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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 719: 137276, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114222

RESUMO

Microplastic surfaces could be colonized by microorganisms and form biofilms in aquatic ecosystem, which can participate in the nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) cycles. In this work, polypropylene squares were deployed in a pond for 30 days for microplastic biofilms colonization and then were transported to indoor microcosms at an environmental relevant level to study their effects on N and P cycling. Results showed that microplastic biofilms could accelerate ammonia and nitrite oxidation as well as denitrification. Presence of microplastic biofilms accumulated P temporarily and increased alkaline phosphatase activities (APA) in the system. Later in the experiment, disintegration of matured biofilms released N and P into the water. Mass balance calculation suggested possible N input caused by biological nitrogen fixation. Our results demonstrated that microplastics associated biofilms have the ability to alter the N and P cycling processes in aquatic system. However, additional works are required to further quantify the extent of such impact.

2.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi ; 37(2): 182-185, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034751

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To perform prenatal diagosis for two fetuses carrying partial deletion of Y chromosome. METHODS: Routine G- and C-banding were carried out to analyze the chromosomal karyotypes of the fetuses and their fathers. Fetal DNA was also subjected to low-coverage massively parallel copy number variation sequencing (CNV-seq), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), SRY gene and AZF factor testing. RESULTS: Both fetuses showed a 46, XN, del(Y) (q11.2) karyotype at 320-400 band level by the analysis of amniotic fluid chromosomes. FISH with Y chromosome centromere probe indicated that in both cases the number of Y chromosome was normal. Both fathers had an apparently normal karyotype at 320-400 band level. For fetus 1, CNV-seq test revealed a 12.88 Mb deletion at Yq11.221-q12, which encompassed the whole of AZFb+AZFc regions and may lead to male infertility, sperm deficiency and/or severe oligospermia. In fetus 2, CNV-seq also detected a 14.84 Mb deletion at Yq11.21-q12, which encompassed the whole of the AZF region and may lead to severe spermatogenesis disorder resulting in severe oligoasthenospermia and azoospermia. In both cases, testing of SRY gene was positive. No point mutation of the SRY gene was identified. Analysis of amniotic fluid DNA confirmed partial or total absence of AZF in the two fetuses, respectively. CONCLUSION: Combined use of various technologies can enable accurate detection of structural abnormalities of the Y chromosome and facilitate genetic counseling. CNV-seq can help with rapid screening of Y chromosome microdeletions and may be used as a complementary test for chromosomal karyotyping.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Y , Oligospermia , Deleção Cromossômica , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Feminino , Feto , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Infertilidade Masculina , Masculino , Gravidez , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal , Aberrações dos Cromossomos Sexuais , Transtornos do Cromossomo Sexual no Desenvolvimento Sexual
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 718: 137417, 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32105918

RESUMO

Dicyandiamide (DCD) is commonly used as nitrification inhibitors which has the potential to reduce nitrogen loss from paddy soils. In paddy systems, periphytic biofilms are commonly presented at the soil/water interface and show significant effects on nutrient cycling. However, the interaction between DCD and periphytic biofilms in paddy and subsequent effects on nitrogen cycling is unclear. In this work, microcosm experiments were carried out to study the interaction between the periphytic biofilms and DCD and the potential influence on nitrogen cycling from in paddy. Results showed that DCD affected the development of periphytic biofilms, while the presence of periphytic biofilms accelerated DCD degradation. Results also showed DCD application reduced nitrification potential mainly by inhibiting ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). Higher DCD dosage increased NH3 volatilization loss. However, presence of periphytic biofilm reduced the NH3 volatilization loss but increased denitrification. Our work contributes to a better understanding on the nitrogen cycling processes in paddy, and provides useful information for the improvement of nitrogen utilization efficiency and the control of non-point source pollution.

