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1.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 20(2): 1008-1012, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383098

RESUMO

Institute of Materials, Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics, Jiangyou 621908, P. R. China To improve the stability of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite, cesium-containing methylammonium lead iodide perovskite have been synthesized by one-step solution deposition. With the increasing of Cs+ doping concentration, direct optical band gap of perovskite was increases, while defects and roughness of perovskite thin films were gradually augmented. A certain amount of Cs+ incorporated in perovskite absorb layer could improve power conversion efficiency through the enhancing of open circuit voltage and fill factor. However, excessive Cs+ doping concentration results in the reduced of short-circuit current and fill factor, which reduced power conversion efficiency. The optimized ratio 10% Cs+ doping achieved the highest power conversion efficiency (16.84%).

2.
J Mater Chem B ; 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31565721

RESUMO

MIT is a promising strategy in antibody free analysis for tumour markers. Conventional nanosized MIPs with off-line analysis are beset by tedious operation and unsatisfactory analysis performance. In this work, an on-line analytical device to directly detect AFP, which is a typical tumour marker in cancer screening, was prepared for the first time. A microscope slide was chosen to be the basis of the device. APBA-PA, a polymerizable fluorescent boronic acid monomer, was synthesised and grafted on the surface of the microscope slide to act as the signal transduction pathway between the templates and the device. Along with the hydrolysis of TEOS and the elution of the templates, a portable, stable, easy to operate and low-cost analysis device for AFP with excellent repeatability was successfully prepared. Owing to the excellent selectivity and highly sensitive fluorescence response ability of the device towards the templates, the on-line detection of AFP in human serum was realized. A series of characterizations were applied to the device, and its analysis performance and possible detection mechanism were carefully studied. Furthermore, the device exhibited appropriate application prospects by comparing its analysis results with those of the commercially available ELISA. In our perception, this work is an important step towards MIPs for clinical applications.

3.
J Vis Exp ; (151)2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566603

RESUMO

Significant studies have been carried out to understand effective management of intestinal fibrosis. However, the lack of better knowledge of fibrosis has hindered the development of a preventative drug. Primarily, finding a suitable animal model is challenging in understanding the mechanism of Crohn's-associated intestinal fibrosis pathology. Here, we adopted an effective method where TNBS chemical exposure to mice rectums produces substantially deep ulceration and chronic inflammation, and the mice then chronically develop intestinal fibrosis. Also, we describe a technique where a rapamycin injection shows inhibitory effects on TNBS-mediated fibrosis in the mouse model. To assess the underlying mechanism of fibrosis, we methodically discuss a procedure for purifying Cx3Cr1+ cells from the lamina propria of TNBS-treated and control mice. This detailed protocol will be helpful to researchers who are investigating the mechanism of fibrosis and pave the path to find a better therapeutic invention for Crohn's-associated intestinal fibrosis.

4.
Clin Nutr ; 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542246

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to systematically assess the nutrition care procedures in nutrition guidelines for cancer patients and identify gaps limiting evidence-based practise. METHODS: A systematic search of databases and websites was conducted to identify nutrition guidelines for cancer patients. The quality of the eligible guidelines was evaluated by using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE II). The Measurement Scale of Rate of Agreement (MSRA) was used to assess the scientific agreement of formulated recommendations for nutrition care procedures in the guidelines (2017-2019), and evidence supporting these recommendations was extracted and analysed. RESULTS: Seventeen nutrition guidelines for cancer patients were identified. Only European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) and Australian guidelines have a total quality score of more than 60%, which is worthy of clinical recommendation. Twelve guidelines (2017-2019) were included to further analyse the heterogeneity and causes of nutrition care procedures, and we found that the content and tools of nutrition screening and assessment, the application of immune nutrients, and the selection of nutritional support pathways were heterogeneous. The main reasons for the heterogeneity of nutrition care procedures were insufficient attention to nutrition risk screening, differences in recommendations for nutrition assessment, immune nutrients and nutritional support, unreasonable citation of screening and assessment evidence, preference of developers, and lack of evidence of high-quality research on energy and nitrogen demand. In addition, the fairness and propensity of the guidelines for the selection of evidence for different cancer patients are also potential reasons for the heterogeneity of nutritional care procedures. CONCLUSIONS: The quality of the nutrition guidelines for cancer patients was highly variable. The nutrition care procedures were heterogeneous among the different guidelines in the last 3 years. Specific improvement of the factors leading to the heterogeneity of nutrition care procedures will be a reasonable and effective way for developers to upgrade the nutrition care procedures in the guidelines for cancer patients.

