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1.
J Cell Mol Med ; 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386303

RESUMO

Hypocretin 1 and hypocretin 2 (orexin A and B) regulate sleep, wakefulness and emotion. Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is an important neuroinflammation mediator. Here, we examined the effects of TNF-α treatment on hypocretin expression in vivo and behaviour in mice. TNF-α decreased hypocretin 1 and hypocretin 2 expression in a dose-dependent manner in cultured hypothalamic neurons. TNF-α decreased mRNA stability of prepro-hypocretin, the single precursor of hypocretin 1 and hypocretin 2. Mice challenged with TNF-α demonstrated decreased expression of prepro-hypocretin, hypocretin 1 and hypocretin 2 in hypothalamus. In response to TNF-α, prepro-hypocretin mRNA decay was increased in hypothalamus. TNF-α neutralizing antibody restored the expression of prepro-hypocretin, hypocretin 1 and hypocretin 2 in vivo in TNF-α challenged mice, supporting hypocretin system can be impaired by increased TNF-α through decreasing hypocretin expression. Repeated TNF-α challenge induced muscle activity during rapid eye movement sleep and sleep fragmentation, but decreased learning, cognition and memory in mice. TNF-α neutralizing antibody blocked the effects of TNF-α; in contrast, hypocretin receptor antagonist enhanced the effects of TNF-α. The data support that TNF-α is involved in the regulation of hypocretin expression, sleep and cognition. The findings shed some lights on the role of neuroinflammation in neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease.

2.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31396961

RESUMO

Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) occurs with highest frequency in China with over 90% mortality, highlighting the need for early detection and improved treatment strategies. We aimed to identify ESCC cancer predisposition gene(s). Our study included 4,517 individuals. The discovery phase using whole-exome sequencing (WES) included 186 familial ESCC patients from high-risk China. Targeted gene sequencing validation of 598 genes included 3,289 Henan and 1,228 moderate-risk Hong Kong Chinese. A WES approach identified BRCA2 loss-of-function (LOF) mutations in 3.23% (6/186) familial ESCC patients compared to 0.21% (9/4300) in the ExAC East Asians (odds ratio [OR] = 15.89, p = 2.48 × 10-10 ). BRCA2 LOF mutation frequency in the combined Henan cohort has significantly higher prevalence (OR = 10.55, p = 0.0035). Results were independently validated in an ESCC Hong Kong cohort (OR = 10.64, p = 0.022). One Hong Kong pedigree was identified to carry a BRCA2 LOF mutation. BRCA2 inactivation in ESCC was via germline LOF mutations and wild-type somatic allelic loss via loss of heterozygosity. Gene-based association analysis, including LOF mutations and rare deleterious missense variants defined with combined annotation dependent depletion score ≥30, confirmed the genetic predisposition role of BRCA2 (OR = 9.50, p = 3.44 × 10-5 ), and provided new evidence for potential association of ESCC risk with DNA repair genes (POLQ and MSH2), inflammation (TTC39B) and angiogenesis (KDR). Our findings are the first to provide compelling evidence of the role of BRCA2 in ESCC genetic susceptibility in Chinese, suggesting defective homologous recombination is an underlying cause in ESCC pathogenesis, which is amenable to therapeutic options based on synthetic lethality approaches such as targeting BRCA2 with PARP1 inhibitors in ESCC.