4.
Int Wound J ; 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068337

RESUMO

Considering the high incidence of postoperative complications of open fracture, management of this injury is an intractable challenge for orthopaedist, and surgical site infection (SSI) is the devastate one. Screening for high-risk patients and target them with appropriate interventions is important in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to identify modifiable factors that were associated with SSI following operative treatment of open fractures. This retrospective, multicentre study was conducted at three hospitals. A total of 2692 patients with complete data were recruited between June 2015 and July 2018. Demographic characteristics, operation relative variables, additional comorbidities, and biochemical indexes were extracted and analysed. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed to detect the optimum cut-off value for some variables. Univariate and multivariate logistic analysis models were performed, respectively, to identify the independent risk factors of SSI. The overall incidence of SSI was 18.6%, with 17.0% and 1.6% for superficial and deep infection, respectively. Results of univariate and multivariate analyses showed the following: fracture type, surgical duration > 122 minutes, anaesthesia time > 130 minutes, intraoperative body temperature < 36.4°C, blood glucose (GLU) > 100 mg/dL, blood platelet (PLT) < 288 × 109 , and white blood cells (WBC) > 9.4 × 109 were independent risk factors of postoperative wound infection following operative treatment of open fractures. Six modifiable factors such as surgical duration > 122 minutes, anaesthesia time > 130 minutes, intraoperative body temperature < 36.4°C, GLU > 100 mg/dL, PLT < 288 × 109, and WBC > 9.4 × 109 play an important role in the prevention of SSI, and these factors should be optimized perioperatively.

5.
J Hazard Mater ; 384: 121282, 2020 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581015

RESUMO

The rapid development of the express industry brings not only convenience but also environmental problems such as plastic wastes. In this study, we collected plastic express packaging bags from major express companies in China to investigate phthalates in them. Infrared spectra indicated that all these samples were made from polyethylene but with different carbonyl index (CI) values. Total phthalates (∑Phthalates) concentrations in these samples ranged from 11.16 to 309.70 µg g-1. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate, and di-isobutyl phthalate were predominant phthalates. The leaching amounts of ∑Phthalates after 48 h ranged from 181.44 to 5320.64 ng g-1. The leaching amounts of ∑Phthalates significantly positively related to ∑Phthalates concentrations of samples, while the leaching ratios presented opposite trends. Concentrations and leaching amounts of ∑Phthalates and major phthalates were significantly higher in samples from high CI value company group than those from low CI value company group. The results of our study indicate that plastic express packaging bags could be a critical source of phthalates. The involving of recycled plastics during the manufacture of plastic express packaging bags may influence the content and composition of phthalates in them and also increase the releasing risk of phthalates.

6.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi ; 36(12): 1195-1198, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31813146

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To carry out variant analysis for a fetus suspected with harlequin ichthyosis (HI). METHODS: Whole exome sequencing (WES) was employed to detect potential variant in the fetus. Suspected variant was validated by Sanger sequencing. RESULTS: A homozygous missense variant c.6858delT (p.F2286fs) was detected in the fetus, for which both parents were heterozygous carriers. Pathological analysis confirmed the diagnosis of HI. CONCLUSION: The c.6858delT variant of the ABCA12 gene probably underlies the disease in the fetus.


Assuntos
Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Ictiose Lamelar/genética , Feminino , Feto , Testes Genéticos , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Gravidez , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal
7.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi ; 36(11): 1123-1126, 2019 Nov 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703141

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the genetic cause for abnormal pregnancies through detecting chromosomal copy number variations (CNVs) in abortic tissues by next generation sequencing (NGS). METHODS: NGS technique was used to detect CNVs in abortion tissues. Parental chromosomal karyotypes were predicted based on the results. The aberrant chromosomal segments of the parents were accurately mapped by G-banding karyotyping analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). RESULTS: In addition to numerical chromosomal aberrations, 12 microdeletion/microduplications were detected by NGS. For 8 families where both parents accepted chromosomal karyotyping, 4 carriers of chromosomal abnormalities were identified. One marker chromosome was missed by karyotyping analysis, and a mother was confirmed to carry a cryptic balanced translocation by FISH. CONCLUSION: NGS can facilitate detection of cryptic chromosomal translocations in couples with repeated pregnancy failure and is of great value for detecting abnormal CNVs for its high sensitivity.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo/genética , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Cariotipagem , Pais , Gravidez
8.
Opt Express ; 27(15): 20211-20220, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31510119