5.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(77): 11642, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512684

RESUMO

Correction for 'Synthesis of hydrophobic and hydrophilic TiO2 nanofluids for transformable surface wettability and photoactive coating' by Jie Hu et al., Chem. Commun., 2019, 55, 9275-9278.

6.
Nano Lett ; 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532687

RESUMO

Perovskite oxides have attracted much attention for enabling the oxygen-evolution reaction (OER) over the past decades. Nevertheless, their poor conductivity is still a barrier hindering their use. Herein, we report a catalyst prototype of Co-based antiperovskite nitrides CuNCo3-xVx (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) to be a highly effective OER electrocatalyst. The synthesized CuNCo3-xVx exhibits greatly enhanced activity and stability toward the OER in alkaline medium. The CuNCo2.4V0.6 shows a mere 235 mV of overpotential to reach 10 mA cm-2, which is comparable to that of Ir/C (232 mV). More importantly, the CuNCo2.4V0.6 is more durable than the conventional Ir/C catalyst. The CuNCo2.4V0.6 catalyst enabled a Zn-air battery to exhibit a cycle life of 143 h with a much higher cell efficiency. The V-substituted CuNCo2.4V0.6 provides a higher content of the desirable Co3+ species in the post-OER catalyst, which ensures a high activity over a long-term operation. With these enhanced effects enabled by the compositional flexibility of CuNCo3-xVx antiperovskite nitride, a feasible strategy for optimizing an electrocatalyst with tunable properties is provided.

7.
Int J Mol Med ; 44(3): 1091-1105, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524224

RESUMO

Damaged endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are associated with poor prognosis in diabetic myocardial infarction (DMI). Our previous studies revealed that an impaired Sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway contributes to insufficient function in diabetic EPCs; however, the roles of the Shh pathway in diabetic EPC apoptosis under basal and hypoxic/ischemic conditions remain unknown. Therefore, the present study investigated whether Shh revitalized diabetic EPCs and consequently improved the deteriorative status of DMI. For this purpose, streptozotocin injection was used in male C57/BL6 mice to induce type­1 diabetes, and diabetic EPCs were isolated from the bone marrow. Apoptosis, cell function, and protein expression were investigated in EPCs in vitro. Mouse hearts were injected with adenovirus Shh­modified diabetic EPCs (DM­EPCShh) or control DM­EPCNull immediately after coronary artery ligation in vivo. Cardiac function, capillary numbers, fibrosis, and cell apoptosis were then detected. First, the in vitro results demonstrated that the apoptosis of diabetic EPCs was reduced following treatment with Shh protein for 24 h, under normal or hypoxic conditions. BMI1 proto­oncogene (Bmi1), an antiapoptotic protein found in several cells, was reduced in diabetic EPCs under normal or hypoxic conditions, but was upregulated after Shh protein stimulation. When Bmi1­siRNA was administered, the antiapoptotic effect of Shh protein was significantly reversed. In addition, p53, a Bmi1­targeted gene, was demonstrated to mediate the antiapoptotic effect of the Shh/Bmi1 pathway in diabetic EPCs. The Shh/Bmi1/p53 axis also enhanced the diabetic EPC function. In vivo, Shh­modified diabetic EPCs exhibited increased EPC retention and decreased apoptosis at 3 days post­DMI. At 14 days post­DMI, these cells presented enhanced capillary density, reduced myocardial fibrosis and improved cardiac function. In conclusion, the present results demonstrated that the Shh pathway restored diabetic EPCs through the Shh/Bmi1/p53 axis, suppressed myocardial apoptosis and improved myocardial angiogenesis, thus reducing cardiac fibrosis and finally restoring myocardial repair and cardiac function in DMI. Thus, the Shh pathway may serve as a potential target for autologous cell therapy in diabetic myocardial ischemia.

