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1.
Front Oncol ; 11: 705929, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34722250

RESUMO

Background: Alternative splicing (AS) plays a key role in the diversity of proteins and is closely associated with tumorigenicity. The aim of this study was to systemically analyze RNA alternative splicing (AS) and identify its prognostic value for papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Methods: AS percent-splice-in (PSI) data of 430 patients with PTC were downloaded from the TCGA SpliceSeq database. We successfully identified recurrence-free survival (RFS)-associated AS events through univariate Cox regression, LASSO regression and multivariate regression and then constructed different types of prognostic prediction models. Gene function enrichment analysis revealed the relevant signaling pathways involved in RFS-related AS events. Simultaneously, a regulatory network diagram of AS and splicing factors (SFs) was established. Results: We identified 1397 RFS-related AS events which could be used as the potential prognostic biomarkers for PTC. Based on these RFS-related AS events, we constructed a ten-AS event prognostic prediction signature that could distinguish high-and low-risk patients and was highly capable of predicting PTC patient prognosis. ROC curve analysis revealed the excellent predictive ability of the ten-AS events model, with an area under the curve (AUC) value of 0.889; the highest prediction intensity for one-year RFS was 0.923, indicating that the model could be used as a prognostic biomarker for PTC. In addition, the nomogram constructed by the risk score of the ten-AS model also showed high predictive efficiency for the prognosis of PTC patients. Finally, the constructed SF-AS network diagram revealed the regulatory role of SFs in PTC. Conclusion: Through the limited analysis, AS events could be regarded as reliable prognostic biomarkers for PTC. The splicing correlation network also provided new insight into the potential molecular mechanisms of PTC.

2.
Cancer Med ; 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34723436

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Marital status has emerged as an important influence on several cancer outcomes, but its role in medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) remains unclear. This study was to explore the effects of marital status on the prognosis of MTC patients and to determine whether its effects vary by age. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively extracted 1344 eligible patients diagnosed with MTC between 2004 and 2015 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Based on the marital status, we divided those patients into married and unmarried groups. We compared the difference in overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) between married and unmarried via the Kaplan-Meier analysis. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional models were performed to identify the prognostic factors of OS and CSS. RESULTS: There were 1344 MTC eligible patients in a total of which 883 (65.7%) were married and 461 (34.3%) were unmarried. The comparison observed between married and unmarried patients was as follows: male (45.2% vs. 28.0%), age (≥52 years) (55.9% vs. 44.6%), White (86.7% vs. 78.7%), and undergo surgery (97.7% vs. 93.3%). Multivariate analysis revealed unmarried status as a risk factor independently associated with worse OS (HR: 2.15, 95% CI: 1.59-2.92) rate and CSS (HR: 1.70, 95% CI: 1.17-2.47) rate. In a further analysis stratified by age, there was no significant difference in OS and CSS between married and unmarried patients younger than 52 years. For the remaining group with 52 years old and higher, unmarried patients showed significantly higher risk of OS and CSS than married patients at all stages of the pathology except M1 stage. CONCLUSION: Married patients with MTC have a better prognosis than unmarried ones. Age can affect the association between marital status and the survival of MTC, and married elders may benefit more than youngers.

4.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 147: 653-666, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923505

RESUMO

In this study, a novel injectable hydrogel with biocompatibility and biodegradability through Schiff base reaction was prepared for soft tissue adhesive and hemostasis. Aldehyde hydroxyethyl starch (AHES) was prepared by oxidizing hydroxyethyl starch to get aldehyde groups. Amino carboxymethyl chitosan (ACC) was prepared by grafting ethylenediamine onto carboxymethyl chitosan to get more amino groups. Two-component AHES/ACC hydrogel was formed through Schiff base reaction between aldehyde and amino groups. By changing the reaction conditions various contents of aldehyde and amino group were achieved. The properties of AHES/ACC hydrogel were tunable including gelation time, swelling ratio, degradation and mechanical tensile by varying the content of aldehyde and amino groups. Then biocompatibility measurements showed that AHES/ACC hydrogels supported cell viability and proliferation in vitro and exhibited good biodegradability and biocompatibility in vivo. AHES/ACC hydrogel also had effective hemostatic ability. Thus, this study provides a strategy for the design and fabrication of fast in situ forming hydrogels. Through Schiff base reaction in situ forming hydrogel derived from natural polysaccharides can be modulated and prepared for soft tissue adhesive, hemostasis or other biomedical applications in future.