RESUMO

Strong coupling between solid-state quantum emitters and microcavities paves the way for optical coherent manipulation of quantum state and provides opportunities for quantum information processing. However, it is still a challenge to realize strong coupling due to the spectral and spatial mismatch between quantum emitters and cavity modes. Here, we propose a scheme to tune the coupling between a single QD and a microdisk with 1D photonic crystal nanobeam cavity. Based on Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method and Green's function expression for the evolution operator, we demonstrate that QDs with emission wavelengths +1.27 nm and -1.44 nm detuned from the bare microdisk mode can be coupled to the system strongly. Particularly, we observe simultaneous coupling between QD and two cavity supermodes, which enriches the optical coherent control methods of quantum states. By adjusting the distance between the two cavities, we can control the coupling between QD and photons. Furthermore, benefiting from the natural integration of nanobeam cavity to waveguide, such a system provides advantages for implementing quantum internet.

9.
Int J Nurs Sci ; 6(2): 182-186, 2019 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31406889

RESUMO

Objectives: In ensuring public welfare with primary medical and health services, the primary medical staff faces new tasks. Increasing workload, and therefore degrees of stress and burnout, can influence job satisfaction and lead to presenteeism, which is defined as the appearance to be on the job but not actually working. The purpose of this study is to investigate the current working situation and the relationship between presenteeism and mindfulness of primary medical staff and determine the mediating effect of self-efficacy on this relationship. Method: A cross-sectional survey was performed with 580 primary medical staff from 9 hospitals in Shaanxi province, northwest China. Presenteeism, mindfulness, and self-efficacy were measured by using a general information questionnaire, the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire, the General Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Stanford Presenteeism Scale. Mediating effect was analyzed by a series of hierarchical multiple regressions. Results: A high level of presenteeism was found among 47.4% of the study participants. Presenteeism was negatively correlated with mindfulness(r = -0.409, P < 0.001) and self-efficacy(r = -0.678, P < 0.001). A positive correlation was found between mindfulness and self-efficacy(r = 0.584, P < 0.001). When controlling for self-efficacy (ß = -0.018, P > 0.05), the association was insignificant between presenteeism and mindfulness. Conclusion: The results identified the effect of mindfulness on presenteeism of primary medical staff is realized through self-efficacy,which also suggested to enhance self-efficacy on center location when developing management strategies for mental health education or training among primary medical staff.

10.
Oncol Lett ; 18(1): 49-56, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31289471

RESUMO

Homeobox A10 (HOXA10) belongs to the family of HOX genes, which are closely connected with embryonic development and serve important roles in various tumors. However, the role of HOXA10 in bladder cancer (BC) remains unclear. In the present study, the role of HOXA10 in BC and the underlying mechanisms by which it promotes the disease progression were investigated. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that the expression of the HOXA10 protein was significantly higher in BC tissues as compared with that in adjacent normal tissues. Subsequent statistical analysis revealed that upregulation of HOXA10 was significantly associated with the pathological grade and clinical stage of BC patients. In the BC cell lines T24 and 5637, silencing of HOXA10 by small interfering RNA transfection suppressed the proliferation, migration and invasion of BC cells, and led to decreased matrix metalloproteinase-3 expression. Taken together, overexpression of HOXA10 may be associated with poor prognosis in BC, and may serve as a novel antitumor therapy target for the treatment of this disease.

