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1.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113848, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597950

RESUMO

Biodegradation could be a potential alternative solution to polyethylene (PE) pollution. However, its hydrophobic surface and long carbon chains make extremely low biodegradation efficiency. In this study, we screened a novel potential bacterial strain C5 (CGMCC number: 1.18715) for low-density polyethylene (LDPE) biodegrading from landfills. The strain was identified as Bacillus velezensis according to its 16S rRNA sequence. The contact angle analysis indicated that C5 could rapidly form biofilm on untreated LDPE which resulted in contact angles decreasing from 100° to 54° over 7 d. After the LDPE film incubated with C5 for 90 d, the thickness and weight of LDPE film decreased by 26% and 8.01%, respectively. Besides, the biotreated PE film was found with increases in weight-averaged molecular weight by 29.8%, suggesting low molar mass chains were consumed. C24-C29 n-alkanes were detected in the biodegradation products, which proved the depolymerization of LDPE. Combined with the genome mining results, a possible biofilm-aided degrading mechanism was proposed and might involve key enzymes, such as laccase, cytochrome P450 and propionyl-CoA carboxylase, which could constitute a multienzyme system for the co-catalytic degradation of LDPE waste.

3.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(37): 43925-43936, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499485

RESUMO

Chemodynamic therapy (CDT) that utilizes Fenton-type reactions to convert endogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) into hydroxyl radicals (•OH) is a promising strategy in anticancer treatment, but the overexpression of glutathione (GSH) and limited endogenous H2O2 make the efficiency of CDT unsatisfactory. Here, an intelligent nanoplatform CuO2@mPDA/DOX-HA (CPPDH), which induced the depletion of GSH and the self-supply of H2O2, was proposed. When CPPDH entered tumor cells through the targeting effect of hyaluronic acid (HA), a release of Cu2+ and produced H2O2 were triggered by the acidic environment of lysosomes. Then, the Cu2+ was reduced by GSH to Cu+, and the Cu+ catalyzed H2O2 to produce •OH. The generation of •OH could be distinctly enhanced by the GSH depletion and H2O2 self-sufficiency. Besides, an outstanding photothermal therapy (PTT) effect could be stimulated by NIR irradiation on mesoporous polydopamine (mPDA). Meanwhile, mPDA was an excellent photoacoustic reagent, which could monitor the delivery of nanocomposite materials through photoacoustic (PA) imaging. Moreover, the successful delivery of doxorubicin (DOX) realized the integration of chemotherapy, PTT, and CDT. This strategy could solve the problem of insufficient CDT efficacy caused by the limited H2O2 and overexpression of GSH. This multifunctional nanoplatform may open a broad path for self-boosting CDT and synergistic therapy.

4.
Water Res ; 205: 117651, 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34560617

RESUMO

The enrichment of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) in waste activated sludge (WAS) has raised concerns about their potential impact on anaerobic digestion of WAS. To date, there is no information regarding how to attenuate the negative effects of ZnO NPs on WAS anaerobic digestion. In this study, it was found that the appropriate amount of cationic polyacrylamide (cPAM) could mitigate the toxicity of ZnO NPs. During short-term exposure, the supplement of 4.0 mg cPAM/g TSS significantly restored biochemical methane potential from 28.6% inhibition to 9.3% inhibition compared with the control digester (P < 0.01). The spiked cPAM promoted the solubilization and acidification stages by weakening the contact between ZnO NPs and anaerobes in anaerobic digestion process, thus providing abundant substance for sequent bio-utilization. In the long-term semi-continues operated reactor, the continuous replacement of cPAM (at 4.0 mg/g TSS) significantly strengthened the recovery of VS destruction rate (20.3% to 26.4%, P < 0.01) and the daily yield of methane (93.5 mL/d to 124.2 mL/d, P < 0.01). Consistent with the restored performance, the application of cPAM increased the total microbial communities and the relative abundances of dominant acidogens and methanogens. Further explorations showed decreased toxicity of ZnO NPs primarily attributed to the decline of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by ZnO NPs.

