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1.
Clin Exp Immunol ; 2022 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35551362

RESUMO

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) are two major complications that contribute to a poor prognosis after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Superior early immune reconstitution (IR) is associated with improved survival after HSCT. However, when all three factors, CMV infection, aGVHD, and IR, are concomitantly considered, the effects of the triple events on HSCT are still unknown and should be studied further. Thus we enrolled 185 patients who were diagnosed as hematological malignancies and treated with HLA-matched sibling transplantation (MST) between January 2010 and December 2014, of whom 83 were positive for CMV infection and 82 had aGVHD. Results showed that patients with both aGVHD and CMV infection had significantly higher non-relapse mortality (NRM), lower overall survival (OS), and delayed CD8+ T-cell IR. Multivariate analyses showed that both aGVHD combined with CMV infection and delayed CD8+ T-cell IR were independent risk factors for post-MST prognosis. Recurrent CMV infections are associated with poor CD8+ T-cell reconstitution. However, superior IR could protect against the negative effects of aGVHD and CMV infection on the transplant outcomes.

2.
Front Immunol ; 13: 814334, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35572602

RESUMO

NKG2C+ natural killer (NK) cell plays a vital role in CMV infection control after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). However, the modulation on NKG2C+ NK cell reconstitution is still unclear. NK cell education is affected by the interactions of HLA-I/killer immunoglobulin receptor (KIR). Our aim is to figure out which HLA-I/KIR interaction plays a dominant role in NKG2C+ NK education. Based on allogeneic haploidentical HSCT, we investigated the expansion and function of single KIR positive NKG2C+ NK cells via the interaction of KIR with both donor HLA and recipient HLA at days 30, 90, and 180 after HSCT. KIR2DL2/L3 single-positive/NKG2C+ cells were significantly expanded compared with KIR2DL1 or KIR3DL1 single-positive/NKG2C+ cells when donors and recipients were both HLA-C1/C1 or HLA-C1C1BW4 (p < 0.05), with higher NKp30 expression (p < 0.05). Moreover, the proportion of single KIR positive NK cells increased in both NKG2C+/NKG2A- NK cells and conventional NKG2C-/NKG2A- NK cells over time. We also observed that increased proportion of KIR2DL2/L3 single-positive/NKG2C+ NK cells correlated with higher incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD). Our study allows a better understanding of HLA-I/KIR interaction in the NKG2C+ NK cell education after HSCT.

3.
Cancer Res ; 2022 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35486454

RESUMO

Immunoediting includes three temporally distinct stages, termed elimination, equilibrium, and escape, and has been proposed to explain the interactions between cancer cells and the immune system during the evolution of cancer. However, the status of immunoediting in cancer remains unclear, and the existence of neoantigen depletion in untreated cancer has been debated. Here we developed a distribution pattern-based method for quantifying neoantigen-mediated negative selection in cancer evolution. The method can provide a robust and reliable quantification for immunoediting signal in individual cancer patients. Moreover, this method demonstrated the prevalence of immunoediting in immunotherapy-naive cancer genome. The elimination and escape stages of immunoediting can be quantified separately, where tumor types with strong immunoediting-elimination exhibit a weak immunoediting-escape signal, and vice versa. The quantified immunoediting-elimination signal was predictive of clinical response to cancer immunotherapy. Collectively, immunoediting quantification provides an evolutionary perspective for evaluating the antigenicity of neoantigens and reveals a potential biomarker for precision immunotherapy in cancer.