3.
World J Gastroenterol ; 25(30): 4222-4234, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31435175

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Liver fibrosis is a refractory disease whose persistence can eventually induce cirrhosis or even liver cancer. Early liver fibrosis is reversible by intervention. As a member of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-ß) superfamily, bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) has anti-liver fibrosis functions. However, little is known about BMP7 expression changes and its potential regulatory mechanism as well as the relationship between BMP7 and TGF-ß during liver fibrosis. In addition, the mechanism underlying the anti-liver fibrosis function of BMP7 needs to be further explored. AIM: To investigate changes in the dynamic expression of BMP7 during liver fibrosis, interactions between BMP7 and TGF-ß1, and possible mechanisms underlying the anti-liver fibrosis function of BMP7. METHODS: Changes in BMP7 expression during liver fibrosis and the interaction between BMP7 and TGF-ß1 in mice were observed. Exogenous BMP7 was used to treat mouse primary hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) to observe its effect on activation, migration, and proliferation of HSCs and explore the possible mechanism underlying the anti-liver fibrosis function of BMP7. Mice with liver fibrosis received exogenous BMP7 intervention to observe improvement of liver fibrosis by using Masson's trichrome staining and detecting the expression of the HSC activation indicator alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and the collagen formation associated protein type I collagen (Col I). Changes in the dynamic expression of BMP7 during liver fibrosis in the human body were further observed. RESULTS: In the process of liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in mice, BMP7 protein expression first increased, followed by a decrease; there was a similar trend in the human body. This process was accompanied by a sustained increase in TGF-ß1 protein expression. In vitro experiment results showed that TGF-ß1 inhibited BMP7 expression in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In contrast, high doses of exogenous BMP7 inhibited TGF-ß1-induced activation, migration, and proliferation of HSCs; this inhibitory effect was associated with upregulation of pSmad1/5/8 and downregulation of phosphorylation of Smad3 and p38 by BMP7. In vivo experiment results showed that exogenous BMP7 improved liver fibrosis in mice. CONCLUSION: During liver fibrosis, BMP7 protein expression first increases and then decreases. This changing trend is associated with inhibition of BMP7 expression by sustained upregulation of TGF-ß1 in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Exogenous BMP7 could selectively regulate TGF-ß/Smad pathway-associated factors to inhibit activation, migration, and proliferation of HSCs and exert anti-liver fibrosis functions. Exogenous BMP7 has the potential to be used as an anti-liver fibrosis drug.

5.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 12: 4107-4115, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30584275

RESUMO

Purpose: Liver fibrosis is a worldwide health issue. Development of effective new drugs for treatment of this disease is of great importance. This study investigated the therapeutic effects of ferulic acid on liver fibrosis in vitro and in vivo. Materials and methods: Human hepatic stellate cell line (HSC) LX-2 was used for in vitro assays. Transforming growth factor ß1 (TGF-ß1) was used to induce hepatic fibrosis in LX-2 cells. Western blot was used to detect protein levels of collagen I, fibronectin, α-smooth muscle actin (SMA), p-Smad2, p-Smad3, p-p38, and p-JNK. Gene expression was measured by RT-qPCR. Fluorescence staining was used to determine localization of Smad4. CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis in SD rats was used as an in vivo model. Histological features were detected by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), hexadecenoic acid (HA), and hydroxyproline (Hyp) were measured by ELISA. Results: TGF-ß1 treatment significantly increased levels of collagen I, fibronectin, α-SMA, p-Smad2, p-Smad3, and Smad4 in LX-2 cells. Ferulic acid improved TGF-ß1-induced hepatic fibrosis via regulation of the TGF-ß1/Smad pathway. Consistent with in vitro data, CCl4 caused severe hepatic fibrosis in SD rats, as determined by ALT, AST, HA, and Hyp upregulation. Protein levels of p-Smad2 and p-Smad3 in liver tissues were significantly increased following treatment with CCl4. All CCL4-induced changes were markedly attenuated by ferulic acid treatment. Conclusion: Ferulic acid potently improved hepatic fibrosis via inhibition of the TGF-ß1/Smad pathway in vitro and in vivo. These findings provided evidence for potential use of ferulic acid to treat or prevent liver fibrosis.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Ácidos Cumáricos/farmacologia , Células Estreladas do Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Cirrose Hepática Experimental/prevenção & controle , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Smad/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Actinas/metabolismo , Animais , Tetracloreto de Carbono , Linhagem Celular , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Colágeno Tipo I/metabolismo , Citoproteção , Fibronectinas/metabolismo , Células Estreladas do Fígado/metabolismo , Células Estreladas do Fígado/patologia , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Cirrose Hepática Experimental/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática Experimental/patologia , Masculino , Fosforilação , Ratos Wistar , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
BMC Cancer ; 18(1): 356, 2018 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29609569