5.
J Clin Anesth ; 75: 110504, 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509960

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of intensive glucose control on diabetic patients undergoing surgery. DESIGN: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. PubMed, CENTRAL, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, and CINAHL databases were searched from inception to 13 December 2020. SETTING: Operating room, postoperative recovery area and ward, up to 30 days after surgery. PATIENTS: Diabetic patients undergoing surgery. INTERVENTIONS: We used Review Manager 5.4 to pool the data with a random-effects model. The quality of evidence was rated using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation system. MEASUREMENTS: The primary outcomes were infectious complications, postoperative mortality, and hypoglycaemia. The secondary outcomes included atrial fibrillation, myocardial infarction, stroke, delirium, renal failure, postoperative mechanical ventilation time, length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay, and hospital stay. MAIN RESULTS: Thirteen studies involving 1582 participants were included. Compared with conventional glucose control, intensive glucose control was associated with a lower risk of infectious complications (risk ratio [RR], 0.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.19-0.63; low-quality evidence), atrial fibrillation (RR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.42-0.71; high-quality evidence), and renal failure (RR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.15-0.95; moderate-quality evidence), as well as a shorter length of stay in the ICU (mean difference (MD), -0.55 day; 95% CI, -1.05 to -0.05 days; very-low-quality evidence) and hospital (MD, -1.61 days; 95% CI, -2.78 to -0.44 days; very-low-quality evidence). However, intensive glucose control was associated with a higher risk of hypoglycaemia (RR, 3.00; 95% CI, 1.97-4.55; high-quality evidence). There were no significant differences in postoperative mortality, myocardial infarction, stroke, delirium, or postoperative mechanical ventilation time. CONCLUSIONS: Intensive glucose control in diabetic patients is associated with a reduction in some adverse postoperative outcomes including infectious complications, but also appears to increase the risk of hypoglycaemia. Further well-designed studies may be needed to determine appropriate regimens to reduce hypoglycaemia incidence. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42021226138.

6.
Front Oncol ; 11: 679262, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34513670

RESUMO

There is an urgent need to improve our understanding of breast cancer brain metastases (BCBMs). Thus, we obtained transcriptome data of BCBMs, primary breast cancers (BCs), and extracranial metastases (BCEMs) from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, including GSE43837, GSE14017, and GSE14018, for immune and metabolic analysis. Firstly, we performed immune and metabolic analysis on BCBMs and primary breast cancers of GSE43837 using RNA sequence. We identified significant immunosuppression and gene signatures associated with immune infiltration in BCBMs; the lower the expression of the signatures, the worse the prognosis of breast cancer patients in the Kaplan-Meier (KM) plotter [Breast cancer] database. We also identified increased oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) utilization in BCBMs compared with BCs and gene signatures associated with increased OXPHOS utilization in BCBMs; the higher the expression of the signatures, the worse the prognosis of breast cancer patients in the KM plotter [Breast cancer] database, which can predict the prognosis of breast cancer patients better, as it can also predict the prognosis of patients with different breast cancer subtypes. In addition, we performed immune and metabolic analysis on BCBMs and extracranial metastases of GSE14017 and GSE14018 using RNA sequence. Compared with extracranial metastases, we identified more significant immunosuppression but no difference in OXPHOS utilization in BCBMs, which may be because OXPHOS was also involved in extracranial metastases. We have proven that OXPHOS was functionally significant in metastasis in vitro assays. Oligomycin, an OXPHOS inhibitor, substantially attenuated the migration and invasion potential of breast cancer cells. Our study provides new insights into the pathogenesis of BCBMs. Significance: Our study reports the most comprehensive gene expression analysis of BCBMs, BCs and extracranial metastases to date. We identified immunosuppression and OXPHOS enrichment in BCBMs compared with BCs, which provide new insights into the pathogenesis of BCBMs and will facilitate the development of new therapeutic strategies for patients with BCBMs.

7.
J Parasitol ; 107(5): 710-716, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525205

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate whether the infection intensity of Theileria orientalis Ikeda type organisms within Haemaphysalis longicornis larvae and nymph stages fluctuated over 6 mo after feeding as larvae on infected calves in the field. Naïve larvae, hatched from eggs, were fed on infected calves for 5 days while contained within cotton socks glued over the calves' ears. Larvae were first sampled immediately post-feeding and then sampled every 3 wk for 23 wk in total, after molting to nymphs. All larvae and nymphs were tested for T. orientalis Ikeda organisms using quantitative PCR. The qPCR results showed that the infection intensity of Haemaphysalis longicornis larvae and nymphs was not constant over the sampling period, and after initially dropping after molting to nymphs, it then rose with fasting to a maximum at 17 and 23 wk post-feeding. The significant rise in T. orientalis Ikeda organisms observed at 23 wk postfeeding may explain why more severe clinical cases of bovine theileriosis in New Zealand are seen in the spring when nymphs are the predominant instar questing.