4.
Am J Hematol ; 97(6): 762-769, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35293011

RESUMO

Adoptive therapy with cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CMV-CTLs) has emerged as an effective method for CMV infection. However, the efficacy reportedly ranges from 50% to 90%, and factors affecting anti-CMV efficacy have not been established. We investigated the safety and efficacy of adoptive therapy with CMV-CTLs for CMV infection in 190 patients after haploidentical stem cell transplantation (haplo-SCT), and importantly, we analyzed the main factors affecting antiviral efficacy. The CMV peak titer decreased from 19 (range, 1.0-503.0) × 103 copies/mL to 3.9 (range, 0-112) × 103 copies/mL after CMV-CTL infusion. The cumulative complete response (CR) rates in the first, fourth, and sixth weeks after the first CMV-CTL infusion were 37.9% (95% CI 35.0-40.8), 76.8% (95% CI 70.7-82.9), and 89.5% (95% CI 85.2-93.8), respectively. In multivariate analysis, persistent CMV infection prior to CMV-CTL infusion (hazard ratio [HR] 2.29, 95% CI 1.29-4.06, p = .005) and basiliximab treatment within 2 weeks of CMV-CTL infusion (HR 1.87, 95% CI 1.06-3.81, p = .031) were independent predictors of poor antiviral efficacy of CMV-CTL therapy. Our data showed that adoptive therapy with CMV-CTLs is a safe and effective treatment for CMV infection after haplo-SCT. Persistent CMV infection and basiliximab treatment are correlated with poor anti-CMV efficacy of CMV-CTL therapy.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Basiliximab/uso terapêutico , Citomegalovirus , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/etiologia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Transplante de Células-Tronco , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos
5.
Int J Biol Sci ; 18(5): 1974-1988, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35342342

RESUMO

CD38 is highly expressed on multiple myeloma (MM) cells and plays a role in regulating tumor generation and development. CD38 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been used as an effective therapy for MM treatment by various mechanisms, including complement-dependent cytotoxic effects, antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis, programmed cell death, enzymatic modulation, and immunomodulation. Although CD38 mAbs inhibit the proliferation and survival of MM cells, there are substantial side effects on antitumoral NK cells. The NK-mediated immune response needs to be further evaluated to minimize the adverse effects of NK cell loss. The killing effect of CD38 mAbs on CD38high NK cells should be minimized and the potential combination of CD38low/- NK cells and CD38 mAbs should be maximized to better benefit from their therapeutic efficacy against MM. CD38 mAb effects against MM can be maximized by combination therapies with immunomodulatory imide drugs (IMiDs), proteasome inhibitors (PIs), anti-programmed death 1 (PD-1)/programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) antibodies, or cellular therapies for the treatment of MM, especially in patients with relapsed or refractory MM (R/R MM) and drug-resistant MM.


Assuntos
Mieloma Múltiplo , ADP-Ribosil Ciclase 1/metabolismo , ADP-Ribosil Ciclase 1/farmacologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Citotoxicidade Celular Dependente de Anticorpos , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico
6.
Science ; 375(6587): eabg7985, 2022 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35324310

RESUMO

A better understanding of the extent of convergent selection among crops could greatly improve breeding programs. We found that the quantitative trait locus KRN2 in maize and its rice ortholog, OsKRN2, experienced convergent selection. These orthologs encode WD40 proteins and interact with a gene of unknown function, DUF1644, to negatively regulate grain number in both crops. Knockout of KRN2 in maize or OsKRN2 in rice increased grain yield by ~10% and ~8%, respectively, with no apparent trade-offs in other agronomic traits. Furthermore, genome-wide scans identified 490 pairs of orthologous genes that underwent convergent selection during maize and rice evolution, and these were enriched for two shared molecular pathways. KRN2, together with other convergently selected genes, provides an excellent target for future crop improvement.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível , Oryza , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Seleção Genética , Repetições WD40 , Zea mays , Grão Comestível/genética , Genes de Plantas , Oryza/genética , Filogenia , Melhoramento Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/classificação , Repetições WD40/genética , Zea mays/genética
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3590, 2022 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35246593

RESUMO

Extrachromosomal DNA (ecDNA) is a type of circular and tumor specific genetic element. EcDNA has been reported to display open chromatin structure, facilitate oncogene amplification and genetic material unequal segregation, and is associated with poor cancer patients' prognosis. The ability of immune evasion is a typical feature for cancer progression, however the tumor intrinsic factors that determine immune evasion remain poorly understood. Here we show that the presence of ecDNA is associated with markers of tumor immune evasion, and obtaining ecDNA could be one of the mechanisms employed by tumor cells to escape immune surveillance. Tumors with ecDNA usually have comparable TMB and neoantigen load, however they have lower immune cell infiltration and lower cytotoxic T cell activity. The microenvironment of tumors with ecDNA shows increased immune-depleted, decreased immune-enriched fibrotic types. Both MHC class I and class II antigen presentation genes' expression are decreased in tumors with ecDNA, and this could be the underlying mechanism for ecDNA associated immune evasion. This study provides evidence that ecDNA formation is an immune escape mechanism for cancer cells.