Assuntos
Quitosana/análogos & derivados , Hidrogéis/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Adesivos Teciduais/química , Aldeídos/química , Animais , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Materiais Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Plásticos Biodegradáveis/química , Plásticos Biodegradáveis/farmacologia , Quitosana/química , Quitosana/farmacologia , Hemostasia/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hidrogéis/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Bases de Schiff/química , Adesivos Teciduais/farmacologia
5.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ; 317(6): E1158-E1171, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550180

RESUMO

Although many studies have shown that histamine and its signaling regulate energy homeostasis through the central nervous system, their roles in adipose tissues remain poorly understood. Here, we identified that the histamine H4 receptor (HrH4) was highly expressed in adipocytes at a level higher than that of the other three receptors (i.e., HrH1, HrH2, and HrH3). The HrH4 expression in adipocytes responded to cold through thermogenesis and lipolysis, supported by results from both mouse and cell models. When HrH4 expression was knocked down in the subcutaneous white adipose tissue (scWAT), browning and lipolysis effects triggered by cold were ablated, and the oxygen consumption was also lowered both at the normal and cold conditions. Moreover, mice exhibited browned scWAT, accelerated metabolic rates, and tolerance to hypothermia when 4-methylhistamine (4MH), a selective HrH4 agonist, was adjacently injected to the scWAT. Consistent with these findings, 4MH also triggered the browning and lipolytic effects in cultured C3H10T1/2 adipocytes. Mechanically, we demonstrated that p38/MAPK and ERK/MAPK pathways were involved in these processes. In conclusion, our findings have uncovered an effective role of HrH4 in adipose tissue browning.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Temperatura Baixa , Consumo de Oxigênio/genética , Receptores Histamínicos H4/genética , Gordura Subcutânea/metabolismo , Termogênese/genética , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo Branco/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Metabolismo Basal/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo Basal/genética , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Agonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos/farmacologia , Lipólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipólise/genética , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Metilistaminas/farmacologia , Camundongos , Consumo de Oxigênio/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Histamínicos H4/agonistas , Receptores Histamínicos H4/metabolismo , Gordura Subcutânea/efeitos dos fármacos , Termogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
6.
J Cancer ; 10(11): 2443-2449, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31258749

RESUMO

Background: Patients with early stage breast cancer with lymph nodes metastasis were proven to have more aggressive biologically phenotypes. This study aimed to build a nomogram to predict lymph node metastasis in patients with T1 breast cancer. Methods: We identified female patients with T1 breast cancer diagnosed between 2010 and 2014 in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database. The patients were randomized into training and validation sets. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were carried out to assess the relationships between lymph node metastasis and clinicopathological characteristics. A nomogram was developed and validated by a calibration curve and receptor operating characteristic curve analysis. Result: Age, race, tumour size, tumour primary site, pathological grade, oestrogen receptor (ER) status, progesterone receptor (PR) status and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status were independent predictive factors of positive lymph node metastasis in T1 breast cancer. Increasing age, tumour size and pathological grade were positively correlated with the risk of lymph node metastasis. We developed a nomogram to predict lymph node metastasis and further validated it in a validation set, with areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves of 0.733 and 0.741 in the training and validation sets, respectively. Conclusions: A better understanding of the clinicopathological characteristics of T1 breast cancer patients might important for assessing their lymph node status. The nomogram developed here, if further validated in other large cohorts, might provide additional information regarding lymph node metastasis. Together with sentinel lymph node biopsy, this nomogram can help comprehensively predict lymph node metastasis.