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The accumulated evidence has indicated the diagnostic role of cytokeratin (CK) and vimentin protein immunoassay in primary esophageal spindle cell carcinoma (PESC), which is a rare malignant tumor with epithelial and spindle components. However, it is largely unknown for the expression of CK and vimentin in pathological changes and prognosis of PESC. METHODS: Eighty-two PESC patients were identified from the esophageal and gastric cardia cancer database established by Henan Key Laboratory for Esophageal Cancer Research of Zhengzhou University. We retrospectively evaluated CK and vimentin protein expressions in PESC. Clinicopathological features were examined by means of univariate and multivariate survival analyses. Furthermore, the co-expression value of cytokeratin and vimentin was analyzed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. RESULTS: The positive pan-cytokeratins AE1/AE3 (AE1/AE3 for short) staining was chiefly observed in cytoplasm of epithelial component tumor cells, with a positive detection rate of 85.4% (70/82). Interestingly, 19 cases showed AE1/AE3 positive staining both in epithelial and spindle components (23.2%). However, AE1/AE3 expression was not observed with any significant association with age, gender, tumor location, gross appearance, lymph node metastasis and TNM stage. Furthermore, AE1/AE3 protein expression does not show any effect on survival. Similar results were observed for vimentin immunoassay. However, in comparison with a single protein, the predictive power of AE1/AE3 and vimentin proteins signature was increased apparently than with single signature [0.75 (95% CI = 0.68-0.82) with single protein v.s. 0.89 (95% CI = 0.85-0.94) with AE1/AE3 and vimentin proteins]. The 1-, 3-, 5- and 7-year survival rates for PESC patients in this study were 79.3%, 46.3%, 28.0% and 15.9%, respectively. Multivariate analysis demonstrated age and TNM stage were independent prognostic factors for overall survival (P = 0.036 and 0.003, respectively). It is noteworthy that only 17.1% patients had a PESC accurate diagnosis by biopsy pathology before surgery (14/82). 72.4% PESC patients with biopsy pathology before surgery had been diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrates that cytokeratin and vimentin protein immunoassay is a useful biomarker for PESC accurate diagnosis, but not prognosis. The co-expression of cytokeratin and vimentin in both epithelial and spindle components suggest the possibility of single clone origination for PESC.

7.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 4642, 2017 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28680059

RESUMO

Based on our initial genome-wide association study (GWAS) on esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in Han Chinese, we conducted a follow-up study to examine the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with family history (FH) of upper gastrointestinal cancer (UGI) cancer in cases with ESCC. We evaluated the association between SNPs and FH of UGI cancer among ESCC cases in a stage-1 case-only analysis of the National Cancer Institute (NCI, 541 cases with FH and 1399 without FH) and Henan GWAS (493 cases with FH and 869 without FH) data (discovery phase). The top SNPs (or their surrogates) from discovery were advanced to a stage-2 evaluation in additional Henan subjects (2801 cases with FH and 3136 without FH, replication phase). A total of 19 SNPs were associated with FH of UGI cancer in ESCC cases with P < 10-5 in the stage-1 meta-analysis of NCI and Henan GWAS data. In stage-2, the association for rs79747906 (located at 18p11.31, P = 5.79 × 10-6 in discovery) was replicated (P = 0.006), with a pooled-OR of 1.59 (95%CI: 1.11-2.28). We identified potential genetic variants associated with FH of UGI cancer. Our findings may provide important insights into new low-penetrance susceptibility regions involved in the susceptibility of families with multiple UGI cancer cases.

8.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 4032, 2017 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28642549

RESUMO

Understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms of liver fibrosis is important to develop effective therapy. Herein, we show that focal-adhesion-kinse (FAK) plays a key role in promoting hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activation in vitro and liver fibrosis progression in vivo. FAK activation is associated with increased expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and collagen in fibrotic live tissues. Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-ß1) induces FAK activation in a time and dose dependent manner. FAK activation precedes the α-SMA expression in HSCs. Inhibition of FAK activation blocks the α-SMA and collagen expression, and inhibits the formation of stress fibers in TGF-ß1 treated HSCs. Furthermore, inhibition of FAK activation significantly reduces HSC migration and small GTPase activation, and induces apoptotic signaling in TGF-ß1 treated HSCs. Importantly, FAK inhibitor attenuates liver fibrosis in vivo and significantly reduces collagen and α-SMA expression in an animal model of liver fibrosis. These data demonstrate that FAK plays an essential role in HSC activation and liver fibrosis progression, and FAK signaling pathway could be a potential target for liver fibrosis.

