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1.
J Environ Manage ; 285: 112176, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33601264

RESUMO

The occurrence and ecological risks of ten typical pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) at 12 typical inflow rivers of Taihu lake was investigated in this study. Seven out of the ten typical PPCPs targeted were detected in all the water samples and sediment samples tested. The PPCPs concentration detected were 0-94.91 ng/L for water samples and 0-18.27 ng/g for sediment samples. Sulfamethoxazole (SMZ) and erythromycin (ERY) has relatively higher concentration than other PPCPs in surface water samples, ciprofloxacin (CIP) and ofloxacin (OFX) has relatively higher concentration in the sediment samples. Inflow river-Caoqiao river has a relatively highest contamination of TN and TP, the PPCPs concentration in the river channel, estuary, lake-body also shows high value. This occurs in both the surface water and sediment sample, implied a relatively high pollution input from Caoqiao river. SMZ holds high long-term ecological risks in both surface water and sediment of almost all the tested inflow rivers of Taihu lake. Only ERY has medium short-term risks in surface water, other analyzed PPCPs hold low or insignificant short-terms risks for both surface water and sediments. This study fills the gap of PPCPs ecological risk of surface water and sediment of 12 typical inflow rivers of Taihu Lake, and revealed the importance of control sulfanilamide of the economic belt around Taihu Lake. The results of the present study are useful in providing information for PPCPs control and sustainable water management in freshwater lakes.

2.
Chemosphere ; 275: 129954, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33631402

RESUMO

The harvesting of algal sludge from eutrophic lakes, including the large quantity of organic matters, has the potential to be used as valuable products through the process of resource recovery. This study investigates the fatty acid production potential from algal sludge via anaerobic fermentation under different pH values. The results indicated that the recovery of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) was the highest (3269.25 ± 32.89 mg·COD/L) at pH 11 after 7 days of fermentation. The SCFAs concentration at pH value 11 was 6.24, 1.27, 4.90, and 0.53 times higher compared with that at pH value 3, 5, 7, and 9, respectively. The SCFAs production was continually increased from day 1 to day 7 at pH value 7, 9, and 11. Much fewer middle- and long-chain fatty acids were produced compared with SCFAs. Gross. fatty acid production was the highest at pH 11. The concentrations of soluble protein and polysaccharide were the highest at pH 11, implying that the disruption of algal cells could have a high value at pH 11. The polysaccharide concentration was the lowest at pH 7. The fluorescence excitation-emission matrix profile implied that the disruption of algal cells was the greatest at pH 11. Methane production was greatest at pH 7 and 9. Overall, the results of this study revealed that a pH of 11 was optimal for the recovery of SCFAs from algal sludge due to the higher cell disruption, suitable ORP condition for SCFAs production and inhibition of methanogens.

3.
J Mater Chem B ; 2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33625433

RESUMO

Although clay-based nanocomposite hydrogels have been widely explored, their instability in hot water and saline solution inhibits their applications in biomedical engineering, and the exploration of clay-based nanocomposite hydrogels in bone defect repair is even less. In this work, we developed a stable clay-based nanocomposite hydrogel using 4-acryloylmorpholine as the monomer. After UV light illumination, the obtained poly(4-acryloylmorpholine) clay-based nanocomposite hydrogel (poly(4-acry)-clay nanocomposite hydrogel) exhibits excellent mechanical properties due to the hydrogen bond interactions between the poly(4-acryloylmorpholine) chains and the physical crosslinking effect of the nanoclay. Besides good biocompatibility, the sustainable release of intrinsic Mg2+ and Si4+ from the poly(4-acry)-clay nanocomposite hydrogel endows the system with excellent ability to promote the osteogenic differentiation of primary rat osteoblasts (ROBs) and can promote new bone formation effectively after implantation. We anticipate that these kinds of clay-based nanocomposite hydrogels with sustained release of bioactive ions will open a new avenue for the development of novel biomaterials for bone regeneration.