11.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi ; 36(6): 543-546, 2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31055801

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the genetic basis for a fetus featuring growth restriction and validate the effectiveness of a novel noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) technique for the detection of chromosomal microdeletions. METHODS: Next-generation sequencing(NGS) and fluorescence in situ hybridization(FISH) were used to analyze the DNA of the fetus. Conventional G-banding was used to analyze the karyotypes of the fetus and its parents. High-throughput sequencing was used to analyze free fetal DNA. RESULTS: NGS analysis has revealed a 4.88 Mb deletion at 15q11.2-q13.1 region in the fetus, which has a 99% overlap with the critical region of Prader-Willi syndrome (Type 2) and Angelman syndrome (Type 2) and encompassed critical genes including SNRPN and UBE3A. NIPT also revealed a 4.6 Mb deletion at 15q12, which was consistent with the results of fetal cord blood and amniotic DNA testing. FISH assay has confirmed the result of NGS. By karyotying, all subjects showed a normal karyotypes at a level of 320~400 bands. CONCLUSION: It is quite necessary to carry out genetic testing on fetuses showing growth restriction. NIPT for fetal chromosomal microdeletions/microduplication syndromes is highly accurate for the diagnosis of Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Angelman , Síndrome de Prader-Willi , Bandeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos Humanos Par 15 , Feminino , Feto , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Gravidez
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 668: 1200-1212, 2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31018460

RESUMO

The new persistent organic pollutant (POP), 1,2,5,6,9,10-hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), has been widely detected in various environmental media and proved to be biotoxic. However, the research on catalytic degradation of HBCD is in its infancy. Herein, we examined the degradation of α-HBCD, ß-HBCD and γ-HBCD, over Fe3O4 micro/nanomaterial at 200 °C. The pseudo-first-order kinetic rate constants were in the range of 0.04-0.15 min-1, with half-life values of 5-19 min. γ-HBCD is slightly less stable than ß-HBCD, but both of them readily convert into α-HBCD, as consistent with the Gibbs free energies of isomers themselves. The four products containing pentabromocyclododecene, two isomers of tetrabromocyclododecene and 1,5,9-cyclododecatriene were detected by conventional GC-MS. Interestingly, a high-throughput non-target product detection were performed by ESI-FT-ICR-MS, where up to 59 types of intermediate products were determined. It is tentatively proposed that different types of bromine-removed products (C12H17Br5, C12H18Br4, C12H18, C12H19Br5, C12H24 and C12H19Br5O) and cyclododecane ring-opened products (C12H19Br7, C12H20Br6O and C12H20Br6) form via elimination reaction, nucleophilic substitution, hydrodebromination and addition reaction. Besides, most of the products that were detected contained oxygen. The average carbon oxidation state (OSc¯) of the products indicate that the oxidation reaction is the dominant reaction type. Deep oxidation products, such as small molecular organic acids (formic, acetic, propionic, and butyric acids) and gas-phase oxidation products (CO2 and CO) were further detected by ion chromatography and GC-FID, respectively. This study might provide an alternative technique for the low-cost treatment of HBCD waste.

13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(16): e15193, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31008942

RESUMO

This study sought to investigate the effects of placental laterality on the measurements of uterine artery (UtA) Doppler velocimetry and their application in predicting early-onset preeclampsia (PE).We conducted a prospective cohort study on all women with singleton, uncomplicated pregnancies scheduled for first-trimester nuchal translucency at our institution. Pulsatility index (PI) for both UtAs was measured by Doppler velocimetry, and placental laterality was determined. Additionally, pregnancy outcome data were abstracted from the medical records. Receiver operating characteristic curves (ROCs) were plotted.Of the 304 patients enrolled, 247 met the inclusion criteria. Among these patients, 240 had uncomplicated delivery, while 7 had early delivery at <34 weeks due to PE. For the uncomplicated pregnancies, PI measurements of the UtA ipsilateral to the placenta were similar (left versus right UtA: 1.06 ±â€Š0.38 vs. 1.04 ±â€Š0.40; P = .745). However, PI measurements of the UtA contralateral to the placenta differed significantly (left versus right UtA: 1.45 ±â€Š0.51 vs. 1.3 ±â€Š0.47; P = .027). In predicting early-onset PE, the ideal cut-off value for the placental side PI was 1.91, with sensitivity 100% and specificity 96.3%. For nonplacental side PI, the ideal cut-off value for PI was 1.975, with sensitivity 57.1% and specificity 79.2%. Using the mean of the left and right UtA PI, the ideal cut-off value was 1.63, with sensitivity 100% and specificity 74.2%.ROC analysis confirmed that PI measurements of the UtA on the placental side were significantly lower than those on the contralateral side, PI measurements of the UtA ipsilateral to the placenta were similar.