Assuntos
DNA de Forma B , Neoplasias , Apresentação do Antígeno/genética , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/patologia , Oncogenes , Evasão Tumoral/genética , Microambiente Tumoral
8.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(2)2022 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35205317

RESUMO

Lesion mimic mutants provide ideal genetic materials for elucidating the molecular mechanism of cell death and disease resistance. The maize necrotic leaf mutant (nec-t) is a recessive mutant with necrotic spots and yellow-green leaves. In this study, we found that nec-t was a light and temperature-dependent mutant. Map-based cloning and the allelic test revealed that nec-t was a novel allelic mutant of the Necrotic4 gene. Necrotic4 encodes the coproporphyrinogen III oxidase (CPX1), a key enzyme in the tetrapyrrole pathway, catalyzing coproporphyrinogen III oxidate to protoporphyrinogen IX. Subcellular localization showed that the necrotic4 protein was localized in the chloroplast. Furthermore, RNA-seq analysis showed that the Necrotic4 mutation caused the enhanced chlorophyll degradation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) response. The mechanism of plant lesion formation induced by light and temperature is not clear. Our research provides a basis for understanding the molecular mechanism of necrosis initiation in maize.


Assuntos
Coproporfirinogênio Oxidase , Porfirinas , Coproporfirinogênio Oxidase/genética , Coproporfirinogênio Oxidase/metabolismo , Coproporfirinogênios , Necrose/genética , Oxirredutases , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
9.
Med Sci Monit Basic Res ; 28: e934807, 2022 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35153294

RESUMO

BACKGROUND This study aimed to evaluate the degree of myopia and reduced physical activity in 3600 college students in China between 2018 and 2020. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study included 3600 participants (1742 men and 1858 women) aged 19 to 23 years from a Chinese college. The distribution of the levels of eyesight associated with physical exercise was assessed using the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study chart measurement method. RESULTS The rates of myopia of students enrolled students in 2018, 2019, and 2020 were 84.31%, 87.22%, and 89.17%, respectively, which showed an increasing trend (P<0.01). For the students starting in 2018, the rate of myopia showed an upward trend in their 3 years of college (P<0.01). The incidence of myopia was significantly different during the academic year between students who participated and did not participate in sports clubs (P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS The findings from this study showed that between 2018 and 2020 there was a high prevalence of myopia in college students in China, which increased annually and was associated with reduced physical activity while at college. These findings may have public health implications for improving physical activity in this population. Physical exercise could effectively prevent the occurrence of myopia, improve the visual status of students, and alleviate the decline of vision.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Miopia , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Miopia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudantes , Adulto Jovem
10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 1924, 2022 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35121778

RESUMO

Coaxial electrohydrodynamic jet (CE-Jet) printing is an encouraging method for fabrication of high-resolution micro and nanostructures in MEMS systems. This paper presents a novel simulation work based on phase field method which is considered as a precise technique in fluid dynamics. The study explores influence of various parameters such as applied voltage, needle-substrate distance, dynamic viscosity, relative permittivity, needle size and flow rate on stability and resolution of CE-Jet morphologies. The morphology of CE-Jet exhibits that width of cone-jet profile and printed structures on substrate were directly proportional to relative permittivity and flow rate. In addition, it was inversely proportional to dynamic viscosity and applied voltage. The study examine that CE-Jet length of inner liquid is inversely proportional to needle-substrate distance in same time. It was later verified in experimental study by producing stable CE-Jet morphology with 300 µm diameter using optimized parameters (i.e., DC voltage 7.0 kV and inner liquid flow rate 400 nl/min) as compared to other validation studies such as 400 µm and 500 µm. The CE-Jet printing technique investigates significant changes in consistency and stability of CE-Jet morphologies and makes Jet unique and comparable when adjustment accuracy reaches 0.01 mm. PZT sol line structures with a diameter of 1 µm were printed directly on substrate using inner needle (diameter of 120 µm). Therefore, it is considered as a powerful tool for nano constructs production in M/NEMS devices.