8.
Front Pediatr ; 9: 710450, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490166

RESUMO

Objective: The etiology of biliary atresia is unclear, but viral infection has been implicated. The aim of the current meta-analysis was to investigate relationships between cytomegalovirus (CMV) and the prognosis of biliary atresia. Methods: PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure database, and Wanfang Data electronic databases were searched for eligible studies. Each relevant text was thoroughly reviewed and examined, including related papers in their reference lists. Results: A total of nine studies including 784 patients were included in the analysis. Biliary atresia patients with CMV exhibited significantly lower jaundice clearance (odds ratio: 0.46, p < 0.0001; I 2 = 15%, p = 0.31). There were no significant differences in the rates of cholangitis or native liver survival. CMV-pp65-positive biliary atresia patients had a significantly lower rate of jaundice clearance (odds ratio: 5.87, p = 0.003; I 2 = 0%, p = 0.71) and a significantly higher rate of cholangitis (odds ratio: 0.21, p = 0.01; I 2 = 0%, p = 0.43) than CMV antibody-positive biliary atresia patients. Conclusion: Biliary atresia patients who were also infected with CMV had a poorer prognosis, particularly with respect to jaundice clearance. CMV status may influence the prognosis of biliary atresia. Clinicians should be able to routinely identify the subset of biliary atresia patients who are also CMV-positive, in order to improve native liver survival.

9.
Nanotechnology ; 2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399416

RESUMO

Sensitive and selective detection of the lead ion (Pb2+) plays an important role in terms of both human health and environmental protection, as the heavy metal is fairly ubiquitous and highly toxic. The highly stable fluorescence biosensor is composed of Fe3O4@TiO2core-shell nanoflowers, functionalized with a carboxyl fluorescein labeled DNA. The morphology, physical and chemical properties of the sensing nanomaterials were studied by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), FT-IR spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy were used to characterize the fluorescein functionalized magnetic nanoparticles. The performance of Pb Pb2+detection displayed an excellent linearity (R2=0.9948) in the range of 10-10to 5×10-9ppm with a detection limit of 10-10ppm, based on the optimization of the fabrication process and aptamers' specification. The fluorescence biosensor has a very fast response, excellent recoveries and high adsorbent capacities. It was successfully applied for the determination of Pb Pb2+in contaminated water and serum samples; the detection of limit (LOD) in both media were 10-10ppm. These features ensure the potential use of aptamer functionalized magnetic nanoflowers as a new class of non-toxic biocompatible sensors for biological and environmental applications.

10.
Nanotechnology ; 32(48)2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404039

RESUMO

The regeneration cycle of expensive cofactor, NAD(P)H, is of paramount importance for the bio-catalyzed redox reactions. Here a ZrO2supported bimetallic nanocatalyst of gold-palladium (Au-Pd/ZrO2) was prepared to catalyze the regeneration of NAD(P)H without using electron mediators and extra energy input. Over 98% of regeneration efficiency can be achieved catlyzed by Au-Pd/ZrO2using TEOA as the electron donor. Mechanism study showed that the regeneration of NAD(P)H took place through a two-step process: Au-Pd/ZrO2nanocatalyst first catalyzed the oxidation of triethanolamine (TEOA) to glycolaldehyde (GA), then the generated GA induced the non-catalytic reducing of NAD(P)+to NAD(P)H under an alkaline environment maintained by TEOA. This two-step mechanism enables the decoupling of the regeneration of NAD(P)H in space and time into a catalytic oxidation and non-catalytic reducing cascade process which has been further verified using a variety of electron donors. The application significance of this procedure is further demonstrated both by the favorable stability of Au-Pd/ZrO2nanocatalyst in 5 successive cycles preserving over 90% of its original activity, and by the excellent performance of the regenerated NADH as the cofactor in the catalytic hydrogenation of acetaldehyde using an ethanol dehydrogenase.

