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1.
PeerJ ; 9: e12430, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34760398

RESUMO

China's desert steppe is the transition zone between the grasslands in central China and the arid desert. Ecological security in this region has long been a subject of debate, both in the local and academic communities. Heavy metals and other pollutants are readily released during industrial production, combustion, and transportation, aggravating the vulnerability of the desert steppes. To understand the impact of industrial activiteis on the heavy metal content of dust fall in the desert steppe, a total of 37 dust fall samples were collected over 90 days. An inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometer (NexION 350X) was used to measure the concentration of heavy metals Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb, Mn, Co, and Zn in the dust. Using comprehensive pollution index and multivariate statistical analysis methods, we explored the characteristics and sources of heavy metal pollution. We also quantitatively assessed the carcinogenic risks of heavy metals resulting from dust reduction with the help of health risk assessment models. The heavy metals' comprehensive pollution index values in the study area's dust fall were ranked as follows: Zn > Cd > Pb > Mn > Cu > Co > Cr. Among these, Zn, Cd, and Pb were significant pollution factors in the study area, and were affected by industrial production and transportation. The high pollution index was concentrated in the north of the research industrial park and on both sides of a highway. The seven heavy metals' total non-carcinogenic risk index (HI) values were ranked as follows: Mn > Co > Pb > Zn > Cr > Cu > Cd (only the HI of Mn was greater than one). Excluding Mn, the non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risk index values of the other six heavy metals were within acceptable ranges. Previous studies have also shown that industrial transportation and production have had a significant impact on the heavy metal content of dust fall in the desert steppe.

2.
Int Immunopharmacol ; : 108373, 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34802946

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Allyl isothiocyanate(AITC) has been shown to play an important role in the improved symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD) and the inhibition of inflammation, but the role in COPD lipid metabolism disorder and the molecular mechanism remains unclear. We aimed to explore whether and how AITC affects COPD by regulating lipid metabolism and inflammatory response. METHODS: The COPD rat model was established by cigarette smoke exposure. Cigarette smoke extract stimulated 16HBE cells to induce a cell model. The effect of AITC treatment was detected by lung function test, H&E staining, Oil red O staining, immunohistochemistry, ELISA, CCK-8, HPLC, fluorescence efflux test, siRNA, RT-PCR, and Western blotting. Biological analysis was performed to analyze the results. Graphpad Prism 8.0 software was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: AITC can improve lung function and pathological injury in COPD rats. The levels of IL-1 ß and TNF- α in the AITC treatment group were significantly lower than those in the model group(P < 0.05), and the lipid metabolism was also improved (P < 0.05). AITC reverses CSE-induced down-regulation of LXR α, ABCA1, and ABCG1 expression and function in a time-and concentration-dependent manner (P < 0.05). AITC regulates the cholesterol metabolism disorder induced by CSE in NR8383 cells and attenuates macrophage inflammation (P < 0.05). In addition, after silencing LXR α with siRNA, the effect of AITC was also inhibited. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that AITC improves COPD by promoting RCT process and reducing inflammatory response via activating LXR pathways.

3.
J Med Chem ; 64(22): 16801-16819, 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34781680

RESUMO

Endomorphins (EMs) are potent pharmaceuticals for the treatment of pain. Herein, we investigated several novel EM analogues with multiple modifications and oligoarginine conjugation. Our results showed that analogues 1-6 behaved as potent µ-opioid agonists and enhanced stability and lipophilicity. Analogues 5 and 6 administered centrally and peripherally induced significant and prolonged antinociceptive effects in acute pain. Both analogues also produced long-acting antiallodynic effects against neuropathic and inflammatory pain. Furthermore, they showed a reduced acute antinociceptive tolerance. Analogue 6 decreased the extent of chronic antinociceptive tolerance, and analogue 5 exhibited no tolerance at the supraspinal level. Particularly, they displayed nontolerance-forming antinociception at the peripheral level. In addition, analogues 5 and 6 exhibited reduced or no opioid-like side effects on gastrointestinal transit, conditioned place preference (CPP), and motor impairment. The present investigation established that multiple modifications and oligoarginine-vector conjugation of EMs would be helpful in developing novel analgesics with fewer side effects.

