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1.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2020 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366940

RESUMO

As the most powerful antigen-presenting cell type, dendritic cells (DCs) can induce potent antigen-specific immune responses in vivo, hence becoming optimal cell population for vaccination purposes. DCs can be derived ex vivo in quantity and manipulated extensively to be endowed with adequate immune-stimulating capacity. After pulsing with cancer antigens in various ways, the matured DCs are administrated back into the patient. DCs home to lymphoid organs to present antigens to and activate specific lymphocytes that react to a given cancer. Ex vivo pulsed DC vaccines have been vigorously investigated for decades, registering encouraging results in relevant immunotherapeutic clinical trials, while facing some solid challenges. With more details in DC biology understood, new theory proposed, and novel technology introduced (featuring recently emerged mRNA vaccine technology), it is becoming increasingly likely that ex vivo pulsed DC vaccine will fulfill its potential in cancer immunotherapy.

2.
BMC Genomics ; 21(1): 348, 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393180

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Compromised intestinal barrier (CIB) has been associated with many enteropathies, including colorectal cancer (CRC) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We hypothesized that CIB could lead to increased host-derived contents including epithelial cells into the gut, change its physio-metabolic properties, and globally alter microbial community and metabolic capacities. RESULTS: Consistently, we found host DNA contents (HDCs), calculated as the percentage of metagenomic sequencing reads mapped to the host genome, were significantly elevated in patients of CRC and Crohn's disease (CD). Consistent with our hypothesis, we found that HDC correlated with microbial- and metabolic-biomarkers of these diseases, contributed significantly to machine-learning models for patient stratification and was consequently ranked as a top contributor. CD patients with treatment could partially reverse the changes of many CD-signature species over time, with reduced HDC and fecal calprotectin (FCP) levels. Strikingly, HDC showed stronger correlations with the reversing changes of the CD-related species than FCP, and contributed greatly in classifying treatment responses, suggesting that it was also a biomarker for effective treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Together, we revealed that association between HDCs and gut dysbiosis, and identified HDC as a novel biomarker from fecal metagenomics for diagnosis and effective treatment of intestinal diseases; our results also suggested that host-derived contents may have greater impact on gut microbiota than previously anticipated.

3.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 2020 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32400823

RESUMO

Searching for half-metals in low dimensional materials is not only of scientific importance, but also has important implications for the realization of spintronic devices on a small scale. In this work, we show theoretically that simple bending can induce spin-splitting in bilayer silicene. For bilayer silicene with Bernal stacking, the monolayer has a long range ferromagnetic spin order and between the two monolayers, the spin orders are opposite, giving rise to an antiferromagnetic configuration for the ground state of the bilayer silicene. Under bending, the antiferromagnetic spin order is retained but the energetic degeneracy of opposite spin states is lifted. Due to the unusual deformation potentials of the conduction band minimum (CBM) and valence band maximum (VBM) as revealed by density-functional theory calculations and density-functional tight-binding calculations, this spin-splitting is nearly proportional to the degree of bending deformation. Consequently, the spin-splitting can be significant and the desired half-metallic state may emerge when the bending increases, which has been verified by direct simulation of the bent bilayer silicene using the generalized Bloch theorem. Our results hint that bilayer silicene may be an excellent candidate for half-metallicity.

4.
Biol Psychiatry ; 2020 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32414481

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) comorbid with sleep disturbances can produce profound disruption in daily life and negatively impact quality of life of both the child and the family. However, the temporal relationship between ADHD and sleep impairment is unclear, as are underlying common brain mechanisms. METHODS: This study used data from the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (n = 1601, 52% female) and the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study (n = 3515, 48% female). Longitudinal relationships between symptoms were examined using cross-lagged panel models. Gray matter volume neural correlates were identified using linear regression. The transcriptomic signature of the identified brain-ADHD-sleep relationship was characterized by gene enrichment analysis. Confounding factors, such as stimulant drugs for ADHD and socioeconomic status, were controlled for. RESULTS: ADHD symptoms contributed to sleep disturbances at one or more subsequent time points in both cohorts. Lower gray matter volumes in the middle frontal gyrus and inferior frontal gyrus, amygdala, striatum, and insula were associated with both ADHD symptoms and sleep disturbances. ADHD symptoms significantly mediated the link between these structural brain abnormalities and sleep dysregulation, and genes were differentially expressed in the implicated brain regions, including those involved in neurotransmission and circadian entrainment. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that ADHD symptoms and sleep disturbances have common neural correlates, including structural changes of the ventral attention system and frontostriatal circuitry. Leveraging data from large datasets, these results offer new mechanistic insights into this clinically important relationship between ADHD and sleep impairment, with potential implications for neurobiological models and future therapeutic directions.