11.
Nat Sci Sleep ; 13: 1395-1410, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34393534

RESUMO

Postoperative neurocognitive disorder (PND) increases the length of hospital stay, mortality, and risk of long-term cognitive impairment. Perioperative sleep disturbance is prevalent and commonly ignored and may increase the risk of PND. However, the role of perioperative sleep disturbances in PND remains unclear. Nocturnal sleep plays an indispensable role in learning, memory, and maintenance of cerebral microenvironmental homeostasis. Hospitalized sleep disturbances also increase the incidence of postoperative delirium and cognitive dysfunction. This review summarizes the role of perioperative sleep disturbances in PND and elucidates the potential mechanisms underlying sleep-deprivation-mediated PND. Activated neuroinflammation and oxidative stress; impaired function of the blood-brain barrier and glymphatic pathway; decreased hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor, adult neurogenesis, and sirtuin1 expression; and accumulated amyloid-beta proteins are associated with PND in individuals with perioperative sleep disorders. These findings suggest that the improvement of perioperative sleep might reduce the incidence of postoperative delirium and postoperative cognitive dysfunction. Future studies should further investigate the role of perioperative sleep disturbance in PND.

12.
Front Oncol ; 11: 663778, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34235078

RESUMO

Growing evidence indicates that the dysregulation of mitochondrial calcium (Ca2+) plays a critical role in the growth of tumor cells, including colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the underling mechanism is not fully elucidated. In this study, the regulatory effects of mitochondrial Ca2+ on phosphodiesterase 2 (PDE2)/cAMP/PKA axis and the phosphorylation of mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) as well as the growth of CRC cells were systematically investigated both in vitro and in vivo. Our findings demonstrated that MCU-induced mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake activated mitochondrial PDE2 in CRC cells. Moreover, overexpression MCU in CRC led to a 1.9-fold increase in Ca2+ uptake compared to control cells. However, knockdown of MCU resulted in 1.5-fould decrease in Ca2+ uptake in mitochondria compared to the controls. Activation of mitochondrial PDE2 significantly inhibited the activity of mitochondrial protein kinase A (PKA), which subsequently leads to decreased phosphorylation of TFAM. Our data further revealed that PKA regulates the phosphorylation of TFAM and promotes the degradation of phosphorylated TFAM. Thus, TFAM protein levels accumulated in mitochondria when the activity of PKA was inhibited. Overall, this study showed that the overexpression of MCU enhanced CRC growth through promoting the accumulation of TFAM proteins in mitochondria. Conversely, knockdown of MCU in CRC cells resulted in decreased CRC growth. Collectively, these data suggest that the mitochondrial Ca2+-activated PDE2/cAMP/PKA axis plays a key role in regulating TFAM stability and the growth of CRC cells.

13.
Cancer Commun (Lond) ; 41(8): 695-714, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34160895

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mitochondria are key regulators in cell proliferation and apoptosis. Alterations in mitochondrial function are closely associated with inflammation and tumorigenesis. This study aimed to investigate whether mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), a key regulator of mitochondrial DNA transcription and replication, is involved in the initiation and progression of colitis-associated cancer (CAC). METHODS: TFAM expression was examined in tissue samples of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and CAC by immunohistochemistry. Intestinal epithelial cell (IEC)-specific TFAM-knockout mice (TFAM△IEC ) and colorectal cancer (CRC) cells with TFAM knockdown or overexpression were used to evaluate the role of TFAM in colitis and the initiation and progression of CAC. The underlying mechanisms of TFAM were also explored by analyzing mitochondrial respiration function and biogenesis. RESULTS: The expression of TFAM was downregulated in active IBD and negatively associated with the disease activity. The downregulation of TFAM in IECs was induced by interleukin-6 in a signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)/miR-23b-dependent manner. In addition, TFAM knockout impaired IEC turnover to promote dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. Of note, TFAM knockout increased the susceptibility of mice to azoxymethane/DSS-induced CAC and TFAM overexpression protected mice from intestinal inflammation and colitis-associated tumorigenesis. By contrast, TFAM expression was upregulated in CAC tissues and contributed to cell growth. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that ß-catenin induced the upregulation of TFAM through c-Myc in CRC cells. Mechanistically, TFAM promoted the proliferation of both IECs and CRC cells by increasing mitochondrial biogenesis and activity. CONCLUSIONS: TFAM plays a dual role in the initiation and progression of CAC, providing a novel understanding of CAC pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Associadas a Colite , Colite , Animais , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/complicações , Colite/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Fatores de Transcrição
14.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 652963, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34122076