4.
Opt Lett ; 46(19): 4900-4903, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34598229

RESUMO

We propose and experimentally demonstrate a high-efficiency single-pixel imaging (SPI) scheme by integrating time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC) with time-division multiplexing to acquire full-color images at an extremely low light level. This SPI scheme uses a digital micromirror device to modulate a sequence of laser pulses with preset delays to achieve three-color structured illumination, then employs a photomultiplier tube into the TCSPC module to achieve photon-counting detection. By exploiting the time-resolved capabilities of TCSPC, we demodulate the spectrum-image-encoded signals, and then reconstruct high-quality full-color images in a single round of measurement. Based on this scheme, strategies such as single-step measurement, high-speed projection, and undersampling can further improve imaging efficiency.

5.
Anat Rec (Hoboken) ; 304(11): 2426-2435, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623769

RESUMO

As a representative of acupuncture and nonpharmaceutical therapy, auricular acupuncture has been widely for the treatment of insomnia. Transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS) is a combination of auricular point stimulation and vagus nerve stimulation. It can not only treat primary insomnia effectively, but also is noninvasive, painless, portable and economical. The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is a core region of default mode network (DMN), which is important for maintenance of sleep. However, the mechanism of taVNS in alleviating primary insomnia (PI) remains to be clarified. In this study, we found that taVNS could not only effectively reduce the score of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, but also decreased functional connection (FC) between the left mPFC and bilateral dorsal anterior cingulate gyrus as well as FC between the right mPFC and the occipital cortex in patients with PI. Furthermore, the decrease in FC was positively correlated with the decline of sleep index score. Therefore, we proposed that treatment with taVNS can improve sleep quality and prolong sleep duration in patients with PI by reducing FC within DMN, FC between DMN and salience network, as well as FC between DMN and the occipital cortex. This may be one of mechanisms of taVNS in treating PI.

6.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 46(8): 690-4, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472755

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the clinical efficacy of Tiaoshen needling (dredging Governor Vessel and regulating mind)in the treatment of chronic insomnia (CI) and its effect on plasma melatonin (MT) and cortisol (CORT) levels, so as to explore its underlying mechanism. METHODS: Sixty patients with CI were randomly divided into the treatment group and the control group, with 30 cases in each group. Both groups were given sleep hygiene education before treatment. Patients in the treatment group received acupuncture or electroacupuncture at Baihui (GV20), Shenting (GV24), Yintang (GV29), bilateral Shenmen (HT7) and Sanyinjiao (SP6). Patients in the control group received acupuncture or electroacupuncture at bilateral Shousanli (LI10), Futu (ST32) and Feiyang(BL58). Both groups were treated every other day, 3 times a week, for a total of 4 weeks. Before and after treatment, Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) and fatigue severity scale (FSS) were used to evaluate sleep qua-lity and daytime fatigue, the plasma MT and CORT levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: Compared with before treatment, the PSQI scores and total FSS score of the treatment group decreased significantly (P<0.01,P<0.05), and the plasma MT content increased and CORT decreased significantly in the treatment group (P<0.01),while the sleep-onset time score, sleep disturbance score and the PSQI total score of the control group decreased significantly (P<0.05). Compared with the control group, the PSQI sleep disorder score and total score, and the total FSS score as well as plasma CORT level were significantly down-regulated (P<0.01,P<0.05), while the plasma MT content was up-regulated (P<0.05) in the treatment group. CONCLUSION: Tiaoshen acupuncture can significantly improve the sleep quality of patients with CI and relieve daytime fatigue, which may be related to the increase of plasma MT content in patients with CI, thereby inhibiting the excessive activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Melatonina , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono , Pontos de Acupuntura , Humanos , Hidrocortisona , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 41(7): 721-4, 2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259401

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the clinical effect of Tongdu Tiaoshen acupuncture on chronic insomnia, and explore its possible mechanism. METHODS: A total of 60 patients with chronic insomnia were randomly divided into an observation group (30 cases) and a control group (30 cases, 1 case dropped off ). The observation group was treated with Tongdu Tiaoshen acupuncture at Baihui (GV 20), Yintang (GV 29), Shenting (GV 24), etc. once every other day, 3 times a week. The control group was treated with estazolam tablets (1 mg) orally before going to bed every night. The treatments of both groups were required 4 weeks. The Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) scores, serum gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and cortisol (CORT) levels were observed before and after treatment in the two groups, and the clinical effect was compared. RESULTS: After treatment, the sleep quality, day dysfunction scores of PSQI in the observation group and the falling asleep time, sleep time, sleep efficiency, sleep disturbance scores and total scores of PSQI in the two groups were lower than before treatment (P<0.01, P<0.05). After treatment, the daytime dysfunction score of PSQI in the observation group was lower than that in the control group (P<0.05). After treatment, the serum GABA levels in the two groups were higher than before treatment (P<0.05), and the serum CORT levels were lower than before treatment (P<0.01). The total effective rate was 90% (27/30) in the observation group and 93.1% (27/29) in the control group, the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). CONCLUSION: Tongdu Tiaoshen acupuncture has the same effect as western medication estazolam tablets in the treatment of patients with chronic insomnia, and has little effect on daytime dysfunction. The mechanism may be related to the increase of serum GABA level and the inhibition of the hyperactivation of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono , Pontos de Acupuntura , Estazolam , Humanos , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico
9.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 46(6): 451-4, 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34190445