9.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 48(2): 203-209, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28612527

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore the mechanism of interlukin-22 (IL-22)-mediated phosphor-Janus kinase-1(p-JAK1)/phosphor-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (p-STAT3) signaling way in the experiment of improving non-alcholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) by blueberry probiotic serum. METHODS: The rat serums with low-, medium-, and high-dose of 10% blueberry probiotics, as well as saline were prepared. NAFLD model was built by inducing normal liver cell line L-02 with free fatty acid (FFA).NAFLD model cells were cultured with saline serum (model group), low-, medium-, and high-dose blueberry probiotics serums (low-, medium-, and high-dose serum groups) , respectively .Normal liver cell group (normal group) was cultured with saline serum . Oil Red O staining was used to detect the lipid deposition in the cells; the intracellular level of triglyceride (TG) was quantitatively determined; the gene and protein expressions of IL-22, p-JAK1, p-STAT3, sterol-regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c ) were detected by RT-PCR, Western blot and immunofluorescence methods. RESULTS: Twenty-four hours after modeling, a large amount of lipid deposition could be observed in model group. Compared with normal group, model group showed lower gene and protein expression levels of IL-22, p-JAK1 and p-STAT3 (P <0.01), and higher SREBP-1c and TG levels (P <0.01).Compared with model group, TG level and the lipid deposition in low-, medium-, and high-dose blueberry probiotics serum groups were gradually reduced. High-dose serum group showed higher gene and protein expression levels of IL-22, p-JAK1, p-STAT3 and lower SREBP-1c compared with the model, low-, and medium-dose serum groups (P <0.01). No significant [CM(155.3mm]differences in gene and protein levels between low- andmedium-doseserum groups were found (P >0.05). CONCLUSION: The blueberry probiotics could antagonize the NAFLD via p-JAK1/p-STAT3 signaling way.

10.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 1359, 2017 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28465509

RESUMO

Growing evidence has shown that gut microbiome is a key factor involved in liver health. Therefore, gut microbiota modulation with probiotic bacteria, such as Saccharomyces boulardii, constitutes a promising therapy for hepatosis. In this study, we aimed to investigate the protective effects of S. boulardii on D-Galactosamine-induced liver injury in mice. Liver function test and histopathological analysis both suggested that the liver injury can be effectively attenuated by S. boulardii administration. In the meantime, S. boulardii induced dramatic changes in the gut microbial composition. At the phylum level, we found that S. boulardii significantly increased in the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes, and decreased the relative abundance of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, which may explain the hepatic protective effects of S. boulardii. Taken together, our results demonstrated that S. boulardii administration could change the gut microbiota in mice and alleviate acute liver failure, indicating a potential protective and therapeutic role of S. boulardii.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/microbiologia , Galactosamina/toxicidade , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Saccharomyces boulardii , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Células 3T3 BALB , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/dietoterapia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Galactosamina/análogos & derivados , Camundongos , Probióticos
11.
PLoS One ; 12(5): e0177494, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28493959

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Our previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified three independent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region showing association with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). In this study, we increased GWAS sample size on MHC region and performed validation in an independent ESCC cases and normal controls with aim to find additional loci at MHC region showing association with an increased risk to ESCC. METHODS: The 1,077 ESCC cases and 1,733 controls were genotyped using Illumina Human 610-Quad Bead Chip, and 451 cases and 374 controls were genotyped using Illumina Human 660W-Quad Bead Chip. After quality control, the selected SNPs were replicated by TaqMan genotyping assay on another 2,026 ESCC cases and 2,384 normal controls. RESULTS: By excluding low quality SNPs in primary GWAS screening, we selected 2,533 SNPs in MHC region for association analysis, and identified 5 SNPs with p <10-4. Further validation analysis in an independent case-control cohort confirmed one of the 5 SNPs (rs911178) that showed significant association with ESCC. rs911178 (PGWAS = 6.125E-04, OR = 0.644 and Preplication = 1.406E-22, OR = 0.489) was located at upstream of SCAND3. CONCLUSION: The rs911178 (SCAND3 gene) in MHC region is significantly associated with high risk of ESCC. This study not only reveal the potential role of MHC region for the pathogenesis of ESCC, but also provides important clues for the establishment of tools and methods for screening high risk population of ESCC.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Neoplasias Esofágicas/genética , Loci Gênicos , Complexo Principal de Histocompatibilidade/genética , China , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
12.
PLoS One ; 12(5): e0177504, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28542283