Assuntos
Pré-Eclâmpsia/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal/métodos , Artéria Uterina/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Proteome Res ; 18(5): 2175-2184, 2019 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30892048

RESUMO

The incidence of nonsmoking female patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has increased in recent decades; however, the pathogenesis of patients is unclear, and early diagnosis biomarkers are in urgent need. In this study, 136 nonsmoking female subjects (65 patients with NSCLC, 6 patients with benign lung tumors, and 65 healthy controls) were enrolled, and their metabolic profiling was investigated by using pseudotargeted gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 56 annotated metabolites were found and verified to be significantly different in nonsmoking females with NSCLC compared with the control. The metabolic profiling was featured by disturbed energy metabolism, amino acid metabolism, oxidative stress, lipid metabolism, and so on. Cysteine, serine, and 1-monooleoylglycerol were defined as the biomarker panel for the diagnosis of NSCLC patients. 98.5 and 91.4% of subjects were correctly distinguished in the discovery and validation sets, respectively. The biomarker panel was also useful for the diagnosis of in situ malignancy patients, with an accuracy of 97.7 and 97.8% in the discovery and validation sets, respectively. The study provides a biomarker panel for the auxiliary diagnosis of nonsmoking females with NSCLC.

15.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi ; 36(3): 263-266, 2019 Mar 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30835361

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the genetic basis of a fetus with ventricular septal defect (VSD) by using modified noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for the detection of microdeletion syndromes. METHODS: Chromosomal karyotypes of the fetus and its parents were analyzed by G-banding technique. Next generation sequencing (NGS) was used to detect genomic copy number variations (CNVs) in cell-free fetal DNA. The results were verified by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). RESULTS: The fetus and its parents all had a normal karyotype at 320-400 band level. NGS revealed a deletion of 1.30 Mb at 7q11.23 in the fetus, with a 93% overlap with that of Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS). The father also had a deletion of 1.42 Mb at 7q11.23, with a 99% overlap with that of WBS. Modified NIPT also detected the 1.30 Mb deletion at 7q11.23 in the fetus. The result of FISH has confirmed the above results. CONCLUSION: It is necessary to carry out genetic testing on fetuses with VSD. NGS can detect fetal microdeletion syndromes and help to trace their parental origin. The modified NIPT for fetal chromosomal microdeletions/microduplication syndromes is highly accurate.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Williams , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Cariotipagem , Gravidez , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal
16.
J Evol Biol ; 32(5): 451-462, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30748052

RESUMO

Host sympatry provides opportunities for cross-species disease transmission and compounded disease effects on host population and community structure. Using the Silene-Microbotryum interaction (the castrating anther smut disease), eleven Himalayan Silene species were assessed in regions of high host diversity to ascertain levels of pathogen specificity. We also investigated disease prevalence, seasonal dynamics of infection and flowering patterns in five co-blooming Silene species. We identified several new Microbotryum lineages with varying degrees of specialization that is likely influenced by degrees of host divergence and ecological similarities (i.e. shared pollinator guilds). Affected species had 15%-40% of plants infected by anther smut. Flowering was seasonally overlapping among host species (except for the species pair S. asclepiadea and S. atrocastanea), but diseased flowering onset was earlier than healthy plants, leading to dramatic seasonal shifts in observed disease prevalence. Overlapping distributions and flowering provides opportunities for floral pathogen movement between host species, but host specialization may be constrained by the plant phylogenetic relatedness, adaptation to micro-habitats and difference in pollinator/vector guilds.