4.
Org Lett ; 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605734

RESUMO

We report the first asymmetric total synthesis and structural determination of calixanthomycin A. Taking advantage of a modular strategy, a concise approach was developed to assemble the hexacyclic skeleton with both enantiomers of the lactone A ring. Stereoselective glycosylation coupled the angular hexacyclic framework with a monosaccharide fragment to produce calixanthomycin A and its stereoisomers. This enable us to determine and assign the absolute configuration of C-25 (25S) and monosaccharide (derivative of l-glucose).

5.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 163: 111972, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482493

RESUMO

Microplastics as emerging environmental pollutants, its effect to the bioprocess of water and wastewater treatment has aroused concern. This study investigated the effects of microplastic polystyrene (PS) particle size to the activated sludge nutrient removal process. The ammonia, nitrite, nitrate and phosphorus removal under various PS particle size during nitrification and denitrification process was tested. The results indicated that with PS particle size 150-300 µm, the ammonia oxidation during nitrification process was inhibited to 71%, 92%, and 80% as compared with the blank reactor, for PS concentration at 0.01 g/L, 0.05 g/L and 0.10 g/L, respectively. The nitrite accumulation during nitrification process was also high at PS particle size 150-300 µm and concentration no less than 0.05 g/L. The nitrate reduction during the denitrification process was all inhibited to 69%-94% as compared with the blank, except for reactor No.4. The phosphate removal during nitrification process was not affected by the existence of microplastics PS, the average removal rate was over 80% after 2 h and over 95% after 3 h, respectively. The microplastics particle size plays important role in affecting the activated sludge nutrient removal process.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Esgotos , Reatores Biológicos , Desnitrificação , Nitrificação , Nitrogênio , Nutrientes , Tamanho da Partícula , Plásticos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
6.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33405084

RESUMO

This investigation was aimed at determining the concentration levels of five toxic heavy metals (lead, cadmium, chromium, arsenic, and mercury) in dried Porphyra and Laminaria samples from coastal city of China. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used for determination of lead, cadmium and total arsenic. Atomic fluorescence spectrometry was used for mercury, and liquid chromatography coupled with ICP-MS was used for arsenic speciation. The mean concentrations of lead, cadmium, chromium, total arsenic, and mercury were 0.96 ± 0.03 mg/kg, 2.62 ± 0.07 mg/kg, 1.64 ± 0.08 mg/kg, 36.67 ± 0.53 mg/kg, and 7.56 ± 0.42 µg/kg for Porphyra samples and 0.61 ± 0.03 mg/kg, 0.48 ± 0.02 mg/kg, 3.78 ± 0.56 mg/kg, 43.85 ± 1.42 mg/kg, and 46.61 ± 2.02 µg/kg for Laminaria samples. The results were comparable with previous similar research. The potential health risk assessment was conducted by comparing the calculated weekly intakes of toxic metals from Porphyra and Laminaria with provisional tolerable weekly intake. Consumption of these seaweeds does not seem to pose a risk for the consumers' health regarding their content of heavy metals. However, the potential health risk of cadmium should not be overlooked for consumers with high intake of Porphyra.

7.
Sci Total Environ ; 757: 143962, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316533

RESUMO

The effect of ions on the colloidal behavior of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) is an important factor for determining the dispersibility of MNPs. Compared with the effects of cations and organic matter, the effect of anions on MNPs has rarely been studied. Hence, in this study, the effect of anions on the aggregation of Fe3O4 MNPs in the aqueous phase was investigated using F-, Cl-, Br-, NO3-, and SO42-. The results indicated that the effect of anions on the colloidal behavior of the MNPs varied widely depending on their valence state, concentration, hydration ability, solution pH, and the magnetic force between the MNPs. Specifically, at pH 5.0, the anions were mainly adsorbed on the particle surface by electrostatic attraction, decreasing the electrostatic repulsion between the MNPs and causing an aggregation of the particles in the order of SO42- > F- > Br- > Cl- ≈ NO3-. At pH 9.0, anions strengthened the suspension of the MNPs at low ionic strength (IS) (≤5); however, with increasing IS, an aggregation of the MNPs in the following order was formed: NO3- > Cl- > Br- ≥ F- > SO42-. This was a result of the combined effects of the IS of solution, hydrability, and polarizability of the anions. Furthermore, the Derjaguin-Landau-Vervey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory can explain the colloidal behavior of MNPs in the presence of magnetic forces, but it fails to differentiate the MNP behaviors between monovalent anions because the effects of ionic hydrability and polarizability are not considered. Distinctively, the secondary minimum between the MNPs particles were induced via magnetic attraction and played a critical role in adjusting the colloidal stability of the MNPs. Overall, these results indicate that specific ionic effects and magnetic attraction are important for interpreting the colloidal stability of MNPs in aqueous conditions.