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancers from lung and esophagus are the leading causes of cancer-related deaths in China and share many similarities in terms of histological type, risk factors and genetic variants. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in Chinese esophageal cancer patients have demonstrated six high-risk candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Thus, the present study aimed to determine the risk of these SNPs predisposing to lung cancer in Chinese population. METHODS: A total of 1170 lung cancer patients and 1530 normal subjects were enrolled in this study from high-incidence areas for esophageal cancer in Henan, northern China. Five milliliters of blood were collected from all subjects for genotyping. Genotyping of 20 high-risk SNP loci identified from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on esophageal, lung and gastric cancers was performed using TaqMan allelic discrimination assays. Polymorphisms were examined for deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) using Х2 test. Bonferroni correction was performed to correct the statistical significance of 20 SNPs with the risk of lung cancer. The Pearson's Х2 test was used to compare the distributions of gender, TNM stage, histopathological type, smoking and family history by lung susceptibility genotypes. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were carried out to evaluate the associations between genetic variants and overall survival. RESULTS: Four of the 20 SNPs identified as high-risk SNPs in Chinese esophageal cancer showed increased risk for Chinese lung cancer, which included rs3769823 (OR = 1.26; 95% CI = 1.107-1.509; P = 0.02), rs10931936 (OR = 1.283; 95% CI = 1.100-1.495; P = 0.04), rs2244438 (OR = 1.294; 95% CI = 1.098-1.525; P = 0.04) and rs13016963 (OR = 1.268; 95% CI = 1.089-1.447; P = 0.04). All these SNPs were located at 2q33 region harboringgenes of CASP8, ALS2CR12 and TRAK2. However, none of these susceptibility SNPs was observed to be significantly associated with gender, TNM stage, histopathological type, smoking, family history and overall survival. CONCLUSIONS: The present study identified four high-risk SNPs at 2q33 locus for Chinese lung cancer and demonstrated the shared susceptibility loci at 2q33 region for Chinese lung and esophageal cancers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Esofágicas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/genética , Loci Gênicos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/diagnóstico , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Prognóstico , Análise de Sobrevida
13.
Sci Rep ; 7: 46357, 2017 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28397850

RESUMO

Src kinase is known to regulate fibroblast migration. However, the contribution of integrin and Src kinase interaction to lung fibrosis has not been mechanistically investigated. Our data demonstrate that integrin alpha v (αV) recruited Src kinase and that leads to subsequent Src activation in fibroblasts plated on fibrotic matrix, osteopontin. Src interaction with integrin αV is required for integrin αV-mediated Src activation, and the subsequent fibroblast migration. The study identified that ß5 and ß3 are the major integrins for this effect on osteopontin. In contrast, integrins ß1, ß6, and ß8 did not have a critical role in this phenomenon. Importantly, Src inhibitor significantly reduces fibroblast migration stimulated by PDGF-BB and reduced in vivo lung fibrosis in mice. Src inhibitor reduced Src activation and blocked the signaling transduction by integrin αV, inhibited migration signaling pathways and reduced extracellular matrix protein production, and blocked myofibroblast differentiation in vivo in mouse lung tissues. The present study supports that the interaction of Src Kinase and integrins plays a critical role in the development of lung fibrosis and the signaling involved may present a novel opportunity to target deadly fibrotic diseases.