5.
Phys Med Biol ; 2020 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32464621

RESUMO

In spectral computed tomography (CT), the object is respectively scanned under different X-ray spectrum. Multiple projection data can be collectively used for reconstructing basis images and virtual monochromatic images, which have been used in material decomposition, beam-hardening correction, bone removal, and so on. In practice, projection data may be obtained in limited scanning angular range. Images reconstructed from limited-angle data by conventional spectral CT reconstruction methods will be deteriorated by limited-angle related artifacts and basis image decomposition errors. Motivated by observations of limited-angle spectral CT, we propose a sequential regularization based limited-angle spectral CT reconstruction model and its numerical solver. Both simulated and real data experiments validate that our method is capable of suppressing artifacts, preserving edges and reducing decomposition errors.

6.
BMC Oral Health ; 20(1): 147, 2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32429918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gingivitis is a common oral health problem, and untreated gingivitis can progress to periodontitis. The objectives of this study were to (1) explore associated factors of gingival bleeding and calculus among 12-year-old adolescents; (2) find predictive models for gingivitis management. METHODS: Four thousand five hundred twenty-five subjects aged 12 in Sichuan Province were investigated. The questionnaire and clinical examination were applied in schools, and two-level logistic regression models were constructed to interpret the effect of individual and contextual factors on Chinese adolescents' gingival bleeding and calculus. RESULTS: 46.63% (95%CI: 40.71, 51.60) and 66.94% (95%CI: 56.85, 67.45) of the subjects presented gingival bleeding and calculus, respectively. For the gingival bleeding cases, the model showed the significant associated indicators were hukou (OR = 0.61, 95% CI: 0.52-0.72), family size (OR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.19-1.68), parental educational level (father: OR = 0.53, 95% CI: 0.45-0.63; mother: OR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.59-0.86), tooth-brushing frequency (OR = 0.35, 95% CI: 0.26-0.48), dental floss use (OR = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.41-0.83), sugar-containing drink consumption (OR = 2.11, 95% CI: 1.80-2.49), and dental visit (OR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.19-1.74). It also confirmed that gender (OR = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.13-1.54), hukou (OR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.59-0.82), family size (OR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.12-1.59), parental educational level (father: OR = 0.46, 95% CI: 0.39-0.54; mother: OR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.59-0.82), tooth-brushing frequency (OR = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.42-0.78), dental floss use (OR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.48-0.90) and sugar-containing drink consumption (OR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.11-1.53) were associated factors for dental calculus. CONCLUSIONS: Gingival bleeding and calculus were common in western Chinese adolescents. Socio-demographic factors including gender, hukou and family factors are strong determinants of gingival health in Chinese adolescents. In addition, health-related lifestyle behaviors such as healthy diet, good hygiene care and more dental visits are good predictors of better gingival status.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32344387

RESUMO

Floquet Majorana edge modes capture the topological features of periodically driven p-wave superconductors. We present a Kitaev chain with multiple time periodic driving terms. Our results demonstrate how multiple driving will affect Floquet bands in frequency space, leading to more robust Floquet Majorana edge modes against driving frequency ω in comparison with the single driving scenario. Meanwhile, We have proposed how to predict Majorana edge modes via the Zak phase of Floquet bands. Besides, in contrast to the cases with single driving term, where the constant phase can be gauged out by properly choosing the initial time, we have shown the relative phase between multiple driving can not be gauged out and will play a dominant role in deciding topological phase transitions. For the sake of completeness, we also investigate the high frequency limit. Analytical results on effective Hamiltonian can be obtained via Magnus expansion and relative phase induced topological transitions can be shown explicitly.