7.
Cancer Cell ; 35(3): 428-440.e5, 2019 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30853353

RESUMO

We comprehensively analyzed clinical, genomic, and transcriptomic data of a cohort of 465 primary triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). PIK3CA mutations and copy-number gains of chromosome 22q11 were more frequent in our Chinese cohort than in The Cancer Genome Atlas. We classified TNBCs into four transcriptome-based subtypes: (1) luminal androgen receptor (LAR), (2) immunomodulatory, (3) basal-like immune-suppressed, and (4) mesenchymal-like. Putative therapeutic targets or biomarkers were identified among each subtype. Importantly, the LAR subtype showed more ERBB2 somatic mutations, infrequent mutational signature 3 and frequent CDKN2A loss. The comprehensive profile of TNBCs provided here will serve as a reference to further advance the understanding and precision treatment of TNBC.


Assuntos
Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Genômica/métodos , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/classificação , /genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 22/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Feminino , Deleção de Genes , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Mutação , Metástase Neoplásica , Prognóstico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética
8.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 33(3): e4436, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30421792

RESUMO

A highly sensitive and selective method based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography combined with linear ion trap-Orbitrap tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS) has been developed and validated for the determination of scopoletin in dog plasma. The analyte was extracted from plasma samples using acetonitrile and separated on an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column (50 × 2.1 mm, 1.7 µm) with 0.05% ammonium hydroxide and acetonitrile as mobile phase. The developed method was linear over the concentration range of 1-500 ng/mL, with a correlation coefficient >0.9988. The intra- and inter-day precisions (RSD) were <8.93% while the accuracy (RE) ranged from -6.50 to 8.12%. Extraction recovery, matrix effect and stability for dog plasma samples were within the required limits. The validated method has been successfully applied to investigate the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of scopoletin in dog plasma after intravenous (1 mg/kg) and oral (10, 25, 50 mg/kg) administration. The results revealed that (a) scopoletin showed short elimination half-life in dog; (b) its oral bioavailability was low (within the range of 5.69-7.08%); (c) scopoletin showed dose-independent pharmacokinetic profiles in dog plasma over the dose range of 10-50 mg/kg; and (d) glucuronidation was the predominant metabolic pathway in dog.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Escopoletina/sangue , Escopoletina/farmacocinética , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cães , Limite de Detecção , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Escopoletina/química , Escopoletina/metabolismo
9.
J Mol Cell Biol ; 11(1): 14-25, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29462349

RESUMO

Thermogenic beige fat improves metabolism and prevents obesity. Emerging evidence shows that the activation of M2 macrophages stimulates beige adipogenesis, whereas the activation of M1 macrophages, which play a major role in inflammation, impedes beige adipogenesis. Thus, the identification of factors that regulate adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) will help clarify the mechanism involved in beiging. Here, we found that one of the secreted proteins in adipose tissue, namely, BMP4, alters the ATM profile in subcutaneous adipose tissue by activating M2 and inhibiting M1 macrophages. Mechanistically, the BMP4-stimulated p38/MAPK/STAT6/PI3K-AKT signalling pathway is involved. Meanwhile, BMP4 improved the potency of M2 macrophages to induce beige fat biogenesis. Considering that the overexpression of BMP4 in adipose tissue promotes the beiging of subcutaneous adipose tissue and improves insulin sensitivity, these findings provide evidence that BMP4 acts as an activator of beige fat by targeting immuno-metabolic pathways.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo Bege/metabolismo , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 4/metabolismo , Animais , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 4/genética , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 4/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/patologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT6/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Gordura Subcutânea/metabolismo
10.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 120(Pt A): 491-501, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30138664