8.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4285, 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537803

RESUMO

The preparation of fluorescent discrete supramolecular coordination complexes (SCCs) has attracted considerable attention within the fields of supramolecular chemistry, materials science, and biological sciences. However, many challenges remain. For instance, fluorescence quenching often occurs due to the heavy-atom effect arising from the Pt(II)-based building block in Pt-based SCCs. Moreover, relatively few methods exist for tuning of the emission wavelength of discrete SCCs. Thus, it is still challenging to construct discrete SCCs with high fluorescence quantum yields and tunable fluorescence wavelengths. Here we report nine organoplatinum fluorescent metallacycles that exhibit high fluorescence quantum yields and tunable fluorescence wavelengths through simple regulation of their photoinduced electron transfer (PET) and intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) properties. Moreover, 3D fluorescent films and fluorescent inks for inkjet printing were fabricated using these metallacycles. This work provides a strategy to solve the fluorescence quenching problem arising from the heavy-atom effect of Pt(II), and offers an alternative approach to tune the emission wavelengths of discrete SCCs in the same solvent.

9.
J Immunol Res ; 2019: 7597382, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31534976

RESUMO

Background and Objective: Diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP) is a common complication associated with diabetes. Currently, its underlying pathomechanism remains unknown. Studies have revealed that the recruitment of blood monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) to the spinal cord plays a pivotal role in different models of central nervous system injury. Therefore, the present study aimed at exploring the infiltration and function of MDMs in DNP using a mice model. Methods: Diabetes was induced using streptozotocin in male A/J mice. Mechanical withdrawal thresholds were measured weekly to characterize neuropathy phenotype. Quantitative analysis of CD11b was performed and visualized by immunofluorescence. Spinal cord cells were isolated from myelin and debris by Percoll gradient. Flow cytometry was used to label CD11b and CD45 antibodies to differentiate MDMs (CD45highCD11b+) from resident microglia (CD45lowCD11b+). Mice were injected with clodronate liposomes to investigate the role of MDMs in DNP. The successful depletion of monocytes was determined by flow cytometry. Results: The DNP mice model was successfully established. Compared with nondiabetic mice, diabetic mice displayed a markedly higher level of CD11b immunofluorescence in the spinal cord. The number of CD11b-positive microglia/macrophages gradually increased over the 28 days of testing after STZ injection, and a significant increase was observed on Day 14 (P < 0.01) and 28 (P < 0.01). Further analysis by flow cytometry showed that the infiltration of peripheral macrophages began to increase in 2 weeks (P < 0.001) and reached a maximum at 4 weeks (P < 0.001) post-STZ injection compared to the control. The depletion of MDMs by clodronate liposomes alleviated diabetes-induced tactile allodynia (P < 0.05) and reduced the infiltration of MDMs (P < 0.001) as well as the expression of IL-1ß and TNF-α in the spinal cord (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The infiltration of blood MDMs in the spinal cord may promote the development of painful neuropathy in diabetes.

10.
Adv Ther ; 2019 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564039

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study aims to compare the value of acute physiologic and chronic health evaluation scoring systems (APACHE II and APACHE III) among patients with acute cerebral infarction. METHODS: The APACHE II and APACHE III scores were determined in 399 patients with acute cerebral infarction within 24 h of admission in order to investigate their predictive value for prognosis in acute cerebral infarction. The area under the ROC curve was used to measure the ability of two scoring systems in predicting the prognosis of patients, and the area under the curve of the two scoring systems was compared. RESULTS: The APACHE II and APACHE III scoring systems demonstrated good predictive value for prognosis in acute cerebral infarction, and the areas under the receiver operating characteristic were 0.808 and 0.818, respectively. There was no significant difference in the area under the curve between these two scoring systems. CONCLUSION: Both the APACHE II and APACHE III scoring systems had good predictive value for prognosis in acute cerebral infarction, and there was no obvious difference between these two systems. Preference was suggested for APACHE II.