14.
Cancer Biol Med ; 14(1): 60-65, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28443204

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: : This study aimed to determine if gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA) risk was associated with the lys (A or *2) allele at the rs671 (glu504lys) polymorphism within the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) gene in a Chinese Han population. We also aimed to investigateALDH2 genotypic distributions between subjects from high- and low-incidence areas for both GCA and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). METHODS: : We designed a case-control study including 2,686 patients with GCA and 3,675 control subjects from high- and low-incidence areas for both GCA and ESCC in China. TaqMan allele discrimination assay was used to genotype the rs671 polymorphism.χ2 test and binary logistic regression analysis were used to estimate the odds ratios for the development of GCA, and multivariate ordinal logistic regression was used to analyzeALDH2 genotypic distributions among different groups. RESULTS: : Compared withALDH2*1/*1 homozygotes,ALDH2*1/*2 andALDH2*2/*2 carriers did not increase the risk for GCA in the Chinese Han population (P>0.05). Interestingly, the ratio of homozygous or heterozygousALDH2 *2 carriers in high-incidence areas for both GCA and ESCC was lower than that in low-incidence areas (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: : Genotypes of rs671 atALDH2 may not increase GCA susceptibility in Chinese Han populations. In addition, theALDH2 genotypic distribution differs between Chinese Han populations from high- and low-incidence areas for both GCA and ESCC. Our findings may shed light on the possible genetic mechanism for the dramatic geographic differences of GCA occurrence in China.

15.
Cancer Biol Med ; 14(1): 83-89, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28443207

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: : This study aims to investigate the truth-telling status and the relevant factors of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients in Henan, China. METHODS: : A cross-sectional study from April to June 2015 using questionnaires was given to 301 family members of hospitalized ESCC patients based in three affiliated hospitals of Zhengzhou University (i.e., The First Hospital, The Second Hospital, and Tumor Hospital) and Anyang Tumor Hospital. RESULTS: : Among the 41.9% (126/301) hospitalized ESCC patients who knew of their true diagnoses, only 4.0% patients were informed by their corresponding responsible doctors, 39.7% by their family members, and 56.3% by themselves. Univariate analyses showed that disclosure of confirmed ESCC diagnosis to patients was correlated with gender, family history of cancer (FHC), education level, vocation, hospital administrative level, and attitudes of family members (P < 0.05). Furthermore, multivariate analysis indicated that attitude of family members was the most important and an independent factor for diagnosis disclosure. Those patients with a negative FHC, under-education, manual occupation, advanced stages, and hospitalized in municipal hospitals exhibited a low rate of truth telling. CONCLUSIONS: : Truth telling for ESCC patients in Henan is not prevalent and may be improved through consultation with family members, particularly for patients with a negative FHC, poor education, manual occupation, and advanced stages.

16.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 312(6): L926-L935, 2017 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28360109

RESUMO

Alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) injury and apoptosis are prominent pathological features of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). There is evidence of AEC plasticity in lung injury repair response and in IPF. In this report, we explore the role of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signaling in determining the fate of lung epithelial cells in response to transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1). Rat type II alveolar epithelial cells (RLE-6TN) were treated with or without TGF-ß1, and the expressions of mesenchymal markers, phenotype, and function were analyzed. Pharmacological protein kinase inhibitors were utilized to screen for SMAD-dependent and -independent pathways. SMAD and FAK signaling was analyzed using siRNA knockdown, inhibitors, and expression of a mutant construct of FAK. Apoptosis was measured using cleaved caspase-3 and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining. TGF-ß1 induced the acquisition of mesenchymal markers, including α-smooth muscle actin, in RLE-6TN cells and enhanced the contraction of three-dimensional collagen gels. This phenotypical transition or plasticity, epithelial-myofibroblast plasticity (EMP), is dependent on SMAD3 and FAK signaling. FAK activation was found to be dependent on ALK5/SMAD3 signaling. We observed that TGF-ß1 induces both EMP and apoptosis in the same cell culture system but not in the same cell. While blockade of SMAD signaling inhibited EMP, it had a minimal effect on apoptosis; in contrast, inhibition of FAK signaling markedly shifted to an apoptotic fate. The data support that FAK activation determines whether AECs undergo EMP vs. apoptosis in response to TGF-ß1 stimulation. TGF-ß1-induced EMP is FAK- dependent, whereas TGF-ß1-induced apoptosis is favored when FAK signaling is inhibited.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais/enzimologia , Proteína-Tirosina Quinases de Adesão Focal/metabolismo , Pulmão/citologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Células Cultivadas , Ativação Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Biológicos , Miofibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Miofibroblastos/metabolismo , Miofibroblastos/patologia , Fenótipo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento Transformadores beta/metabolismo , Proteína Smad3/metabolismo , Sus scrofa , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Oncotarget ; 8(19): 32228-32236, 2017 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27802181