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer (GC) develops from the lining of the stomach. The present study aimed to explore the effects of long non-coding RNA-ENST00000434223 (lncRNA ENST00000434223) on gastric cancer (GC) cells. METHODS: One hundred and four GC tissues and paracancerous tissues were collected from GC patients, and expression of ENST00000434223, Wnt2b, ß-catenin, cyclinD1, E-cadherin, N-cadherin, vimentin, and snail was subsequently assessed. Morphological changes in cells were assessed using an inverted microscope, and expression of Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3 was examined. RESULTS: We found that expression of Wnt2b, ß-catenin, cyclinD1, N-cadherin, vimentin, and snail was increased in GC tissues, while expression of ENST00000434223 and E-cadherin was decreased. SGC-7901 cells were closely arranged, and expression of Wnt2b, ß-catenin, CyclinD1, N-cadherin, Vimentin, snail and Bcl-2 was increased, whereas expression of ENST00000434223, E-cadherin, Bax and caspase-3 was decreased. Furthermore, the rate of apoptosis was decreased and cell proliferation, invasion and migration were increased in response to downregulation of ENST00000434223. By contrast, upregulation of ENST00000434223 exhibited the opposite effects in MKN-45 cells. CONCLUSION: The results of this study provide a promising experimental basis for the treatment of gastric cancer through interventional targeting of lncRNA ENST00000434223.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células/genética , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Apoptose/genética , Caderinas/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/genética , Ciclina D1/genética , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Glicoproteínas/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica/genética , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Proteínas Wnt/genética , beta Catenina/genética
11.
Mol Med Rep ; 16(6): 8069-8075, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28944922

RESUMO

Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer and the leading cause of cancer­associated mortalities among women worldwide today. Accumulating evidence suggested that miR­372 may serve important roles in the initiation and development of various human cancers. However, the role of miR­372 in breast cancer remains unknown. The present study demonstrated that the expression level of miR­372 in human breast cancer tissues and cell lines is significantly reduced compared with normal breast tissues cell lines. Furthermore, results of functional assays indicated that miR­372 inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in the MCF­7 human breast cancer cell line. E2F1 was identified as a direct functional target of miR­372 in breast cancer. In conclusion, the findings revealed that miR­372 may have the potential to act as a novel molecule for the diagnosis and therapy of patients with breast cancer.


Assuntos
Apoptose/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Fator de Transcrição E2F1/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Interferência de RNA , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos
12.
Mol Med Rep ; 15(1): 460-466, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27909722

RESUMO

The present study aimed to investigate the role of the soluble programmed death­1 (sPD-1) protein, which is released by peripheral blood regulatory T cells (Treg) during the progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). From October 2012 to May 2014, 82 RA patients (RA group) and 90 healthy volunteers (healthy controls; HC) were recruited. Cluster of differentiation (CD)4, CD25 and forkhead/winged helix transcription factor p3 (Foxp3) and expression of cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and Foxp3 were detected by flow cytometry. Expression of sPD­1 in Treg was detected by western blot analysis. Immunosuppressive activity of CD4+CD25­ Treg was measured via thiazolyl blue in an MTT assay. ELISA was used to detect interleukin­10 (IL­10), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-ß), interleukin-4 (IL-4), interferon­Î³ (IFN-γ) and nuclear factor of activated T cells (NF­AT). It was observed that in peripheral blood, CD4+CD25-FOXP3+/CD4+ levels were reduced in the RA group (P<0.001), and sPD­1 levels were markedly higher (P<0.001), compared with the HC group. Additionally, it was observed that relative sPD­1 protein expression in the small interfering RNA (siRNA)-sPD-1 treated group was reduced compared with the untreated and scrambled siRNA groups (all P<0.0001). The mean fluorescence intensity of CTLA-4 and Foxp3 decreased markedly upon transfection with siRNA-sPD-1 (P<0.001). Compared with the normal CD4+CD25­ T group, optical density (OD)540 values, IFN-γ/IL-4 concentration ratio and NF­AT activity in siRNA untreated and scramble groups reduced significantly (all P<0.001). OD540 value, IFN-γ/IL-4 concentration ratio and NF­AT activity in the siRNA­sPD­1 group were significantly upregulated (all P<0.001). Therefore, sPD-1 may suppress the level of CD4+CD25­ Tregs in the peripheral blood of RA patients, and may be involved in a variety of immune processes mediated by CD4+CD25­ Tregs.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/patologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/análise , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/patologia , Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia , Antígenos CD4/imunologia , Antígeno CTLA-4/imunologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/imunologia , Humanos , Tolerância Imunológica , Interferon gama/imunologia , Interleucina-10/imunologia , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-2/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/imunologia
13.
EBioMedicine ; 11: 91-100, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27522322