11.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 519(2): 351-357, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514995

RESUMO

Phenyllactate (PLA) is found in a variety of fermented foods and is a promising antibacterial agent, drug and plastic synthetic precursor. Previous studies have shown that PLA is a product of Phe catabolism in lactic acid bacteria (LAB), and PLA biosynthesis is mainly related to lactate dehydrogenases (LDHs). Here, the genome, transcriptome and fermentation characteristics of PLA-producing Lactobacillus plantarum LY-78 were studied. The fermentation experiments demonstrated that L. plantarum LY-78 possesses the ability to synthesize PLA de novo. Secondly, the genome and transcriptome analyses revealed candidate pathways, operons and key genes for PLA biosynthesis in the strain. Finally, genome-wide transcriptome analysis revealed significant changes in the expression profile of strain LY-78 in the absence and presence of PPA. Overall, this work demonstrates for the first time that PLA can be a by-product of Phe anabolism in LAB, provides new insights and evidence for elucidating the mechanism of PLA biosynthesis in LAB, and may provide new candidate genes and research strategies for future PLA biosynthesis applications.

12.
ACS Nano ; 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545587

RESUMO

Prostate cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors in men, and inhibiting metastasis is a key event but still a major challenge in prostate cancer treatment. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) play an important role in prostate tumor metastasis by shaping the malignant tumor microenvironment. Herein, we constructed a CAF-targeting siRNA delivery system by loading the fibroblast activation protein-α (FAP-α) antibody onto the cell-penetrating peptide (CPP)-based nanoparticles, which specifically downregulated C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12) expression in CAFs. This regulation generated a series of changes through inactivating CAFs so that the malignant prostate tumor microenvironment was reshaped. The tumor cell invasion, migration, and tumor angiogenesis were significantly inhibited, which all contributed to the suppression of the metastasis of an orthotopic prostate tumor. This tumor microenvironment reshaping strategy via CAF targeting and inactivation provides an alternative approach for malignant prostate tumor metastasis inhibition.

13.
Mol Immunol ; 114: 651-660, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557626

RESUMO

Brucella poses a serious threat to human health. High quality vaccines for Brucella are urgently needed to effectively reduce the incidence of brucellosis. OMP2b and BCSP31 are important component proteins of the Brucella outer membrane and are highly immunogenic. Here, we used the bioinformatics software ProtParam, SOPMA, SWISS-MODEL, Rasmol, BepiPred, SYFPEITHI and IEDB to analyze the structure of these two proteins and predict the epitopes of T cells and B cells. Through analysis, we predicted three Th cell epitopes, seven CTL epitopes, eight B cell epitopes, and one T-B combined epitope of OMP2b protein. Subsequently, we also obtained three Th cell epitopes, six CTL epitopes, nine B cell epitopes and one T-B combined epitope of BCSP31 protein. The T-B combined epitopes and CTL epitopes of OMP2b and those of BCSP31 were synthesized to detect their immunogenicity. The IFN-γ ELISPOT assay showed that the T-B combined epitope peptides of OMP2b and BCSP31 activated Th cell immune responses. ELISA analysis detected the specific antibodies against the T-B combined epitope peptide of OMP2b and BCSP31 in the serum of Brucellosis patients. Additionally, CTL epitope peptide of OMP2b and BCSP31 proteins promoted the secretion of soluble perforin and granzyme B in the culture supernatant. In conclusion, our study shows that the T-B combined epitopes and CTL epitopes of OMP2b and BCSP31 have immunogenicity and immunoreactivity. Our results may lay a theoretical foundation for the development of vaccines against Brucella.

14.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 17(1): 94, 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The persistence, biodistribution, and risk of integration into the host genome of any new therapeutic DNA vaccine must be established in preclinical studies. We previously developed the DNA vaccine pcDNA-CCOL2A1 encoding chicken type II collagen (CCII) for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In the present study, we characterized its dynamic profile, biodistribution, and potential for genomic DNA integration in normal vaccinated rodent. RESULTS: A real-time quantitative PCR analysis (RT-qPCR) of animals administered a single dose of pcDNA-CCOL2A1 (300 µg/kg by intramuscular injection) showed that CCOL2A1 mRNA level in the blood peaked between 2 and 6 h post-immunization and then rapidly declined, and was undetectable between day 1-42. CCOL2A1 transcript was detected at the muscle injection site on days 3-14 post-immunization. Starting from day 14, the transcript was detected in the heart, liver, lung, and kidney but not in the spleen or thymus, and was expressed only in the lung on day 28. There was no CCOL2A1 mRNA present in the testes or ovaries at any time point. Non-invasive in vivo fluorescence imaging revealed CCII protein expression from 2 h up to day 10 and from 2 h up to day 35 after administration of pcDNA-CCOL2A1 via the intravenous and intramuscular routes, respectively; the protein had disappeared by day 42. Importantly, CCOL2A1 was not integrated into the host genome. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that pcDNA-CCOL2A1 vaccine is rapidly cleared within a short period of time and is therefore safe, and merits further development as a therapeutic vaccine for RA treatment.

