or worse adverse events were reported in the 50 µg group. In phase 2, grade 3 or worse adverse events were reported by 18 participants (four [3%] in the two-dose 25 µg vaccine group, two [1%] in the two-dose 50 µg vaccine group, two [1%] in the three-dose placebo group, four [3%] in the three-dose 25 µg vaccine group, and six [4%] in the three-dose 50 µg vaccine group), and 11 were considered vaccine related (two [1%] in the two-dose 25 µg vaccine group, one [1%] in the two-dose 50 µg vaccine group, one [1%] in the three-dose placebo group, two [1%] in the three-dose 25 µg vaccine group, and five [3%] in the three-dose 50 µg vaccine group); seven participants reported serious adverse events (one [1%] in the two-dose 25 µg vaccine group, one [1%] in the two-dose 50 µg vaccine group, two [1%] in the three-dose placebo group, one [1%] in the three-dose 25 µg vaccine group, and two [1%] in the three-dose 50 µg vaccine group), but none was considered vaccine related. In phase 2, on the two-dose schedule, seroconversion rates of neutralising antibodies 14 days after the second dose were 76% (114 of 150 participants) in the 25 µg group and 72% (108 of 150) in the 50 µg group; on the three-dose schedule, seroconversion rates of neutralising antibodies 14 days after the third dose were 97% (143 of 148 participants) in the 25 µg group and 93% (138 of 148) in the 50 µg group. In the two-dose groups in phase 2, the SARS-CoV-2-neutralising GMTs 14 days after the second dose were 17·7 (95% CI 13·6-23·1) in the 25 µg group and 14·1 (10·8-18·3) in the 50 µg group. In the three-dose groups in phase 2, the SARS-CoV-2-neutralising GMTs 14 days after the third dose were 102·5 (95% CI 81·8-128·5) in the 25 µg group and 69·1 (53·0-90·0) in the 50 µg group. INTERPRETATION: The protein subunit vaccine ZF2001 appears to be well tolerated and immunogenic. The safety and immunogenicity data from the phase 1 and 2 trials support the use of the 25 µg dose in a three-dose schedule in an ongoing phase 3 trial for large-scale evaluation of ZF2001's safety and efficacy. FUNDING: National Program on Key Research Project of China, National Science and Technology Major Projects of Drug Discovery, Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Anhui Zhifei Longcom Biopharmaceutical. TRANSLATION: For the Chinese translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.

17.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(5): 1053-1059, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787096

RESUMO

Arecae Semen, as the first place among "Four South Medicines" in China, has great dual-use value of medicine and food. The research of Arecae Semen was mainly focused on the active ingredients and efficacy value, and its potential safety hazards were also concerned. Until now, there is still a lack of clear boundaries between medicine and food, resulting in its safety cannot be guaranteed. Therefore, it is of great significance to establish clear boundaries of medicine and food use and health risk assessment. In this paper, the differences of pretreatment and application methods of Arecae Semen were analyzed, and the research progress of Arecae Semen in chemical composition identification and toxicology research and safety evaluation were reviewed emphatically. Finally, the differences of quality control and safety evaluation of Arecae Semen in pharmacopoeias or standards were analyzed at home and abroad. It was expected to provide reference value for quality control, safety evaluation and international standardization research of Arecae Semen.


Assuntos
Areca , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , China , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/efeitos adversos , Sementes , Sêmen
18.
Talanta ; 228: 122213, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33773748

RESUMO

Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy, with fascinating advantages for biomedical applications, is still in its infancy in terms of the selective detection of aqueous biomolecules because the strong absorption of solvent water always obscures the THz spectroscopic features of biomolecules. Nevertheless, solvent water is not a passive spectator but a useful indicator, as this proposed strategy describes. This strategy utilizes THz attenuated total reflection (THz-ATR) spectroscopy to probe the glucose-induced hydration state changes of smart hydrogels for label-free and selective detection of aqueous glucose. A notable dramatic increase in both the THz absorption coefficient and hydration state (calculated by weighing) of the smart hydrogel was observed with increasing aqueous glucose concentration, which was further verified by a simple two-component model. For aqueous glucose sensing, this method surpasses individual THz-ATR devices and exhibits suitable sensitivity, ideal selectivity and excellent reusability. Moreover, the proposed strategy may provide an alternative option for the selective detection of various aqueous molecules by THz spectroscopy.

19.
Carbohydr Polym ; 257: 117611, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541642

RESUMO

The oil/water (o/w) separation is a global challenge because of the increasing water contamination by oil spill accidents, and oil-containing wastewater produced by food, textile, and petrochemical industries. In this study, we have developed bacterial cellulose (BC) based superhydrophilic/underwater superoleophobic (SUS) membrane for o/w separation. The membrane was designed through a facile method by blending BC nanofibers with silica microparticles (SiO2-MPs), which was further modified by bio-inspired polydopamine (PDA) coatings. The composite membrane exhibited SiO2-MPs dependent o/w separation with a high separation efficiency of >99.9 % and a high flux rate of ∼10,660 Lm-2 h-1 while applying a small negative pressure (0.3-0.5 bar). The membrane with different content of SiO2-MPs also showed the potential to separate oil-in-water emulsion with the highest oil rejection of 98.2 % and the highest flux rate of ∼1250 Lm-2 h-1 on an ultra-low pressure <0.1 bar. Moreover, the membrane showed antifouling properties, recyclability, and stability in harsh conditions.

20.
Curr Biol ; 31(4): R168-R172, 2021 02 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33621498

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic is an alarm call to all on the risks of zoonotic diseases and the delicate relationship between nature and human health. In response, China has taken a proactive step by issuing a legal decision to ban consumption of terrestrial wildlife. However, concerns have been raised and opponents of bans argue that well-regulated trade should be promoted instead. By analyzing China's legal framework and management system regulating wildlife trade, together with state and provincial-level wildlife-trade licenses and wildlife criminal cases, we argue that current wildlife trade regulations do not function as expected. This is due to outdated protected species lists, insufficient cross-sector collaboration, and weak restrictions and law enforcement on farming and trading of species. The lack of quarantine standards for wildlife and increased wildlife farming in recent years pose great risks for food safety and public health. In addition, wildlife consumption is neither required for subsistence nor an essential part of Chinese diets. All these facts make the ban necessary to provoke improvement in wildlife management, such as updating protected species lists, revising laws and changing consumption behaviors. Nonetheless, the ban is not sufficient to address all the problems. To sustain the efficacy of the change, we propose that a long-term mechanism to reduce the demand and improve effective management is needed.


Assuntos
Legislação sobre Alimentos , Carne , Animais , Animais Selvagens , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/legislação & jurisprudência , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Quarentena , Zoonoses
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