RESUMO

Similar to estrogens, bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) promotes the accumulation of more metabolically active subcutaneous fat and reduction of visceral fat. However, whether there is a cross-talk between BMP4 and estrogen signaling remained unknown. Herein, we found that BMP4 deficiency in white adipose tissue (WAT) increased the estrogen receptor α (ERα) level and its signaling, which prevented adult female mice from developing high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and insulin resistance; estrogens depletion up regulated BMP4 expression to overcome overt adiposity and impaired insulin sensitivity with aging, and failure of BMP4 regulation due to genetic knockout led to more fat gain in aged female mice. This mutual regulation between BMP4 and estrogen/ERα signaling may also happen in adipose tissue of women, since the BMP4 level significantly increased after menopause, and was inversely correlated with body mass index (BMI). These findings suggest a counterbalance between BMP4 and estrogen/ERα signaling in the regulation of adiposity and relative metabolism in females.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 4/metabolismo , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Adiposidade/genética , Fatores Etários , Animais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 4/genética , Linhagem Celular , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Estrogênios/farmacologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Doenças Metabólicas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Modelos Animais , Obesidade/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Estabilidade Proteica
14.
World J Gastroenterol ; 6(1): 96-101, 2000 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11819532

RESUMO

AIM:To study the cell types, localization, distribution density and morphology of APUD cells in the intestinal mucosa of stomachless teleost fishes.METHOD:By using the peroxidase antiperoxidase complex (PAP) immunocytochemical staining technique the identification, localization and morphology of immunoreactive (IR) endocrine cells seattered in the intestinal mucosa of grass carp (Cyenopharyngodon idellus), black carp ( Mylopharyngodon piceus ) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were investigated with 20 kinds of antisera prepared against mammalian peptide hormones of APUD cells, and likewise by using avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex (ABC) method those of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), bighead (Aristichthys nobilis), silver crucian carp (Carassius gibelio) and bluntnose black bream (Megalobrama amblyocephala ) were also studied with 5 different antisera. The replacement of the first antiserum by phosphate buffered saline (PBS) was employed as a control. IR endocrine cells were counted with a square-mesh ocular micrometer from 10 fields selected randomly in every section of each part of the intestine specimen. The average number of IR endocrine cells per mm(2) was counted to quantify their distribution density.RESULT:Gastrin (GAS), Gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), glucagon (GLU), glucagons like immunorea-ctants (GLI), bovine pancreatic polypeptide (BPP), leucine-enkephalin (ENK) and substance P (SP)-IR endocrine cells were found in the gut of grass carp, black carp and common carp, and somatostatin (SOM) IR endocrine cells were only seen in common carp. GAS, GIP and GLU-IR endocrine cells were found in the intestinal mucosa of silver carp, bighead, silver crucian carp and bluntnose black bream. Most of IR endocrine cells had the higher distribution density in the foregut and midgut, and were longer in shape. They had a long apical cytoplasmic process extended to the gut lumen and a basal process extended to adjacent cells or basement membrane and touched with it. Sometimes, the basal cytoplasmic process formed an enlarged synapse-like structure in the contiguous part with basement membrane. This phenomenon provided new morpho-logical evidence for neuroendocrine and paracrine secretory function of these enteroendocrine cells.CONCLUTION:At least 8 kinds of IR endocrine cells were found in the gut of stomachless teleost species for the first time in China. These IR endocrine cells scattering in the gut mucosa belong to the APUD system. Among them, the hormones secreted by SP-, ENK-, SOM- and GLU-IR endocrine cells belong to the peptides of dual distribution in the brain and gut. This provided new evidence for the concept of brain-gut peptide. According to the cell types, distribution density, morphological characteristics and variety in shape of APUD cells in the gut of stomachless teleost fishes, it is deemed that the digestive tract of fishes is also an endocrine organ of great importance and complexity.

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