RESUMO

In recent years, the newly appeared closed-loop neuromodulation technique composed of closed-loop controlled stimulation system and neuromodulation is the product of medicine and inter-disciplines. In medical clinical practice, the idea of closed-loop controlled stimulation can be seen everywhere. When both the patient and acupuncturist achieve the state of "Deqi" simultaneously, it is a kind of feedback adjustment process similar to that of the closed-loop stimulation system. Cross-functional multidisciplinary development is the future trend of medical science progress. The acupuncture-moxibustion discipline can draw lessons from the research experience and achievements of closed-loop neuromodulation techniques to explore the origin of the compatibility of meridians, acupoints, and needling manipulations.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Acupuntura , Meridianos , Moxibustão , Pontos de Acupuntura , Humanos
10.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 46(6): 469-73, 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34190449

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To improve the accuracy of acupuncture manipulation modeling and inheritance, this article explores the feasibility of automatically classifying "twirling" and "lifting and thrusting", two basic acupuncture manipulations in science of acupuncture and moxibustion, with the computer vision technology. METHODS: A hybrid deep learning network model was designed based on 3D convolutional neural network and long-short term memory neural network to extract the spatial-temporal features of video frame sequences, which were then input into the classifier for classification. RESULTS: The model discriminated between "twirling" and "lifting and thrusting" manipulations in 200 videos, with the training and verification accuracy reaching up to 95.4% and 95.3%, respectively. CONCLUSION: This computer vision-based acupuncture manipulation classification system provides an effective way for the data extraction and inheritance of acupuncture manipulations.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Acupuntura , Moxibustão , Pontos de Acupuntura , Computadores
11.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 46(6): 474-9, 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34190450

RESUMO

In learning and evaluation of acupuncture manipulations, there are lack of quantitative physical parameters on exertion strength, duration and direction of acupuncture technique at present. Based on the tactile parameters collected during "twirling" and "lifting-thrusting" of needling, a kind of array polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) tactile sensor was designed. Followed by, a window segmentation method for tactile signal was proposed and the time domain features of the window were extracted. Finally, an identification method of acupuncture manipulation based on FCM (Fuzzy C-Means) was constructed. Through the experiment, it was proved that this sensor can effectively identify the four kinds of basic acupuncture manipulations, i.e. reinforcing by twirling and rotating, reducing by twirling and rotating, reinforcing by lifting and thrusting and reducing by lifting and thrusting and it was conductive to the quantification and dissemination of acupuncture manipulations.


Assuntos
Pontos de Acupuntura , Terapia por Acupuntura , Artérias , Aprendizado de Máquina , Polivinil
12.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 46(6): 480-5, 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34190451

RESUMO

For a long time, Chinese medicine has attached great importance to "pulse diagnosis for patients before acupuncture treatment", which emphasizes the close relationship between pulse diagnosis and acupuncture. Pulse diagnosis information is closely related to acupuncture research and runs through the whole process of diagnosis and treatment. However, the lack of repeatable and quantifiable real-time detection means of pulse diagnosis information has affected the application of pulse diagnosis in acupuncture research. Photo plethysmo graphy (PPG) technology has the advantages of convenient acquisition, low price, non-invasive, easy to use and so on. Under the guidance of TCM diagnosis theory, this paper discussed the principle and characteristics of fingertip volumetric pulse wave, studied its relationship with Cunkou pulse diagnosis, developed a new fingertip blood volumetric pulse wave measuring instrument, explored the acquisition and measurement methods of volumetric pulse wave signal, and proposed the relationship between the measuring instrument and acupuncture research. It can provide basic tools and data analysis and support for acupuncture research.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Moxibustão , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa
13.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 41(5): 501-4, 2021 May 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34002562