RESUMO

Pyroptosis, a newly discovered form of programmed cell death, is characterized by cell swelling, the protrusion of large bubbles from the plasma membrane and cell lysis. This death pathway is mediated by the pore formation of gasdermin D (GSDMD), which is activated by human caspase-1/caspase-4/caspase-5 (or mouse caspase-1/caspase11), and followed with the releasing of both cell contents and proinflammatory cytokines. Pyroptosis was initially found to function as an innate immune effector mechanism to facilitate host defense against pathogenic microorganisms, and subsequent studies revealed that pyroptosis also plays an eventful role in inflammatory immune diseases and tumor resistance. Recent studies have also shown that pyroptosis is involved in the initiation, the progression and complications of atherosclerosis. Here, we provide an overview of the role of pyroptosis in atherosclerosis by focusing on three important participating cells: ECs, macrophages, and SMCs. In addition, we also summarized drugs and stimuli that regulate the progression of atherosclerosis by influencing cell pyroptosis.

15.
Food Sci Nutr ; 9(5): 2497-2507, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34026066

RESUMO

In this study, corn flour with 24% w/w moisture content was extruded, and cellulose at varied weight ratios was added in order to investigate its effect on the extrudate's physicochemical properties. Twin-screw extrusion was divided into five temperature zones, and the screw temperature profile was 60℃, 120℃, 140℃, 120℃, and 110℃, respectively, and screw speed was 150 rpm. The cellulose content was 1%-15% w/w. Results showed that the addition of cellulose led to an increase in hardness, L* and b* of the extruded samples, and a decrease in degree of expansion, a*, thermal enthalpy of the sample paste. The sample paste exhibited a solid-like characteristic. Microscopic morphology analysis showed that surface wrinkles of the sample increased with the increase of cellulose addition. The addition of cellulose can effectively increase the degree of puffing of corn flour-cellulose fiber extrudates.

16.
Nanoscale ; 13(23): 10329-10334, 2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34047745

RESUMO

The strategy of constructing the core/shell structure is of great importance in emitting semiconductor nanocrystals. However, the coating on soft metal halide perovskite nanocrystals at the single particle level remains a challenge because of the low compatibility between perovskites and common wide-band-gap semiconductors, such as ZnS and CdS. In addition, using these semiconductors as the shell layer requires high reaction temperatures, which often lead to undesirable chemical transformation. Herein we report a general route to passivate the perovskite nanocrystals by insulating metal sulfate shells. The passivating shell is created around the as-synthesized CsPbBr3 perovskite nanocrystals by initiating the reaction between an organic ammonium sulfate and a variety of metal ions in the presence of ligands. This new method allowed for creating insulating metal sulfate shells with controllable thicknesses and without unwanted chemical transformation. Importantly, these novel core/shell-structured nanocrystals show photoluminescence quantum yields near unity, highly suppressed energy transfer in film and suppressed halide exchange in solution.

17.
Front Neurosci ; 15: 593654, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33867911

RESUMO

It has been well recognized that exposure to chronic stress could increase pain responding and exacerbate pain symptoms, resulting in stress-induced hyperalgesia. However, the mechanisms underlying stress-induced hyperalgesia are not yet fully elucidated. To this end, we observed that restraint as a stressful event exacerbated mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia, accompanied with up-regulation of nitric oxide (NO) (P < 0.001), GTP cyclohydrolase 1 (GCH1) (GCH1 mRNA: P = 0.001; GCH1 protein: P = 0.001), and tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) concentration (plasma BH4: P < 0.001; spinal BH4: P < 0.001) on Day 7 in restraint stress (RS) rats. Intrathecal injection of N ω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), a non-specific NO synthase inhibitor, or N-([3-(aminomethyl)phenyl]methyl) ethanimidamide, a special inhibitor of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), for seven consecutive days attenuated stress-induced hyperalgesia and decreased the production of NO (P < 0.001). Interestingly, 7-nitro indazole, a special inhibitor of neuronal NO synthase, alleviated stress-induced hyperalgesia but did not affect spinal NO synthesis. Furthermore, intrathecal injection of BH4 not only aggravated stress-induced hyperalgesia but also up-regulated the expression of spinal iNOS (iNOS mRNA: P = 0.015; iNOS protein: P < 0.001) and NO production (P < 0.001). These findings suggest that hyperalgesia induced by RS is associated with the modulation of the GCH1-BH4 system and constitutively expressed spinal iNOS. Thus, the GCH1-BH4-iNOS signaling pathway may be a new novel therapeutic target for pain relief in the spinal cord.