11.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 19(4): 482-491, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35017718

RESUMO

Adoptive transfer of cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CMV-CTLs) from original transplant donors or third-party donors was effective for the treatment of CMV infection after allogenic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT), but the antiviral activity of CMV-CTL types has not been compared. To determine whether third-party CMV-CTLs provide comparable long-term antiviral efficacy to transplant donor CMV-CTLs, we first compared the antiviral abilities of transplant donors and third-party CMV-CTLs for treatment of CMV infection in two mouse models, compared the in vivo recovery of CMV-specific immunity, and analyzed the underlying mechanisms driving sustained antiviral immunity. The results showed that both donor and third-party CMV-CTLs effectively combated systemic CMV infection by reducing CMV pathology and tumor burden 28 days postinfusion. The in vivo recovery of CMV-specific immunity after CMV-CTL infusion was comparable in both groups. A detailed analysis of the source of recovered CMV-CTLs showed the proliferation and expansion of graft-derived endogenous CMV-CTLs in both groups. Our clinical study, which enrolled 31 patients who received third-party CMV-CTLs and 62 matched pairs of individuals who received transplant donor CMV-CTLs for refractory CMV infection, further showed that adoptive therapy with donor or third-party CMV-CTLs had comparable clinical responses without significant therapy-related toxicity. We observed strong expansion of CD8+ tetramer+ T cells and proliferation of recipient endogenous CMV-CTLs after CMV-CTL infusion, which were associated with a reduced or cleared viral load. Our data confirmed that adoptive therapy with third-party or transplant donor CMV-CTLs triggered comparable antiviral responses to CMV infection that might be mediated by restoration of endogenous CMV-specific immunity.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Animais , Citomegalovirus , Humanos , Camundongos , Transplante de Células-Tronco , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos , Doadores de Tecidos
12.
JCI Insight ; 7(3)2022 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34990406

RESUMO

CMV infection remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Several investigators have reported that adaptive NKG2C+ NK cells persistently expand during CMV reactivation. In our study, 2 cohorts were enrolled to explore the relationships among the NKG2C genotype, NKG2C+ NK cell reconstitution, and CMV infection. Multivariate analysis showed that donor NKG2C gene deletion was an independent prognostic factor for CMV reactivation and refractory CMV reactivation. Furthermore, adaptive NKG2C+ NK cells' quantitative and qualitative reconstitution, along with their anti-CMV function after transplantation, was significantly lower in patients grafted with NKG2Cwt/del donor cells than in those grafted with NKG2Cwt/wt donor cells. At day 30 after transplantation, quantitative reconstitution of NKG2C+ NK cells was significantly lower in patients with treatment-refractory CMV reactivation than in patients without CMV reactivation and those with nonrefractory CMV reactivation. In humanized CMV-infected mice, we found that, compared with those from NKG2Cwt/del donors, adaptive NKG2C+ NK cells from NKG2Cwt/wt donors induced earlier and stronger expansion of NKG2C+ NK cells as well as earlier and stronger CMV clearance in vivo. In conclusion, donor NKG2C homozygosity contributes to CMV clearance by promoting the quantitative and qualitative reconstruction of adaptive NKG2C+ NK cells after haploidentical allo-HSCT.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus/genética , Rejeição de Enxerto/genética , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Mutação , Subfamília C de Receptores Semelhantes a Lectina de Células NK/genética , Doadores de Tecidos , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Citomegalovirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/virologia , DNA/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Seguimentos , Rejeição de Enxerto/metabolismo , Rejeição de Enxerto/patologia , Homozigoto , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Células Matadoras Naturais/virologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Subfamília C de Receptores Semelhantes a Lectina de Células NK/metabolismo , Estudos Prospectivos , Transplante Haploidêntico , Ativação Viral , Adulto Jovem
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(2)2022 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35055000