8.
Acta Orthop ; : 1-7, 2020 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237934

RESUMO

Background and purpose - The successful eradication of calcaneus infection with limb salvage remains a challenge. We describe the outcomes of cortical bone windowing followed by eggshell-like debridement and implantation of antibiotic-loaded calcium sulphate (CS) for localized (Cierny-Mader type III) calcaneal osteomyelitis (CO).Patients and methods - We report a retrospective study of 34 patients. Infection followed trauma or orthopedic surgery in 30 patients and hematogenous spread in 4 patients. 31 patients had a sinus tract, accompanied by a soft tissue defect in 3 patients. All patients received cortical bone windowing, debridement, multiple sampling, local implantation of vancomycin- and gentamicin-loaded CS, skin closure or flap coverage, and culture-specific systematic antibiotic treatment in a single-stage procedure. Patients were followed up for a median of 26 months.Results - Infection was eradicated in 29 patients after the single-stage surgery, and all of the 5 recurrent infections were cleared by repeated surgery without amputation. Other adverse events included 11 patients with aseptic wound leakage and 1 unrelated death. Compared with those before surgery, the median postoperative scores of the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) ankle hindfoot scale (65 vs. 86 vs. 89) and the visual analog scale (VAS) for pain (6 vs. 3 vs. 1) improved at the 1-year and 2-year follow-up.Interpretation - This single-stage protocol, cortical bone windowing, and eggshell-like debridement combined with local implantation of antibiotic-loaded CS is effective in treating type III CO. However, the incidence of aseptic wound leakage is high.

9.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(20): 23514-23522, 2020 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32329606

RESUMO

Hydrogel bioelectronics as one of the next-generation wearable and implantable electronics ensures excellent biocompatibility and softness to link the human body and electronics. However, volatile, opaque, and fragile features of hydrogels due to the sparse and microscale three-dimensional network seriously limit their practical applications. Here, we report a type of smart and robust nanofibrillar poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) organohydrogels fabricated via one-step physical cross-linking. The nanofibrillar network cross-linked by numerous PVA nanocrystallites enables the formation of organohydrogels with high transparency (90%), drying resistance, high toughness (3.2 MJ/m3), and tensile strength (1.4 MPa). For strain sensor application, the PVA ionic organohydrogel after soaking in NaCl solution shows excellent linear sensitivity (GF = 1.56, R2 > 0.998) owing to the homogeneous nanofibrillar PVA network. We demonstrate the potential applications of the nanofibrillar PVA-based organohydrogel in smart contact lens and emotion recognition. Such a strategy paves an effective way to fabricate strong, tough, biocompatible, and ionically conductive organohydrogels, shedding light on multifunctional sensing applications in next-generation flexible bioelectronics.

10.
Bioinformatics ; 2020 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32145009

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: Predicting potential links in biomedical bipartite networks can provide useful insights into the diagnosis and treatment of complex diseases and the discovery of novel drug targets. Computational methods have been proposed recently to predict potential links for various biomedical bipartite networks. However, existing methods are usually rely on the coverage of known links, which may encounter difficulties when dealing with new nodes without any known link information. RESULTS: In this study, we propose a new link prediction method, named graph regularized generalized matrix factorization (GRGMF), to identify potential links in biomedical bipartite networks. First, we formulate a generalized matrix factorization model to exploit the latent patterns behind observed links. In particular, it can take into account the neighborhood information of each node when learning the latent representation for each node, and the neighborhood information of each node can be learned adaptively. Second, we introduce two graph regularization terms to draw support from affinity information of each node derived from external databases to enhance the learning of latent representations. We conduct extensive experiments on six real datasets. Experiment results show that GRGMF can achieve competitive performance on all these datasets, which demonstrate the effectiveness of GRGMF in prediction potential links in biomedical bipartite networks. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: The package is available at https://github.com/happyalfred2016/GRGMF. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