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the clinical effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on aged insomnia, and explore its possible mechanism. METHODS: A total of 60 patients with aged insomnia were randomly divided into an EA group (30 cases) and a sham EA group (30 cases, 1 case dropped off). The patients in the EA group were treated with acupuncture at Baihui (GV 20), Yintang (GV 29), Shenmen (HT 7), Sanyinjiao (SP 6), Xinshu (BL 15) and Shenshu (BL 23), and EA was used at Baihui (GV 20) and Yintang (GV 29), with intermittent wave, 2 Hz in frequency. In the sham EA group, the acupoints and the EA connection acupoints were the same as those in the EA group, 2-3 mm in depth, but no current was connected. The intervention was given 30 min each time, once every other day, 3 times a week for 4 weeks in the both groups. Before and after treatment, the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) and Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) scale were used to assess sleep quality and cognitive function, and serum melatonin (MT) and dopamine (DA) levels were detected. RESULTS: After treatment, the total score and sub-item scores of PSQI in the EA group were lower than those before treatment (P<0.01, P<0.05), among them, the sub-item scores of sleep quality, time to fall asleep, sleep time and sleep efficiency, daytime dysfunction and total score were all lower than those in the sham EA group (P<0.01, P<0.05). After treatment, the MoCA score and serum MT and DA levels in the EA group were higher than those before treatment (P<0.01), and the MoCA score and serum MT level in the EA group were higher than the sham EA group (P<0.01, P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Electroacupuncture can improve sleep quality and cognitive function in aged insomnia patients, and its mechanism may be related to regulating serum MT and DA levels.


Assuntos
Eletroacupuntura , Melatonina , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono , Pontos de Acupuntura , Idoso , Dopamina , Humanos , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/terapia
14.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(4): 1230-1240, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33899391

RESUMO

In this study, desert grassland, grassland edge, shrubland edge, shrubland were selec-ted as four transition sites in a nearly 30 years typical desert grassland-shrubland mosaic formed by anthropogenic shrub introduction. Soil properties and soil microbial characteristics under vegetation patches and bare interspace in each site were investigated to examine the responses of soil nitrogen to the desert grassland-shrubland state transition. It was shown that the aboveground biomass increased with transition from desert grassland to shrubland. Annual herbs increased largely with the introduction of shrubs. Soil moisture, microbial biomass and total nitrogen and carbon decreased with the transition. The abundance of microogranisms was lower in grassland edge and shrubland edge, and then increased in shrubland, which was slightly higher than that of desert grassland. With respect to nitrogen, nitrate content reached the highest level of 28.45 mg N·kg-1 and ammonium reached the lowest level of 4.81 mg N·kg-1 in shrubland, which were significantly increased by 52.3% and decreased by 10.4% compared with desert grassland. In addition, soil moisture and microbial biomass nitrogen was positively correlated across all sites. The relationship between mine-ralized nitrogen and soil moisture was non-linear, as they were positively correlated in desert grassland and grassland edge, but negatively correlated in shrubland edge and shrubland. During the 30-year transition from desert grassland to shrubland, our results showed that soil total nitrogen and microbial biomass nitrogen were significantly decreased, but mineralized nitrogen, especially for nitrate, significantly increased over time, indicating that soil nitrification was inhibited in desert grassland but accelerated in shrubland.


Assuntos
Nitrogênio , Solo , Carbono/análise , China , Ecossistema , Pradaria , Nitrogênio/análise
15.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 41(3): 263-7, 2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798307