RESUMO

In order to clarify the risk of hematotoxicity of carboplatin, we inspected 19901 case reports of non-small cell lung cancer patients that were submitted to the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) between January 2004 and December 2015. These comprised 3907 cases which were treated with carboplatin and 15994 cases which were treated with other therapies in the absence of carboplatin. By comparison, carboplatin cases were significantly more likely to report anemia (OR = 2.27, 95% CI 1.85-2.78, P = 5.04×10-15), neutropenia (OR = 2.27, 95% CI 1.76-2.92, P = 2.39×10-10), and thrombocytopenia (OR = 2.38, 95% CI 1.84-3.08, P = 5.60×10-11). We further explored published evidences and found 205 human genes interacting with carboplatin. Functional analysis corroborated that these genes were significantly enriched in the biochemical pathway of hematopoietic cell lineage (adjusted P = 6.02×10-11). This indicated that carboplatin could profoundly affect the development of blood cells. Given the early awareness of the hematologic risks, great caution should be exercised in prescribing carboplatin to non-small cell lung cancer patients. And functional enrichment analysis on carboplatin-related genes warranted subsequent research with regard to the underlying toxicological mechanisms.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Carboplatina/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Hematopoese/efeitos dos fármacos , Hematopoese/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Variantes Farmacogenômicos , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carboplatina/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Razão de Chances , Farmacogenética/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
PLoS One ; 11(12): e0167451, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27911957

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is a potent pro-inflammatory mediator and its expression is up-regulated in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Tristetraprolin (TTP) is implicated in regulation of TNF-α expression; however, whether TTP is involved in cigarette smoke-induced TNF-α expression has not been determined. METHODS: TTP expression was examined by western blot analysis in murine alveolar macrophages and alveolar epithelial cells challenged without or with cigarette smoke extract (CSE). TNF-α mRNA stability, and the decay of TNF-α mRNA, were determined by real-time quantitative RT-PCR. TNF-α protein levels were examined at the same time in these cells. To identify the molecular mechanism involved, a construct expressing the human beta-globin reporter mRNA containing the TNF-α 3'-untranslated region was generated to characterize the TTP targeted site within TNF-α mRNA. RESULTS: CSE induced TTP down-regulation in alveolar macrophages and alveolar epithelial cells. Reduced TTP expression resulted in significantly increased TNF-α mRNA stability. Importantly, increased TNF-α mRNA stability due to impaired TTP function resulted in significantly increased TNF-α levels in these cells. Forced TTP expression abrogated the increased TNF-α mRNA stability and expression induced by CSE. By using the globin reporter construct containing TNF-α mRNA 3'-untranslated region, the data indicate that TTP directly targets the adenine- and uridine-rich region (ARE) of TNF-α mRNA and negatively regulates TNF-α expression at the post-transcriptional level. CONCLUSION: The data demonstrate that cigarette smoke exposure reduces TTP expression and impairs TTP function, resulting in significantly increased TNF-α mRNA stability and excessive TNF-α expression in alveolar macrophages and epithelial cells. The data suggest that TTP is a novel post-transcriptional regulator and limits excessive TNF-α expression and inflammatory response induced by cigarette smoke.