11.
Sci Total Environ ; 722: 137892, 2020 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199385

RESUMO

Establishing an optimal indicator to communicate health risks of multiple air pollutants to public is much important. The Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) has been developed in many countries as a communication tool of multiple air pollutants related health risks. However, the current AQHI is based on the sum of the excess health risks which are typically derived from the single-pollutant statistical models. Such a strategy may overestimate the joint effect of multiple pollutants. We proposed an improved strategy to construct the AQHI based on a Bayesian multipollutant weighted model. Using this strategy, two improved indices - Bayesian multipollutant AQHI (BMP-AQHI) and Bayesian multipollutant AQHI with seasonal specificity (SBMP-AQHI) were calculated to present the multiple pollutants related health risks to the cardiovascular system based on data collected in Chengdu, China during 2013 to 2018. The two improved indices were compared to current Air Quality Index (AQI) and AQHI to evaluate the effectiveness of the improved indices in characterizing multipollutant health risks. The AQI risk classification suggested much smaller health risks than AQHIs. Among three AQHI types, the BMP-AQHI and SBMP-AQHI suggested slightly lower health risks to the cardiovascular system than the current AQHI. In the evaluation analysis, the SBMP-AQHI had the strongest association with the mortality of cardiovascular disease (CVD) (2.66%; 95%CI, 1.57%, 3.76%). In the subgroup analysis, an interquartile increase (IQR) of the SBMP-AQHI was associated with 3.21% (95%CI, 2.06%, 4.38%), 1.34% (95%CI, -0.13%, 2.82%), and 4.20% (95%CI, 2.59%, 5.84%) increases for CVD mortality in the elderly, male, and female subgroups, respectively. The study shows that the improved AQHIs can communicate the health information of multiple air pollutants more efficiently. The study also indicates the necessity to consider seasonal specificity in the construction of the AQHI.

12.
Sci Total Environ ; 722: 137921, 2020 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32208268

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Growing evidence suggests that the diurnal temperature range (DTR) could modify the temperature-disease relationship for those environmentally-related infectious diseases. However, there is a lack of evidence on the hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). In this study, we thoroughly examined this hypothesis via a nationwide study. METHOD: We collected the daily time series of HFMD cases and meteorological factors of 143 cities in mainland China from 2009 to 2014. For each city, we calculated the arithmetic average of the meteorological factors as a proxy for the climatic differences. We then performed two-stage time series analyses for four different climatic regions. Specifically, a distributed lag nonlinear model was applied to estimate the temperature-HFMD relationship for each city, and then a multivariate meta-regression was implemented to examine whether the DTR could explain the potential heterogeneity as an effect modifier. In addition, we compared the modification effect of the DTR with those of other climatic factors. RESULT: We found a significant modification effect of DTR on the temperature-HFMD relationship in the moderate-temperature region. Besides, the modification effect was only observed at hot temperatures. Comparing the maximum temperature (32.2 °C) to the median temperature (11.9 °C), the risk ratio was 1.60 (1.33, 1.92) when DTR was in the 10th percentile (6.8 °C) and 0.81 (0.69, 0.96) when the DTR was in the 90th percentile (11.8 °C). By comparing DTR with other climatic variables, we found that the DTR had the best performance in improving the model fit (ΔQAIC= 10.1) and reducing the heterogeneity (ΔI2 = 3.1%) in the multivariate meta-regression. CONCLUSION: Our findings verified that DTR can modify the temperature-HFMD relationship. Besides, our findings also implied that DTR could be used as a proxy variable to comprehensively reflect the modification effects of multiple climatic factors.

13.
Gene ; 743: 144605, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199950

RESUMO

Atrijuglans hetaohei Yang (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea), is one of the major pests that can seriously damage the walnut fruits. Neuropeptides and their receptors regulate most physiological functions in insects and represent new targets for the development of control agents. To identify the neuropeptides and their receptors from A. hetaohei, we sequenced and analyzed its head transcriptomic data, identified 32 neuropeptides and 39 neuropeptide receptor genes. Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses suggest that A. hetaohei neuropeptides and receptor genes have high homology with those in Bombyx mori, Chilo suppressalis, Plutella xylostella and Helicoverpa armigera. Moreover, gene expression patterns revealed that neuropeptide genes such as AKH1, CP, MS and PTTH were expressed specifically in male head, while CAP3, DH, NPLP1, PBAN and SIF showed higher expression in the female head. Bur showed abdomen biased expression in both male and female. Neuropeptide receptor genes such as A8, A11, A15 and LGR were highly expressed in male head, whereas A24 and LGR2 were preferentially expressed in female head. This is the first sequencing, identification and expression analyses of neuropeptides and neuropeptide receptor genes from A. hetaohei. Our results could provide a powerful background that will facilitate the further investigations using transcriptomics to determine neuropeptides and their receptors presence, functions, and indicates potential targets in A. hetaohei for a novel pest management strategy.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Mariposas/genética , Neuropeptídeos/genética , Receptores de Neuropeptídeos/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Animais , Clonagem Molecular , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genes de Insetos , Juglans/parasitologia , Masculino , Controle de Pragas/métodos , Filogenia , Fatores Sexuais
14.
Phys Rev Lett ; 124(8): 086401, 2020 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32167367