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the clinical effect of acupuncture at Tiaoshen (regulating the spirit) acupoints on chronic insomnia and hyperarousal state, and explore its possible mechanism. METHODS: A total of 60 patients with chronic insomnia were randomly divided into an acupuncture group (30 cases, 1 case dropped off) and a sham acupuncture group (30 cases, 1 cases dropped off). Both groups were given basic sleep health education. The acupuncture group was treated with acupuncture at Tiaoshen acupoints including Baihui (GV 20), Shenting (GV 24), Yintang (GV 29), Shenmen (HT 7) and Sanyinjiao (SP 6). The sham acupuncture group was treated with non-effective point shallow acupuncture. Both groups were treated once every other day, 3 times a week for 4 weeks. The Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) score, pre-sleep arousal scale (PSAS) score, hyperarousal scale (HAS) score, and serum gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) level before and after treatment were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: Compared before treatment, the sleep quality, time to fall asleep, sleep time, sleep efficiency, sleep disturbance, daytime dysfunction scores and total score of PSQI, various scores and total score of PSAS, and HAS score in the acupuncture group after treatment were decreased (P<0.05, P<0.01); in the sham acupuncture group, the time to fall asleep, daytime dysfunction scores and total score of PSQI, and cognitive arousal score of PSAS after treatment were decreased (P<0.05). After treatment, the sleep quality, time to fall asleep, sleep time, sleep efficiency, sleep disturbance, daytime dysfunction scores and total score of PSQI, various scores and total score of PSAS, and HAS score in the acupuncture group were lower than those in the sham acupuncture group (P<0.05, P<0.01). Compared before treatment, the serum GABA level in the acupuncture group were increased (P<0.05), and the serum GABA level in the acupuncture group was higher than that in the sham acupuncture group after treatment (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Acupuncture at Tiaoshen acupoints can obviously improve the sleep and hyperarousal state of patients with chronic insomnia, and up-regulating serum GABA content is one of its possible mechanisms.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono , Pontos de Acupuntura , Nível de Alerta , Humanos , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Vet Microbiol ; 254: 108953, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647714

RESUMO

Strangles is an acute and frequently diagnosed infectious disease caused by Streptococcus equi subsp. equi. Infection with this pathogen can cause grave losses to the equine industry. The present work investigates glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), an important surface-localized virulence factor of S. equi, to determine whether it could be developed into an efficacious and suitable subunit vaccine against strangles. Two different recombinant fragments of S. equi GAPDH, namely, GAPDH-L and GAPDH-S, were constructed and expressed. Further, the antigenicity and immunogenicity of these two recombinant proteins were compared and evaluated in a mouse model. Our results revealed that immune responses were efficiently induced by the proteins in immunized mice. Remarkably, higher survival rates and significantly lower bacterial loads in the lung, liver, kidney, and spleen were observed in the GAPDH-S group compared with the GAPDH-L group after challenge with S. equi. High levels of specific antibodies, elevated antibody titers, and increased proportions of CD8 + T cells further indicated that GAPDH-S elicited better humoral and cellular immune responses than GAPDH-L. Furthermore, the induction of TCR, TLR-2, TLR-3, and TLR-4 significantly increased in the GAPDH-S group compared with those in the GAPDH-L and negative control groups. In summary, our results indicate that the optimized recombinant protein GAPDH-S is a promising candidate construct that may be further developed into a multivalent subunit vaccine for strangles.


Assuntos
Gliceraldeído-3-Fosfato Desidrogenases/genética , Gliceraldeído-3-Fosfato Desidrogenases/imunologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/prevenção & controle , Infecções Estreptocócicas/prevenção & controle , Infecções Estreptocócicas/veterinária , Streptococcus/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Gliceraldeído-3-Fosfato Desidrogenases/administração & dosagem , Doenças dos Cavalos/microbiologia , Cavalos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Proteínas Recombinantes/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/imunologia , Streptococcus/patogenicidade , Vacinas de Subunidades/administração & dosagem , Vacinas de Subunidades/imunologia
17.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 622460, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33643251

RESUMO

An in-depth study of the phylogeny and taxonomy of the corticioid genus Phlebiopsis (Phanerochaetaceae) was conducted. Phylogenetic analyses of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 and nrLSU sequences demonstrated that Phlebiopsis is a strongly supported clade which is distinct from its sister clades of Phaeophlebiopsis, Hapalopilus, and Rhizochaete. Two genera, Australohydnum and Hjortstamia, are reduced to synonyms under Phlebiopsis as generic type species A. griseofuscescens and H. friesii, respectively, are embedded in the Phlebiopsis clade. Twenty-four lineages are resolved in the ITS phylogenetic tree of Phlebiopsis, including six new taxa, viz. P. albescens, P. brunnea, P. cylindrospora, P. magnicystidiata, P. membranacea and P. sinensis, from Sri Lanka and China. Five new combinations, viz. Phaeophlebiopsis mussooriensis, Phlebiopsis bambusicola, P. dregeana, P. griseofuscescens and P. novae-granatae, are proposed. Phlebiopsis crassa is a morphological species complex with three distinct lineages. Phlebiopsis lamprocystidiata is determined to be a later synonym of P. darjeelingensis. The new taxa are described, illustrated, and compared and contrasted to morphologically similar species. An emended description of Phlebiopsis is provided along with an identification key to 27 accepted species.