RESUMO

The cellulose of the plant cell wall indirectly affects the cell shape and straw stiffness of the plant. Here, the novel brittleness mutant brittle stalk-5 (bk-5) of the maize inbred line RP125 was characterized. We found that the mutant displayed brittleness of the stalk and even the whole plant, and that the brittleness phenotype existed during the whole growth period from germination to senescence. The compressive strength was reduced, the cell wall was thinner, and the cellulose content was decreased compared to that of the wild type. Genetic analysis and map-based cloning indicated that bk-5 was controlled by a single recessive nuclear gene and that it was located in a 90.2-Kb region on chromosome 3 that covers three open reading frames (ORFs). Sequence analysis revealed a single non-synonymous missense mutation, T-to-A, in the last exon of Zm00001d043477 (B73: version 4, named BK-5) that caused the 951th amino acid to go from leucine to histidine. BK-5 encodes a cellulose synthase catalytic subunit (CesA), which is involved with cellulose synthesis. We found that BK-5 was constitutively expressed in all tissues of the germinating stage and silking stage, and highly expressed in the leaf, auricula, and root of the silking stage and the 2-cm root and bud of the germinating stage. We found that BK-5 mainly localized to the Golgi apparatus, suggesting that the protein might move to the plasma membrane with the aid of Golgi in maize. According to RNA-seq data, bk-5 had more downregulated genes than upregulated genes, and many of the downregulated genes were enzymes and transcription factors related to cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin biosynthesis of the secondary cell wall. The other differentially expressed genes were related to metabolic and cellular processes, and were significantly enriched in hormone signal transduction, starch and sucrose metabolism, and the plant-pathogen interaction pathway. Taken together, we propose that the mutation of gene BK-5 causes the brittle stalk phenotype and provides important insights into the regulatory mechanism of cellulose biosynthesis and cell wall development in maize.


Assuntos
Parede Celular/metabolismo , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes Recessivos , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Parede Celular/química , Parede Celular/ultraestrutura , Clonagem Molecular , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Loci Gênicos , Especificidade de Órgãos , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Transporte Proteico , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Zea mays/classificação
14.
Br J Haematol ; 196(4): 1007-1017, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787307

RESUMO

Natural killer (NK) cells exert anti-viral effects after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The balance between inhibition and activation of NK cells determined by the inherited repertoire of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) genes may influence Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation after transplantation. To evaluate the relative contributions of KIR genotypes to EBV reactivation, we prospectively enrolled 300 patients with malignant haematological disease who were suitable for haploidentical HSCT. Univariate analysis showed that donors with KIR2DS1, KIR2DS3 or KIR3DS1 genes were associated with an increased risk of EBV reactivation [hazard ratio (HR) 1·86, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·19-2·9, P = 0·0067; HR 1·78, 95% CI 1·07-2·97, P = 0·027; HR 1·86, 95% CI 1·19-2·91, P = 0·0065 respectively]. Multivariate analysis revealed that the presence of KIR2DS1, KIR2DS3 or KIR3DS1 genes was associated with increased EBV reactivation after HSCT. This effect was more evident in the absence of the cognate ligands for the corresponding activating receptors. Our present data firstly showed that donors with activating KIR genes, specifically activating KIR2DS1, KIR2DS3 and KIR3DS1, had an increased risk of EBV reactivation. Precaution for patients whose donors carry activating genes will help prevent EBV reactivation and improve patient prognosis after HSCT.