17.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(1): 125-136, 2019 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30540429

RESUMO

In order to develop a novel kind of antibacterial Cu-containing TiN film with good corrosion resistance, impressive mechanical properties, and low cytotoxicity, three differently designed multilayer films of TiCu/TiCuN multilayer (M1, M2, M3) were deposited on the surface of 316L stainless steel surface using the axial magnetic field-enhanced arc ion plating (AMFE-ARP) method, in which the interlayer of TiCu was first introduced for Cu-containing TiN film in order to improve comprehensive properties, especially the corrosion resistance of the film. The performance of the TiCu/TiCuN multilayer films was compared with that of the two single layers, TiN and TiCuN, which were deposited by the same method and the same total deposition time. The results indicated that the TiCu/TiCuN multilayer film of M2 revealed the best comprehensive corrosion resistance with low electric current values, high pitting potential, and high polarization resistance due to the proper thickness of TiCu interlayers and larger number of TiCu/TiCuN bilayers. In addition, the TiCu/TiCuN multilayer film of M2 also possesses comparable mechanical properties, excellent antibacterial and antibiofilm abilities, as well as good biocompatibility. Consequently, the antibacterial TiCu/TiCuN multilayer films with good corrosion resistance deposited by using the axial magnetic field-enhanced arc ion plating (AMFE-ARP) method are promising for application in biomedical antibacterial film for implants.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis/química , Cobre/química , Escherichia coli/fisiologia , Membranas Artificiais , Staphylococcus aureus/fisiologia , Titânio/química , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Corrosão , Camundongos
18.
Lancet Oncol ; 20(2): 193-201, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30583848

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of thyroid cancer is rising steadily because of overdiagnosis and overtreatment conferred by widespread use of sensitive imaging techniques for screening. This overall incidence growth is especially driven by increased diagnosis of indolent and well-differentiated papillary subtype and early-stage thyroid cancer, whereas the incidence of advanced-stage thyroid cancer has increased marginally. Thyroid ultrasound is frequently used to diagnose thyroid cancer. The aim of this study was to use deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) models to improve the diagnostic accuracy of thyroid cancer by analysing sonographic imaging data from clinical ultrasounds. METHODS: We did a retrospective, multicohort, diagnostic study using ultrasound images sets from three hospitals in China. We developed and trained the DCNN model on the training set, 131 731 ultrasound images from 17 627 patients with thyroid cancer and 180 668 images from 25 325 controls from the thyroid imaging database at Tianjin Cancer Hospital. Clinical diagnosis of the training set was made by 16 radiologists from Tianjin Cancer Hospital. Images from anatomical sites that were judged as not having cancer were excluded from the training set and only individuals with suspected thyroid cancer underwent pathological examination to confirm diagnosis. The model's diagnostic performance was validated in an internal validation set from Tianjin Cancer Hospital (8606 images from 1118 patients) and two external datasets in China (the Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine Hospital, Jilin, 741 images from 154 patients; and the Weihai Municipal Hospital, Shandong, 11 039 images from 1420 patients). All individuals with suspected thyroid cancer after clinical examination in the validation sets had pathological examination. We also compared the specificity and sensitivity of the DCNN model with the performance of six skilled thyroid ultrasound radiologists on the three validation sets. FINDINGS: Between Jan 1, 2012, and March 28, 2018, ultrasound images for the four study cohorts were obtained. The model achieved high performance in identifying thyroid cancer patients in the validation sets tested, with area under the curve values of 0·947 (95% CI 0·935-0·959) for the Tianjin internal validation set, 0·912 (95% CI 0·865-0·958) for the Jilin external validation set, and 0·908 (95% CI 0·891-0·925) for the Weihai external validation set. The DCNN model also showed improved performance in identifying thyroid cancer patients versus skilled radiologists. For the Tianjin internal validation set, sensitivity was 93·4% (95% CI 89·6-96·1) versus 96·9% (93·9-98·6; p=0·003) and specificity was 86·1% (81·1-90·2) versus 59·4% (53·0-65·6; p<0·0001). For the Jilin external validation set, sensitivity was 84·3% (95% CI 73·6-91·9) versus 92·9% (84·1-97·6; p=0·048) and specificity was 86·9% (95% CI 77·8-93·3) versus 57·1% (45·9-67·9; p<0·0001). For the Weihai external validation set, sensitivity was 84·7% (95% CI 77·0-90·7) versus 89·0% (81·9-94·0; p=0·25) and specificity was 87·8% (95% CI 81·6-92·5) versus 68·6% (60·7-75·8; p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION: The DCNN model showed similar sensitivity and improved specificity in identifying patients with thyroid cancer compared with a group of skilled radiologists. The improved technical performance of the DCNN model warrants further investigation as part of randomised clinical trials. FUNDING: The Program for Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Team in University in China, and National Natural Science Foundation of China.