RESUMO

The existence of Bloch flat bands of electrons provides a facile pathway to obtain exotic quantum phases owing to strong correlation. Despite the established magic angle mechanism for twisted bilayer graphene, understanding of the emergence of flat bands in twisted bilayers of two-dimensional polar crystals remains elusive. Here, we show that due to the polarity between constituent elements in the monolayer, the formation of complete flat bands in twisted bilayers is triggered as long as the twist angle is less than a certain critical value. Using the twisted bilayer of hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) as an example, our simulations using the density-functional tight-binding method reveal that the flat band originates from the stacking-induced decoupling of the highest occupied (lowest unoccupied) states, which predominantly reside in the regions of the moiré superlattice where the anion (cation) atoms in both layers are overlaid. Our findings have important implications for the future search for and study of flat bands in polar materials.

15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(10): e19448, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150099

RESUMO

To investigate the accuracy of computed tomography (CT) in evaluating spinal epidural adipose tissue compared to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).CT scan images and matched magnetic resonance images of total 368 patients between July 2014 and July 2016 were evaluated. Hounsfield units (HU) of epidural fat (EF), dural sac (DuS), ligamentum flavum, bone of facet joints, and paraspinal muscles were measured for comparison. Anteroposterior diameter of the EF, anteroposterior diameter of the DuS, transverse diameter of the DuS, cross-sectional area of the EF, and cross-sectional area of the DuS were measured at each disc level from L1-2 to L5-S1.Fat tissue showed exclusive negative HU significantly different from all other periphery tissues. Pearson correlation coefficient analyses showed significant positive correlations between CT and MRI measurements; Bland-Altman plots also depicted satisfied agreement. Overgrowth of spinal EF was more commonly found at L2-3 and L3-4 levels in present study, and body weight, age, and gender were significantly associated with amounts of EF both on CT and MRI.The CT scan is a satisfied alternative of MRI for the evaluation of spinal epidural adipose tissue.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/diagnóstico por imagem , Lipoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Vértebras Lombares , Neoplasias da Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto Jovem
16.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32211628

RESUMO

Realization of half-metallicity (HM) in low dimensional materials is a fundamental challenge for nano spintronics and a critical component for developing alternative generations of information technology. Using first-principles calculations, we reveal an unconventional deformation potential for zigzag nanoribbons (NRs) of 2D-Xenes. Both the conduction band minimum (CBM) and valence band maximum (VBM) of the edge states have negative deformation potentials. This unique property, combined with the localization and spin-polarization of the edge states, enables us to induce spin-splitting and HM using an inhomogeneous strain pattern, such as simple in-plane bending. Indeed, our calculation using the generalized Bloch theorem reveals the predicted HM in bent zigzag silicene NRs. Furthermore, the magnetic stability of the long range magnetic order for the spin-polarized edge states is maintained well against the bending deformation. These aspects indicate that it is a promising approach to realize HM in low dimensions with the zigzag 2D-Xene NRs.

17.
Sci Adv ; 6(4): eaax5611, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32010780

RESUMO

Dysregulated physical stresses are generated during tumorigenesis that affect the surrounding compliant tissues including adipocytes. However, the effect of physical stressors on the behavior of adipocytes and their cross-talk with tumor cells remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate that compression of cells, resulting from various types of physical stresses, can induce dedifferentiation of adipocytes via mechanically activating Wnt/ß-catenin signaling. The compression-induced dedifferentiated adipocytes (CiDAs) have a distinct transcriptome profile, long-term self-renewal, and serial clonogenicity, but do not form teratomas. We then show that CiDAs notably enhance human mammary adenocarcinoma proliferation both in vitro and in a xenograft model, owing to myofibrogenesis of CiDAs in the tumor-conditioned environment. Collectively, our results highlight unique physical interplay in the tumor ecosystem; tumor-induced physical stresses stimulate de novo generation of CiDAs, which feedback to tumor growth.