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Receptores KIR/genética , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Immunol ; 208(2): 492-500, 2022 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34937746

RESUMO

The interaction of inhibitory receptors with self-MHC class I (MHC-I) molecules is responsible for NK cell education. The intensity of DNAM-1 expression correlates with NK cell education. However, whether DNAM-1 expression directly influences the functional competence of NK cells via the KIR/MHC-I interaction remains unclear. Based on allogeneic haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, we investigated the intensity of DNAM-1 expression on reconstituted NK cells via the interaction of KIR with both donor HLA and recipient HLA at days 30, 90, and 180 after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The reconstituted NK cells educated by donor and recipient HLA molecules showed the highest DNAM-1 expression, whereas DNAM-1 expression on educated NK cells with only recipient HLA molecules was higher than that on educated NK cells with only donor HLA molecules, indicating that NK cells with donor or recipient HLA molecules regulate DNAM-1 expression and thereby affect NK cell education. Additionally, the effects of recipient cells on NK cell education were greater than those of donor cells. However, only when the DNAM-1, NKP30, and NKG2D receptors were blocked simultaneously was the function of educated and uneducated NK cells similar. Therefore, activating receptors may collaborate with DNAM-1 to induce educated NK cell hyperresponsiveness. Our data, based on in vitro and in vivo studies, demonstrate that the functional competence of NK cells via the KIR/MHC-I interaction correlates with DNAM-1 expression in human NK cells.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Diferenciação de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Receptores KIR/imunologia , Antígenos de Diferenciação de Linfócitos T/biossíntese , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Humanos , Leucemia Linfoide/terapia , Leucemia Mieloide/terapia , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/terapia , Subfamília K de Receptores Semelhantes a Lectina de Células NK/metabolismo , Receptor 3 Desencadeador da Citotoxicidade Natural/metabolismo , Estudos Prospectivos
17.
Front Oncol ; 11: 758512, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34778077

RESUMO

Haploidentical stem cell transplantation (haplo-SCT), an alternative donor source, offers a curative therapy for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who are transplant candidates. Advances in transplantation techniques, such as donor selection, conditioning regimen modification, and graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis, have successfully improved the outcomes of AML patients receiving haplo-SCT and extended the haploidentical transplant indictions for AML. Presently, treating de novo AML, secondary AML, therapy-related AML and refractory and relapsed AML with haplo-SCT can achieve comparable outcomes to those of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched sibling donor transplantation (MSDT), unrelated donor transplantation or umbilical cord blood transplantation. For some subgroups of AML subjects, such as patients with positive pretransplantation minimal/measurable residual disease, recent studies suggest that haplo-SCT might be superior to MSDT in decreasing relapse and improving survival. Unfortunately, for patients with AML after haplo-SCT, relapse and infections remain the causes of death that restrict further improvement in clinical outcomes. In this review, we discuss the recent advances and challenges in haplo-SCT for AML treatment, mainly focusing on unmanipulated haplo-SCT protocols. We provide an outlook on future prospects and suggest that relapse prophylaxis, intervention, and treatment, as well as infection prevention and therapy, are areas of active research in AML patients who receive haploidentical allografts.

18.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers ; 25(10): 668-673, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34672773

RESUMO

Background: Dynein, axonemal, heavy chain 1 (DNAH1) gene mutations have been found to be related to primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) and the DNAH1 gene is associated with abnormal flagellar morphology in spermatozoa. Infertility is a common condition in women presenting with primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) characterized by hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. The purpose of this study was to explore the clinical significance of genetic diagnostics in several Chinese primary infertile women with atypical POI. Methods: Four atypical POI patients and 100 healthy subjects were recruited, genetic pathogenicityc factors were investigated by whole exome sequencing (WES). Results: WES revealed a homozygous deletion mutation in the DNAH1 gene (NM_015512.5; c.11726_11727delCT, p.Pro3909Argfs*33) in one of the four POI patients. The 31-year-old affected woman presented with a normal menstrual cycle and elevated plasma levels of FSH, around the postmenopausal range, but had a normal antral follicle count and normal anti-Müllerian hormone levels. The patient, after two failed ovulation cycles, became pregnant in the third IVF cycle and delivered a healthy girl at term. Conclusions: The homozygous deletion mutation in the DNAH1 gene suggested that the patient might have a cilia movement disorder of the fallopian tubes, which is a known infertility factor. Moreover, the significantly elevated plasma level of FSH in this patient is likely one of the most important factors leading to her decreased fertility.