15.
Pharmacology ; : 1-10, 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514188

RESUMO

The present study evaluated the protective effects of pseurotin A against inflammation and the destruction of cartilage in a rat model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). RA was induced by intradermal injections of Freund's complete adjuvant (1 mg/mL), and the treatment with pseurotin A (50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered over 1 week. The effects of pseurotin A were assessed by estimating hind paw volume (HPV) and determining the levels of inflammatory mediators in the serum and synovial fluid of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA)-induced RA rats. Western blot and histopathological assays were performed to assess changes in synovial tissues. Additionally, in vitro analyses of receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa-Β ligand (RANKL)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells treated with pseurotin A at different concentrations (1, 10, and 100 µg/mL) were conducted to assess the effects of pseurotin A on apoptosis ratio, real-time polymerase chain reaction data, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining. Compared to the RA group, treatment with pseurotin A significantly decreased HPV and reduced the levels of inflammatory mediators in the synovial fluid and blood. Additionally, pseurotin A ameliorated the protein expressions of osteoprotegerin, nuclear factor of activated T-cells, nuclear factor-kappa beta (NF-κB), IκBα, extracellular signal regulated kinase, and P38 as well as histopathological changes in the synovial tissue of CIA-induced RA rats. The in vitro findings revealed that pseurotin A treatment did not alter the apoptosis ratio in RANKL-stimulated RAW264.7 cells but significantly reduced the mRNA expressions of calcitonin receptor, NF-κB, and matrix metallopeptidase-9. The present findings suggest that pseurotin A ameliorated the differentiation of osteoclasts and the destruction of cartilage in RA rats via regulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase/RANKL/NF-kB pathway.

16.
Ann Hematol ; 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493003

RESUMO

The prognostic significance of Wilms' tumor gene 1 (WT1) expression at diagnosis in adults with B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) remains poorly understood. A total of 257 adults with Ph-negative BCP-ALL who were consecutively diagnosed and received at least 1 course of induction therapy at our institute were retrospectively analyzed. The WT1 expression patterns were significantly different among the molecularly and cytogenetically defined groups (E2A-PBX1, TEL-AML1, and MLL rearrangements; high hyperdiploidy and B-other). By considering the WT1 expression pattern and the relapse status, 2 cutoff values, 1.8% and 7.2%, were arbitrarily selected to place patients into WT1-low, WT1-inter, and WT1-high groups. In the B-other patients who achieved complete remission (CR), WT1-low and WT1-high patients had similar 3-year relapse-free survival (RFS), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) rates, which were all significantly lower than those of WT1-inter patients. The combined WT1-low/high expression group (n = 132) had significantly lower 3-year RFS, DFS, and OS rates compared with the WT1-inter group (n = 63) of B-other patients (RFS and DFS all P < 0.0001; OS P = 0.0018 and 0.0008). WT1 low/high expression as well as treating with chemotherapy only was independent poor prognostic factors for RFS, DFS, and OS in the B-other patients who achieved CR. Therefore, the molecularly and cytogenetically defined adult Ph-negative BCP-ALL groups have characteristic WT1 expression patterns, and WT1 low/high expression at diagnosis predicts poor outcome in B-other patients.

17.
Nat Rev Drug Discov ; 2019 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31548636

RESUMO

Fibrosis is the abnormal deposition of extracellular matrix, which can lead to organ dysfunction, morbidity, and death. The disease burden caused by fibrosis is substantial, and there are currently no therapies that can prevent or reverse fibrosis. Metabolic alterations are increasingly recognized as an important pathogenic process that underlies fibrosis across many organ types. As a result, metabolically targeted therapies could become important strategies for fibrosis reduction. Indeed, some of the pathways targeted by antifibrotic drugs in development - such as the activation of transforming growth factor-ß and the deposition of extracellular matrix - have metabolic implications. This Review summarizes the evidence to date and describes novel opportunities for the discovery and development of drugs for metabolic reprogramming, their associated challenges, and their utility in reducing fibrosis. Fibrotic therapies are potentially relevant to numerous common diseases such as cirrhosis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, chronic renal disease, heart failure, diabetes, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and scleroderma.