18.
Microb Cell Fact ; 19(1): 25, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028973

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: pWB980 derived from pUB110 is a promising expression vector in Bacillus for its high copy number and high stability. However, the low transformation rate of recombinant plasmids to the wild cells limited the application of it. On the basis of pWB980, constructing an E. coli-B. subtilis shuttle plasmid could facilitate the transformation rate to Bacillus cells. Because the insertion site for E. coli replication origin sequence (ori) is not unique in pWB980, in order to investigate the best insertion site, eight shuttle plasmids (pUC980-1 ~ pUC980-8) containing all possible insertion sites and directions were constructed. RESULTS: The results showed that all the selected insertion sites could be used to construct shuttle plasmid but some sites required a specific direction. And different insertion sites led to different properties of the shuttle plasmids. The best shuttle plasmids pUC980-1 and pUC980-2, which showed copies more than 450 per cell and segregational stabilities up to 98%, were selected for heterologous expressions of an alkaline pectate lyase gene pelN, an alkaline protease spro1 and a pullulanase gene pulA11, respectively. The highest extracellular activities of PelN, Spro1 and PulA11 were up to 5200 U/mL, 21,537 U/mL and 504 U/mL correspondingly after 54 h, 60 h and 48 h fermentation in a 10 L fermentor. Notably, PelN and Spro1 showed remarkably higher yields in Bacillus than previous reports. CONCLUSION: The optimum ori insertion site was the upstream region of BA3-1 in pWB980 which resulted in shuttle plasmids with higher copy numbers and higher stabilities. The novel shuttle plasmids pUC980-1 and pUC980-2 will be promising expression vectors in B. subtilis. Moreover, the ori insertion mechanism revealed in this work could provide theoretical guidance for further studies of pWB980 and constructions of other shuttle plasmids.

19.
Bioinformatics ; 36(10): 3131-3138, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32073600

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) methods make it possible to reveal gene expression patterns at single-cell resolution. Due to technical defects, dropout events in scRNA-seq will add noise to the gene-cell expression matrix and hinder downstream analysis. Therefore, it is important for recovering the true gene expression levels before carrying out downstream analysis. RESULTS: In this article, we develop an imputation method, called scTSSR, to recover gene expression for scRNA-seq. Unlike most existing methods that impute dropout events by borrowing information across only genes or cells, scTSSR simultaneously leverages information from both similar genes and similar cells using a two-side sparse self-representation model. We demonstrate that scTSSR can effectively capture the Gini coefficients of genes and gene-to-gene correlations observed in single-molecule RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (smRNA FISH). Down-sampling experiments indicate that scTSSR performs better than existing methods in recovering the true gene expression levels. We also show that scTSSR has a competitive performance in differential expression analysis, cell clustering and cell trajectory inference. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: The R package is available at https://github.com/Zhangxf-ccnu/scTSSR. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

20.
Environ Res ; 183: 109184, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007749

RESUMO

Existing studies focused on the evaluation of health burden of long-term exposure to air pollutants, whereas limited information is available on short-term exposure, particularly in China. Air pollutant concentrations in 338 Chinese cities in 2017 were used to estimate the air pollutants related health burden which was defined as premature mortalities from all-cause, cardiovascular and respiratory disease as well as hospital admissions for cardiovascular and respiratory disease. Log-linear model was used as the exposure-response function to estimate the health burden attributable to each air pollutant. The value of statistical life and cost of illness methods were used to estimate economic loss of the premature mortalities and hospital admissions, respectively. The national all-cause premature mortalities attributable to all air pollutants was 1.35 million, accounting for 17.2% of reported deaths in China in 2017. Among all-cause premature mortality, contributions of PM2.5, PM2.5-10, NO2, SO2, O3 and CO were11.1%, 5.2%, 28.9%, 9.6%, 23.0%, and 22.2%, respectively. The national cardiovascular and respiratory premature mortalities were 0.77 and 0.21 million, respectively. About 7.8 million cardiovascular and respiratory disease hospital admissions were attributed to short-term exposure to all air pollutants. The economic loss of the overall health burden (premature mortality and hospital admissions) was 2065.54 billion Yuan, which was equivalent to 2.5% of the national GDP in 2017. The health burden and economic loss attributable to short-term exposure to ambient air pollutant are substantial in China. It suggested that the adverse health effects attributable to short-term exposure to air pollutant should not be neglected in China. In order to reduce the health impact of air pollution, each city should develop air pollution prevention and control measures based on existing scientific evidence.

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