8.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(1): 433-441, 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370115

RESUMO

The topic of noncovalent spin-spin interactions is of increasing general interest in supramolecular radical chemistry. In this report, a series of exo- and endo-TEMPO radical-functionalized metallacycles 1-4 and metallacages 5 and 6 were constructed via coordination-driven self-assembly, wherein the number, location, and distance of the spins were precisely controlled. Their intriguing spin-spin interactions were systematically investigated by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and were well interpreted at the molecular level assisted by X-ray crystallography analysis. The results revealed their distinct spin-spin interactions in the solution state, wherein the spin-spin interaction of metallacycle 3 was much stronger than that of the other five assemblies mainly due to its shorter intramolecular spin-spin distance. In the solid state, 1-6 exhibited obvious spin-spin (dipole-dipole) interactions because of the close arrangement of TEMPO units as indicated in their single crystals. Specifically, a large zero-field splitting (ZFS; D = 17.5 mT) was observed in the crystalline form of metallacycle 4, which arose from the strong intermolecular spin-spin coupling. Interestingly, when the counterion of PF6- in 4 was changed to BF4-, the BF4- counterion analog 4a also exhibited a large ZFS, but the ZFS originated from the intramolecular spin-spin interaction due to a small variation in its crystal conformation. Moreover, the reversible on-off switching of the ZFS in 4 and 4a via the crystal-to-amorphous transformation induced by mechanical grinding and solvent vapor stimuli was also successfully realized. The unique and controllable inter- and intramolecular spin-spin interactions in this work reveal new insights for the understanding and manipulation of spin-spin interactions and may open up a new way to develop organic spin materials in the future.

9.
Bioresour Technol ; 322: 124555, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33352391

RESUMO

A bacterial strain was isolated and identified as Pseudomonas sp. DM02 from an aquaculture system. Strain DM02 showed efficient heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification capability. Total ammonia nitrogen (TAN, 10 mg/L) could be completely removed by strain DM02 within 12 h under low nutrient condition. Nitrogen mass balance indicated that 70.8% of the initial TAN was translated into gaseous nitrogen and 28.1% was converted into intracellular nitrogen. Various carbon sources can be used for nitrate removal (>95% within 28 h). The optimal conditions for TAN, nitrate and nitrite removal were pH 7 with carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratios of 8, 12 and 12, respectively. The napA, nirK, and nosZ functional genes were successful amplified from strain DM02. Both bioaugmentation and immobilized technology of strain DM02 present ability (>88%) for continuous treatment of real aquaculture wastewater. This research indicated a great potential for practical application of Pseudomonas sp. DM02 in aquaculture wastewater treatment.


Assuntos
Nitrogênio , Purificação da Água , Aerobiose , Aquicultura , Desnitrificação , Processos Heterotróficos , Nitratos , Nitrificação , Nitritos , Pseudomonas/genética
10.
J Bone Miner Res ; 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33289180

RESUMO

Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a heme peroxidase that plays an important role in innate immunity for host defense against invading microorganisms by catalyzing hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-mediated reactions. Although many reports indicate MPO exerts beneficial or detrimental effects on a variety of inflammatory diseases, little is known with regard to its functional role in bone homeostasis in vivo. Here, our work demonstrates that MPO was transcriptionally down-regulated in response to osteoclastogenic stimuli, and that exogenous alteration of MPO expression negatively regulated osteoclast (OC) differentiation in vitro. Genetic ablation of Mpo resulted in osteoporotic phenotypes and potentiated bone resorptive capacity in mice. Mechanistically, accumulation of intracellular H2O2 and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were observed in MPO deficiency, and MPO overexpression suppressed ROS production in mouse OC precursors. Moreover, a ROS scavenger Tempol inhibited the effect of MPO deficiency on OC formation and function as well as on receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-initiated transduction signals activation including NF-κB, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and Akt, indicating the increased ROS caused by MPO deficiency contributes to osteoclastogenesis. Taken together, our data demonstrate that MPO has a protective role in bone turnover by limiting osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption physiologically through modulating intracellular H2O2 level.