Assuntos
Dineínas/genética , Fertilização In Vitro/métodos , Infertilidade Feminina/terapia , Recuperação de Oócitos/métodos , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/diagnóstico , Adulto , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Deleção de Genes , Humanos , Infertilidade Feminina/diagnóstico , Infertilidade Feminina/genética , Nascido Vivo , Masculino , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/complicações , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/genética , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(20)2021 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34681824

RESUMO

Chloroplasts play an essential role in plant growth and development. Any factors affecting chloroplast development will lead to abnormal plant growth. Here, we characterized a new maize mutant, albino seedling mutant 81647 (as-81647), which exhibits an entirely albino phenotype in leaves and eventually died before the three-leaf stage. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) demonstrated that the chloroplast thylakoid membrane was impaired and the granum lamellae significantly decreased in as-81647. Map-based cloning and transgenic analysis confirmed that PPR647 encodes a new chloroplast protein consisting of 11 pentratricopeptide repeat domains. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) assays and transcriptome analysis (RNA-seq) showed that the PPR647 mutation significantly disrupted the expression of PEP-dependent plastid genes. In addition, RNA splicing and RNA editing of multiple chloroplast genes showed severe defects in as-81647. These results indicated that PPR647 is crucial for RNA editing, RNA splicing of chloroplast genes, and plays an essential role in chloroplast development.


Assuntos
Cloroplastos/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Edição de RNA , Splicing de RNA , RNA de Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/metabolismo , Cloroplastos/ultraestrutura , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Cloroplastos , Mutação , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/citologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Domínios Proteicos , Plântula/genética , Plântula/metabolismo , Tilacoides/fisiologia , Tilacoides/ultraestrutura
20.
Front Immunol ; 12: 720354, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34539656

RESUMO

Gut acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) is a serious complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) and is associated with high mortality. Mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are a group of innate-like T cells enriched in the intestine that can be activated by riboflavin metabolites from various microorganisms. However, little is known about the function or mechanism of action of MAIT cells in the occurrence of gut aGVHD in humans. In our study, multiparameter flow cytometry (FCM) was used to evaluate the number of MAIT cells and functional cytokines. 16S V34 region amplicon sequencing analysis was used to analyze the intestinal flora of transplant patients. In vitro stimulation and coculture assays were used to study the activation and function of MAIT cells. The number and distribution of MAIT cells in intestinal tissues were analyzed by immunofluorescence technology. Our study showed that the number and frequency of MAIT cells in infused grafts in gut aGVHD patients were lower than those in no-gut aGVHD patients. Recipients with a high number of MAITs in infused grafts had a higher abundance of intestinal flora in the early posttransplantation period (+14 days). At the onset of gut aGVHD, the number of MAIT cells decreased in peripheral blood, and the activation marker CD69, chemokine receptors CXCR3 and CXCR4, and transcription factors Rorγt and T-bet tended to increase. Furthermore, when gut aGVHD occurred, the proportion of MAIT17 was higher than that of MAIT1. The abundance of intestinal flora with non-riboflavin metabolic pathways tended to increase in gut aGVHD patients. MAIT cells secreted more granzyme B, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interferon (IFN)-γ under the interleukin (IL)-12/IL-18 stimulation [non-T-cell receptor (TCR) signal] and secreted most of the IL-17 under the cluster of differentiation (CD)3/CD28 stimulation (TCR signal). MAIT cells inhibited the proliferation of CD4+ T cells in vitro. In conclusion, the lower number of MAIT cells in infused grafts was related to the higher incidence of gut aGVHD, and the number of MAIT cells in grafts may affect the composition of the intestinal flora of recipients early after transplantation. The flora of the riboflavin metabolism pathway activated MAIT cells and promoted the expression of intestinal protective factors to affect the occurrence of gut aGVHD in humans.


Assuntos
Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Gastroenteropatias/etiologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Células T Invariantes Associadas à Mucosa/imunologia , Células T Invariantes Associadas à Mucosa/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Citocinas/metabolismo , Disbiose , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/diagnóstico , Gastroenteropatias/metabolismo , Gastroenteropatias/terapia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/diagnóstico , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/metabolismo , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Humanos , Imunomodulação , Imunofenotipagem , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Transdução de Sinais , Transplante Homólogo/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
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