19.
Ecol Evol ; 8(11): 5455-5469, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29938065

RESUMO

Isolation between species, or taxa sharing a common lineage, depends primarily on the relative strengths of various reproductive barriers. Previous studies on reproductive isolation between orchids emphasized mechanical and ethological barriers in flowers of species showing food and/or sexual mimicry. In this study, we investigated and quantified a series of prepollination and postpollination barriers between pink and white forms of Spiranthes sinensis sl, a nectar-secreting complex. We generated ML trees based on trnS-G and matK to explore phylogenetic relationships in this species complex. Spiranthes sinensis sl segregated from some other congeners, but the white form constituted a distinct clade in relation to the pink form. The white form secreted 2-Phenylethanol as it is a single-scent compound and was pollinated almost exclusively by native, large-bodied Apis cerana and Bombus species (Apidae). Apis cerana showed a high floral constancy to this form. The scentless, pink form was pollinated primarily by smaller bees in the genera Ceratina (Apidae), and members of the family Halictidae, with infrequent visits by A. cerana and Bombus species. Fruit set and the production of large embryos following interform pollination treatments were significantly lower compared to intraform pollination results for the white form. Our results suggested that pollinator isolation, based on color and scent cues, may result in greater floral constancy in white populations when both forms are sympatric as two different, guilds of pollinators forage selectively preventing or reducing prospective gene flow. Postpollination barriers appear weaker than prepollination barriers but they also play a role in interform isolation, especially in the white form. Our findings suggest that floral color forms in S. sinensis do not represent an unbalanced polymorphism. Interpretations of the evolutionary status of these forms are discussed.

20.
Water Sci Technol ; 77(7-8): 2134-2145, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29722699

RESUMO

Thermophile pretreatment of activated sludge greatly improves the biodegradability of sludge, but whether the pretreated products are suitable for the electricity generation of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) is still little known. In this study, municipal activated sludge pretreated by a thermophilic bacterium and heating, respectively, was separately fed into the MFCs. The performance of MFCs was examined and changes of anodic microbial communities were investigated with scanning electron microscopy and 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing on the Illumina Miseq platform. The results showed that MFCs fed with heating-pretreated sludge performed preferably and the power density reached 0.91-2.86 W/m3. MFC anodes were covered with considerable Geobacter spp. However, the bioaugmentation of sludge with the thermophile was not able to support a high potential output although the pretreatment significantly increased the soluble chemical oxygen demand. The maximum power density approached 0.20 W/m3 even when the anolyte was regularly changed. It was observed that amending pH did not improve the performance of MFC. Investigation on this anodic microbial community found that the relative abundance of Lactobacillus spp. exceeded 91%. Consequently, the thermophile-pretreated products stimulated the growth of non-exoelectrogens and finally the niches of anodic biofilm were completely occupied by Lactobacillus spp.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Esgotos , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Eletricidade , Eletrodos , RNA Ribossômico 16S
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