11.
ACS Nano ; 2020 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33337129

RESUMO

Inefficient charge injection and transport across the electrode/semiconductor contact edge severely limits the device performance of coplanar organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs). To date, various approaches have been implemented to address the adverse contact problems of coplanar OTFTs. However, these approaches mainly focused on reducing the injection resistance and failed to effectively lower the access resistance. Here, we demonstrate a facile strategy by utilizing the blurring effect during the deposition of metal electrodes, to significantly reduce the access resistance. We find that the transition region formed by the blurring behavior can continuously tune the molecular packing and thin-film growth of organic semiconductors across the contact edge, as well as provide continuously distributed gap states for carrier tunnelling. Based on this versatile strategy, the fabricated dinaphtho[2,3-b:2',3'-f]thieno[3,2-b]thiophene (DNTT) coplanar OTFT shows a high field-effect mobility of 6.08 cm2 V-1 s-1 and a low contact resistance of 2.32 kΩ cm, comparable to the staggered OTFTs fabricated simultaneously. Our work addresses the crucial impediments for further reducing the contact resistance in coplanar OTFTs, which represents a significant step of contact injection engineering in organic devices.

12.
Environ Microbiol ; 2020 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331075

RESUMO

Lysine metabolism plays an important role in the formation of the insecticidal crystal proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). The genes lam, gabD and sucA encode three key enzymes of the lysine metabolic pathway in Bt4.0718. The lam gene mainly affects the cell growth at stable period, negligibly affected sporulation and insecticidal crystal protein (ICP) production. While, the deletion mutant strains of the gabD and sucA genes showed that the growth, sporulation and crystal protein formation were inhibited, cells became slender, and insecticidal activity was significantly reduced. iTRAQ proteomics and qRT-PCR used to analyse the differentially expressed protein (DEP) between the two mutant strains and the wild type strain. The functions of DEPs were visualized and statistically classified, which affect bacterial growth and metabolism by regulating biological metabolism pathways: the major carbon metabolism pathways, amino acid metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation pathways, nucleic acid metabolism, fatty acid synthesis and peptidoglycan synthesis. The gabD and sucA genes in lysine metabolic pathway are closely related to the sporulation and crystal proteins formation. The effects of DEPs and functional genes on basic cellular metabolic pathways were studied to provide new strategies for the construction of highly virulent insecticidal strains, the targeted transformation of functional genes.

13.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(47): 53247-53256, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185423

RESUMO

Conductive hydrogels have shown great potential in the field of flexible strain sensors. However, their application is greatly limited due to the low conductivity and poor mechanical properties at subzero temperatures. Herein, an ultrastretchable, tough, antifreezing, and conductive cellulose hydrogel was fabricated by grafting acrylonitrile and acrylamide copolymers onto the cellulose chains in the presence of zinc chloride using ceric ammonium nitrate as the initiator. The resulting hydrogel exhibited ultrastretchability (1730%), excellent tensile strength (160 kPa), high elasticity (90%), good toughness (1074.7 kJ/m3), and fatigue resistance property due to the existence of dipole-dipole and multiple hydrogen-bonding interactions on the hydrogel network. In addition, the introduced zinc chloride endowed the cellulose-based hydrogel with remarkable electric conductivity (1.54 S/m) and excellent antifreezing performance (-33 °C). Finally, the hydrogel showed high sensitivity and stability to monitor human activities. In summary, this work presented a facile strategy to construct conductive hydrogel with excellent antifreezing and mechanical properties simultaneously, which showed great potential for wearable strain sensors.