18.
J Mater Chem B ; 7(37): 5626-5632, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469375

RESUMO

Hypoxia is an indicative feature of human neuroblastoma solid tumor. Bioimaging of hypoxic neuroblastoma cells will be beneficial for tracing and locating the tumor in vivo. In this work, we developed a hypoxic neuroblastoma cell imaging probe based on the mechanism of transglutaminase 2 (TG2)-catalyzed polymerization of fluorescence molecule-labeled peptide monomers and intracellular self-assembly of polymerized elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs) specifically for hypoxic neuroblastoma cells. The key influencing parameters, namely thermosensitivity, molecular weight, and upper critical solution temperature, for TG2-catalyzed polymerization into ELPs are discussed. More than 25 repeat units of ELPs were obtained by optimized TG2-catalyzed polymerization. The intracellular polymerization and assembly generated the assembly/aggregation-induced retention effect specifically in TG2-overexpressed cells (e.g., HeLa) with retention efficiencies over 55% up to 24 h. Based on the up-regulation of TG2 expression under hypoxic conditions, our probe can selectively light hypoxic neuroblastoma cells rather than normoxic cells. Our strategy offers useful imaging probes to further study the mechanism of invasion and metastasis of hypoxic brain tumor in vivo with cell tracing and imaging functions.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390846

RESUMO

Climate change has often caused failure in water treatment operations. In this study, we report a real case study at a major surface water treatment plant in Alabama, USA. Following a severe winter storm, the effluent water turbidity surged to >15.00 Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTU), far exceeding the 0.30 NTU standard. As a result, the plant operation had to be shut down for three days, causing millions of dollars of losses and affecting tens of thousands of people. Systematic jar tests were carried out with sediment samples from 22 upstream locations. The coagulation and settleability of sediment particles were tested under simulated storm weather conditions, i.e., low temperature (7 °C) and in the presence of various types and concentrations of natural organic matter (NOM) that was extracted from the local sediments. Experimental results proved that elevated NOM (6.14 mg·L-1 as Total Organic Carbon, TOC) in raw water was the root cause for the failure of the plant while the low temperature played a minor but significant role. Pre-oxidation with permanganate and/or elevated coagulant dosage were found effective to remove TOC in raw water and to prevent similar treatment failure. Moreover, we recommend that chemical dosages should be adjusted based on the TOC level in raw water, and a reference dosage of 0.29 kg-NaMnO4/kg-TOC and 19 kg- polyaluminum chloride (PACl) /kg-TOC would be appropriate to cope with future storm water impacts. To facilitate timely adjustment of the chemical dosages, the real time key water quality parameters should be monitored, such as turbidity, TOC, Ultraviolet (UV) absorbance, pH, and color. The findings can guide other treatment operators to deal with shock changes in the raw water quality resulting from severe weather or other operating conditions.

20.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 140: 1175-1182, 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465799

RESUMO

Traditional superhydrophobic cotton fabrics (SCFs) for oil/water separation were usually fabricated by surface coating with inorganic nanoparticles combined with nonrenewable and nonbiodegradable or even toxic fossil-based chemicals, which would lead to secondary environmental pollution after their lifetime. In this study, we report robust, nanoparticle-free, fluorine-free SFC, which was prepared by acid etching followed by surface coating with epoxidized soybean oil resin (CESO) and subsequent modification with stearic acid (STA). No toxic compound and no nanoparticle were included within the SCF and all the raw materials including cotton fabric, CESO and STA are biodegradable and derived from biological resources. The SCF showed excellent mechanical stability and chemical/environmental resistances. The superhydrophobicity of the SFC survived from mechanical abrasion, tape peeling, ultrasonication, solvent erosion and low/high temperature exposure. The SCF also exhibited good acid/alkali resistance with contact angle over 150° toward different pH water droplets. Moreover, the SCF could efficiently separate oil/water mixtures with efficiency above 97.9% and the superhydrophobicity remained after reusing for at least 10 times. The fully biological-derived SCF with excellent mechanical and chemical resistances exhibit great potential for separation of oil/water mixtures.

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