18.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 127: 37-53, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33894241

RESUMO

Brain diseases, including neurodegenerative, cerebrovascular and neuropsychiatric diseases, have posed a deleterious threat to human health and brought a great burden to society and the healthcare system. With the development of medical technology, vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as an alternative treatment for refractory epilepsy, refractory depression, cluster headaches, and migraines. Furthermore, current evidence showed promising results towards the treatment of more brain diseases, such as Parkinson's disease (PD), autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), traumatic brain injury (TBI), and stroke. Nonetheless, the biological mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of VNS in brain diseases remain only partially elucidated. This review aims to delve into the relevant preclinical and clinical studies and update the progress of VNS applications and its potential mechanisms underlying the biological effects in brain diseases.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Doença de Parkinson , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Estimulação do Nervo Vago , Humanos , Nervo Vago
19.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 8(6): 2002794, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33747723

RESUMO

Altering the balance between energy intake and expenditure is a major strategy for treating obesity. Nonetheless, despite the progression in antiobesity drugs on appetite suppression, therapies aimed at increasing energy expenditure are limited. Here, knockout ofAKAP1, a signaling hub on outer mitochondrial membrane, renders mice resistant to diet-induced obesity.AKAP1 knockout significantly enhances energy expenditure and thermogenesis in brown adipose tissues (BATs) of obese mice. Restoring AKAP1 expression in BAT clearly reverses the beneficial antiobesity effect in AKAP1-/- mice. Mechanistically, AKAP1 remarkably decreases fatty acid ß-oxidation (FAO) by phosphorylating ACSL1 to inhibit its activity in a protein-kinase-A-dependent manner and thus inhibits thermogenesis in brown adipocytes. Importantly, AKAP1 peptide inhibitor effectively alleviates diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. Altogether, the findings demonstrate that AKAP1 functions as a brake of FAO to promote diet-induced obesity, which may be used as a potential therapeutic target for obesity.

20.
J Epidemiol Glob Health ; 11(1): 117-123, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605116

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a public health emergency of international concern and poses a challenge to people's psychological resilience. Students are reported to have greater psychological impacts from COVID-19. This study aimed to survey international students to better understand their traumatic effects and psychological reactions from COVID-19, to develop evidence-driven strategies to reduce adverse psychological impact during the pandemic. METHOD: We conducted an online survey that collected information on the demographics, economic conditions, academic conditions, and health statuses of native Chinese students attending university in the U.S. Psychological impact was assessed by the Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Checklist Civilian Version (PCL-C) and mental health status was assessed by the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale. RESULTS: This study included 261 Chinese international students. In total, 37.5% of respondents' PTSD PCL-C scores measured as moderate or severe. International students who were currently in China facing job-hunting or planning to continue studying abroad, severe economic pressure, and poor self-rated health status were significantly associated with greater PTSD PCL-C scores and higher levels of stress, anxiety, and depression. CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, more than one-third of the respondents rated their PTSD PCL-C score as moderate-to-severe and nearly half of them reported moderate-to-severe anxiety. Our findings identify factors such as future academic plan, economic pressure, and health status are associated with higher levels of psychological impact and worse mental health status. These should receive attention and psychological interventions should be implemented to improve the mental health of international students during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , COVID-19 , Depressão , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Estresse Psicológico , Estudantes , Adulto , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/etiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19/economia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/psicologia , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/etiologia , Fatores Econômicos , Feminino , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Masculino , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Resiliência Psicológica , SARS-CoV-2 , Autoavaliação (Psicologia) , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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