14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(45): e23151, 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33157998

RESUMO

During sepsis, platelets dysfunction contributes to organ dysfunction. Studies on platelets dysfunction in the long-term prognosis of sepsis are lacking. The aim of this study was to assess the role of platelets in the long-term prognosis of sepsis patients.A total of 4576 sepsis patients were extracted from MIMIC III Database. Survival was analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariate cox analyses were performed to identify prognostic factors. Significant prognostic factors were combined to build a nomogram to predict 1 year overall survival (OS). The discriminative ability and predictive accuracy of the nomogram were evaluated using the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis and calibration curves used for sepsis.The more abnormal the platelet level, the worse prognosis of patients. After final regression analysis, age, blood urea nitrogen, platelets, international normalized ratio, partial thromboplastin time, potassium, hemoglobin, white blood cell count, organ failures were found to be independent predictors of 1 year OS of sepsis patient and were entered into a nomogram. The nomogram showed a robust discrimination, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.752. The calibration curves for the probability of the prognosis of sepsis patients showed optimal agreement between the probability as predicted by the nomogram and the actual probability.Platelet was an independent prognostic predictor of 1 year OS for patients with sepsis. Platelet-related nomogram that can predict the 1 year OS of sepsis patients. It revealed optimal discrimination and calibration, indicating that the nomogram may have clinical utility.


Assuntos
Plaquetas , Sepse/sangue , Sepse/mortalidade , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nomogramas , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo
15.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(47): 52992-53002, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33170620

RESUMO

Gas sensors based on polymer field-effect transistors (FETs) have drawn much attention owing to the inherent merits of specific selectivity, low cost, and room temperature operation. Ultrathin (<10 nm) and porous polymer semiconductor films offer a golden opportunity for achieving high-performance gas sensors. However, wafer-scale fabrication of such high-quality polymer films is of great challenge and has rarely been realized before. Herein, the first demonstration of 4 in. wafer-scale, cobweb-like, and ultrathin porous polymer films is reported via a one-step phase-inversion process. This approach is extremely simple and universal for constructing various ultrathin porous polymer semiconductor films. Thanks to the abundant pores, ultrathin size, and high charge-transfer efficiency of the prepared polymer films, our gas sensors exhibit many superior advantages, including ultrahigh response (2.46 × 106%), low limit of detection (LOD) (<1 ppm), and excellent selectivity. Thus, the proposed fabrication strategy is exceptionally promising for mass manufacturing of low-cost high-performance polymer FET-based gas sensors.

16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5806, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33199747

RESUMO

It has been a challenging topic and perpetual task to design and synthesize covalent macrocycles with characteristic self-assembling behaviors and excellent host-guest properties in supramolecular chemistry. Herein, we present a family of macrocyclic diphenylamine[n]arenes (DPA[n]s, n = 3-7) consisting of methyldiphenylamine units through a facile one-pot synthesis strategy. Unlike many other reported macrocyclic arenes, the resultant non-planar DPA[n]s feature intrinsic π-π stacking interactions, interesting self-assembling behaviors and ethene/ethyne capture properties. Specifically, strong multiple intermolecular edge-to-face aromatic interactions in DPA[3] have been systematically investigated both in solid and solution states. The intriguing findings on the intermolecular edge-to-face stacking interaction mode in the macrocycle would further highlight the importance of noncovalent π-π interaction in supramolecular self-assembly. This study will also shed light on the macrocyclic and supramolecular chemistry and, we expect, will provide a direction for design and synthesis of covalent macrocycles in this area.

17.
Mol Reprod Dev ; 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33216405

RESUMO

Psychological stress can affect female reproduction by deteriorating oocyte quality, but the molecular mechanism is unclear. In this study, we used the chronic unpredictable stress model to study the effect of psychological stress on mouse oocyte competence during preimplantation stage, and RNA sequencing in single oocytes to analyze differential gene expression at the transcription level. Stress changed the serum levels of glucocorticoids and reduced oocyte developmental potential, depending on the strength of the stress. Strong stress (two stressors per day) reduced the fertilization rate and induced significant apoptosis in blastocysts. Moderate stress (one stressor per day) reduced the cleavage rate and blastocyst formation rate. Weak stress (one stressor every 2 days) did not have any significant negative effect on the fertilization, cleavage, and blastocyst formation. Hatching rate was not affected by stress, but stress retarded the development of the expanded blastocysts and inhibited the embryo development at early stages. Transcriptome analysis revealed that stress disturbed the expression of cell cycle regulators and apoptotic genes. The hub genes identified through protein-protein interaction analysis include Msln, Ceacam12, Psg16, Psg17, and Psg23, which are all carcinoembryonic or related genes involved in cell adhesion, proliferation, and migration. Thus, stress was inhibitory on fertilization and early embryo development in mice.