18.
Neurotox Res ; 39(2): 489-503, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876918

RESUMO

Sepsis-associated cerebral dysfunction is complex pathophysiology, generated from primary infections that are developed elsewhere in the body. The neonates, elderly population and chronically ill and long-term hospitalized patients are predominantly vulnerable to sepsis and related cerebral damage. Generally, electrophysiological recordings, severity and sedation scales, computerized imaging and spectroscopy techniques are used for its detection and diagnosis. About the underlying mechanisms, enhanced blood-brain barrier permeability and metalloprotease activity, tight junction protein loss and endothelial cell degeneration promote the influx of inflammatory and toxic mediators into the brain, triggering cerebrovascular damage. An altered neutrophil count and phenotype further dysregulate the normal neuroimmune responses and neuroendocrine stability via modulated activation of protein kinase C-delta, nuclear factor kappa-B and sphingolipid signaling. Glial activation, together with pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and the Toll-like receptor, destabilize the immune system. Moreover, superoxides and hydroperoxides generate oxidative stress and perturb mitochondrial dynamics and ATP synthesis, propagating neuronal injury cycle. Activated mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, characterized by increased caspase-3 and caspase-9 cleavage and Bax/Bcl2 ratio in the hippocampal and cortical neurons, stimulate neurocognitive impairments. Additionally, altered LC3-II/I and P62/SQSTM1, p-mTOR, p-AMPK1 and p-ULK1 levels and dysregulated autophagosome-lysosome fusion decrease neuronal and glial energy homeostasis. The therapies and procedures for attenuating sepsis-induced brain damage include early resuscitation, cerebral blood flow autoregulation, implantable electric vagus nerve stimulation, antioxidants, statins, glucocorticoids, neuroimmune axis modulators and PKCδ inhibitors. The current review enumerates the pathophysiology of sepsis-induced brain damage, its diagnosis, the role of critical inducers and mediators and, ultimately, therapeutic measures attenuating cerebrovascular degeneration.

19.
J Biochem Mol Toxicol ; 35(3): e22679, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33325616

RESUMO

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is inevitable external life support in case of cardiac and respiratory failure since the 1970s. Acute kidney injury (AKI) and the requirement of renal replacement therapy (RRT) is a potential risk among these patients. This review aims to give an overview of the risk of AKI, RRT, and associated mortality among the patients who received ECMO for any of its indications. PubMed database was searched to find the relevant literature and the reference list of included studies was also searched for additional studies. The incidence of AKI ranged from 30% to 78% and RRT from 47% to 60% in ECMO patients. The pathophysiology of AKI in ECMO is multifactorial, and includes ischaemia, RBCs breakdown, comorbidity, conversion of zymogen form of pro-inflammatory mediators, structural alteration of the kidney, coadministration of nephrotoxic drugs, coagulation abnormality, and oxidative stress. ECMO was associated with the higher incidence of renal abnormalities, AKI, requirement of RRT, and associated mortality. Patients who underwent RRT had improved renal function and reduced overall mortality compared to the non-RRT group among the ECMO patients. Currently, there is no consensus evidence to support the superior use of the inline hemofilter system over continuous renal replacement therapy among patients who had AKI during ECMO.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/efeitos adversos , Injúria Renal Aguda/etiologia , Injúria Renal Aguda/metabolismo , Injúria Renal Aguda/mortalidade , Injúria Renal Aguda/terapia , Humanos
20.
Nat Sci Sleep ; 12: 1215-1223, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33380853

RESUMO

The rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg), a brake of the dopamine system, is specifically activated by aversive stimuli, such as foot shock. It is principally composed of gamma-aminobutyric acid neurons. However, there is no exact location of the RMTg on the brain stereotaxic atlas. The RMTg can be defined by c-Fos staining elicited by psychostimulants, the position of retrograde-labeled neurons stained by injections into the ventral tegmental area (VTA), the terminal field formed by axons from the lateral habenula, and some molecular markers identified as specifically expressed in the RMTg such as FoxP1. The RMTg receives a broad range of inputs and produces diverse outputs, which indicates that the RMTg has multiple functions. First, the RMTg plays an essential role for non-rapid eye movement sleep. Additionally, the RMTg serves a vital role in response to addiction. Opiates increase the firing rates of dopaminergic neurons in the VTA by acting on µ-opioid receptors on RMTg neurons and their terminals inside the VTA. In this review, we summarize the recent research advances on the anatomical location of the RMTg in rats and mice, its projections, and its regulation of sleep-wake behavior and addiction.

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