Assuntos
Misturas Complexas/toxicidade , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Macrófagos Alveolares/metabolismo , Estabilidade de RNA/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Mucosa Respiratória/metabolismo , Fumar/metabolismo , Tristetraprolina/biossíntese , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/biossíntese , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Humanos , Macrófagos Alveolares/patologia , Camundongos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Mucosa Respiratória/patologia , Fumar/genética , Fumar/patologia , Tristetraprolina/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética
19.
Oncotarget ; 7(49): 81870-81879, 2016 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27835909

RESUMO

Allopurinol is widely used for hyperuricemia and gouty arthritis, but is associated with cutaneous adverse drug reactions (CADRs). Recently, HLA-B*58:01 allele was identified as a strong genetic marker for allopurinol-induced CADRs in Han Chinese. However, the magnitude of association and diagnosis value of HLA-B*58:01 in allopurinol-induced CADRs remain inconclusive. To investigate this inconsistency, we conducted a meta-analysis of 21 pharmacogenetic studies, including 551 patients with allopurinol-induced CADRs, and 2,370 allopurinol-tolerant controls as well as 9,592 healthy volunteers. The summary OR for allopurinol-induced CADRs among HLA-B*58:01 carriers was 82.77 (95% CI: 41.63 - 164.58, P < 10-5) and 100.87 (95% CI: 63.91 - 159.21, P < 10-5) in matched and population based studies, respectively. Significant results were also observed when stratified by outcomes and ethnicity. Furthermore, the summary estimates for quantitative analysis of HLA-B*58:01 allele carriers in allopurinol-induced CADRs screening were as follows: sensitivity, 0.93 (95% CI: 0.85 - 0.97); specificity, 0.89 (95% CI: 0.87 - 0.91); positive likelihood ratio, 8.24 (95% CI: 6.92 - 9.81); negative likelihood ratio, 0.084 (95% CI: 0.039 - 0.179); and diagnostic odds ratio, 98.59 (95% CI: 43.31 - 224.41). The AUSROC was 0.92 (95% CI: 0.89-0.94), indicating the high diagnostic performance. Our results indicated that allopurinol-SCAR is strongly associated with HLA-B*58:01, and HLA-B*58:01 is a highly specific and effective genetic marker for the detection allopurinol-induced CADRs, especially for Asian descents.


Assuntos
Alopurinol/efeitos adversos , Erupção por Droga/genética , Supressores da Gota/efeitos adversos , Antígenos HLA-B/genética , Variantes Farmacogenômicos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Erupção por Droga/diagnóstico , Erupção por Droga/etnologia , Erupção por Droga/imunologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Antígenos HLA-B/imunologia , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Farmacogenética , Testes Farmacogenômicos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
20.
Oncotarget ; 7(17): 24374-82, 2016 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27016410

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Anoctamin 1 (ANO1) has been found to be overexpressed in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in our previous study. Herein we showed the clinical relevance of ANO1 alterations with ESCC and esophageal precancerous lesion progression. RESULTS: ANO1 was detected in 38.1% (109/286) and 25.4% (77/303) of tumors in the two cohorts, but in none of morphologically normal operative margin tissues. ANO1 expression was significantly associated with a shorter overall survival (OS), especially in patients with moderately differentiated and stage IIA tumors. In 499 iodine-unstained biopsies from the endoscopic screening cohort in 2005-2007, all the 72 pathologically normal epithelial mucosa presented negative immunostaining, whereas ANO1 expression was observed in 3/11 tumors and 5/231 intraepithelial lesions. 7/8 ANO1-positive cases had developed unfavorable outcomes revealed by endoscopic follow-up in 2012. Analysis of another independent cohort of 148 intraepithelial lesions further confirmed the correlation between ANO1 expression and progression of precancerous lesions. 3/4 intraepithelial lesions with ANO1 expression had developed ESCC within 4-9 years after the initial endoscopic examination. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed to examine ANO1 expression in surgical ESCC specimens and two independent cohorts of esophageal biopsies from endoscopic screening in high-incidence area of ESCC in northern China. Association between ANO1 expression, clinico-pathologic parameters, and the impact on overall survival was analyzed. CONCLUSIONS: Positive ANO1 is a promising biomarker to predict the unfavorable outcome for ESCC patients. More importantly, it can predict disease progression of precancerous lesions.


Assuntos
Anoctamina-1/biossíntese , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Esofágicas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/biossíntese , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico , Progressão da Doença , Neoplasias Esofágicas/diagnóstico , Esôfago/metabolismo , Esôfago/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/diagnóstico , Prognóstico
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