18.
Acta Biomater ; 2020 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33148429

RESUMO

Strontium, a popular osteogenic component, has been incorporated into various types of orthopaedic biomaterials to enhance bone regeneration. Strontium performs dual effects in promoting bone formation and inhibiting bone resorption. Previous studies have focused on the effects of strontium ions (Sr2+) in regulating stem cell behavior to initiate regenerative capacity. However, its mechanisms for regulating the fate and homeostasis of stem cells have not been fully elucidated. In this study, the promotive effect of Sr2+ on the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells was confirmed both in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, in response to Sr2+ treatment, stem cells performed asymmetric cell division to balance stemness maintenance and osteogenic differentiation. In initiating osteogenic differentiation, Sr2+ maintained more cells in the cell cycle by upregulating the population of S and G2/M phase cells, and this increase in the cell population contributed to enhanced osteogenic differentiation. The divided cells with different cell fates were observed, with one daughter cell maintained stemness, while the other committed to osteogenic lineage. Further investigation revealed that Sr2+ activated noncanonical Wnt signaling to regulate the expression and distribution of the Par complex, thus regulating cell division. As a result, the daughter cells committed to different cell fates due to the discriminately activation of osteogenic transcription factors caused by asymmetrically distributed Par3 and aPKC. The results of this study could facilitate the design of biomaterials for bone regeneration by providing a better understanding of cell fate determination regulated by strontium.

19.
Environ Pollut ; 268(Pt A): 114240, 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152633

RESUMO

Nanoplastics (NPs) are becoming emerging pollutants of global concern. Understanding the environmental behavior of NPs is crucial for their environmental and human risk assessment. In this study, the aggregation and stability of polystyrene (PS) NPs were investigated under different hydrochemical conditions such as pH, salt type (NaCl, CaCl2, Na2SO4), ionic strength (IS), and natural organic matter (NOM). The critical coagulation concentrations of PS NPs were determined to be 158.7 mM NaCl, 12.2 mM CaCl2, and 80.0 mM Na2SO4. Ca2+ was more effective in destabilizing PS NPs, compared to Na+, owing to its stronger charge screening effect. In the presence of monovalent ions, NOM reduced aggregation through steric repulsion, whereas in the case of divalent ions, NOM induced aggregation through cation bridging. Initial and long-term stability studies demonstrated that, in waters with high IS and NOM content, NOM was the most significant factor affecting NPs aggregation. PS NPs would be highly suspended in all freshwaters, and even in wastewater, whereas they would aggregate rapidly and deposit in seawater. Finally, a statistical model was established to evaluate the hydrodynamic diameter of NPs in different waters. The results indicated the stability of PS NPs in natural aquatic environments and their potential for long-term transport.

20.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(49): 55083-55093, 2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33232130

RESUMO

Pressure/proximity sensing as the essential function of electronic skin (e-skin) has become an emerging technological goal for new-generation electronic devices in a wide variety of application fields, for example, smart electronics, human-machine interaction, and prosthetics. However, the current research lacks pressure/proximity detection of the stretched e-skin, which ignores the key elastic characteristic of skin and hinders the development of e-skin. Here, the pressure/proximity detection of the transparent e-skin in the stretching state is demonstrated based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)/single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT). The high transparency of the e-skin realizes the visual imperception for wearable electronic systems. The perfect combination of stretchable SWCNT and highly conductive PEDOT:PSS endows the sensors with high stretchability and high discrimination capability toward strain, providing an effective way to overcome the interference of strain to realize accurate pressure/proximity detection of stretched e-skin at different strains.

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