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Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 61(7): e202110445, 2022 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34927786


We investigated the biosynthetic pathway of type II polyketide murayaquinone. The murayaquinone biosynthetic cluster contains genes for three putative short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family enzymes including MrqF and MrqH with known functions and MrqM with unclear function. We report the functional characterization of MrqM for its role in murayaquinone biosynthesis. Our gene deletion experiment and structural elucidation of the accumulated intermediates revealed that MrqM is related with the second polyketide ring cyclization, because the inactivation of mrqM resulted in the accumulation of an off-pathway intermediate SEK43 and disrupted the second and third ring cyclization. Site-directed mutagenesis studies showed that two conserved residues in MrqM and homologous proteins Y151 and K155 are essential for its activity. The previously proposed second/third ring cyclase, MrqD, might instead play another important role in the chain releasing step of the murayaquinone biosynthesis.

Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Policetídeos/metabolismo , Redutases-Desidrogenases de Cadeia Curta/metabolismo , Estrutura Molecular , Policetídeos/química
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(30)2021 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282016


Blasticidin S is a peptidyl nucleoside antibiotic. Its biosynthesis involves a cryptic leucylation and two leucylated intermediates, LDBS and LBS, have been found in previous studies. Leucylation has been proposed to be a new self-resistance mechanism during blasticidin S biosynthesis, and the leucyl group was found to be important for the methylation of ß-amino group of the arginine side chain. However, the responsible enzyme and its associated mechanism of the leucyl transfer process remain to be elucidated. Here, we report results investigating the leucyl transfer step forming the intermediate LDBS in blasticidin biosynthesis. A hypothetical protein, BlsK, has been characterized by genetic and in vitro biochemical experiments. This enzyme catalyzes the leucyl transfer from leucyl-transfer RNA (leucyl-tRNA) to the ß-amino group on the arginine side chain of DBS. Furthermore, BlsK was found to contain an iron-sulfur cluster that is necessary for activity. These findings provide an example of an iron-sulfur protein that catalyzes an aminoacyl-tRNA (aa-tRNA)-dependent amide bond formation in a natural product biosynthetic pathway.

Aminoaciltransferases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas Ferro-Enxofre/metabolismo , Aminoacil-RNA de Transferência/metabolismo , Streptomyces/enzimologia , Aminoaciltransferases/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Vias Biossintéticas , Proteínas Ferro-Enxofre/genética , Nucleosídeos/biossíntese , Aminoacil-RNA de Transferência/genética , Especificidade por Substrato
Curr Opin Biotechnol ; 69: 103-111, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422913


Polyketide natural products are valuable sources of bioactive molecules such as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. The tremendous development of the genome sequence database revealed that the majority of the biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) are cryptic. Activation of these cryptic BGCs and identification of the related products is essential for finding more lead compounds for pharmaceuticals. On the other hand, 99% of microbes in nature cannot be cultured in regular conditions, which greatly hinders the efforts to explore their biosynthetic potentials. Expression of polyketide BGCs in heterologous hosts with better growth, good genetic characteristics, and amenable molecular tools is a robust approach to identify new polyketides and characterize their biosynthesis. This review outlines the challenges in the heterologous production of polyketide BGCs of bacterial origins.

Produtos Biológicos , Policetídeos , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Família Multigênica/genética , Policetídeo Sintases/genética
mBio ; 11(5)2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32934080


Type II polyketides are a group of secondary metabolites with various biological activities. In nature, biosynthesis of type II polyketides involves multiple enzymatic steps whereby key enzymes, including ketoacyl-synthase (KSα), chain length factor (KSß), and acyl carrier protein (ACP), are utilized to elongate the polyketide chain through a repetitive condensation reaction. During each condensation, the biosynthesis intermediates are covalently attached to KSα or ACP via a thioester bond and are then cleaved to release an elongated polyketide chain for successive postmodification. Despite its critical role in type II polyketide biosynthesis, the enzyme and its corresponding mechanism for type II polyketide chain release through thioester bond breakage have yet to be determined. Here, kinamycin was used as a model compound to investigate the chain release step of type II polyketide biosynthesis. Using a genetic knockout strategy, we confirmed that AlpS is required for the complete biosynthesis of kinamycins. Further in vitro biochemical assays revealed high hydrolytic activity of AlpS toward a thioester bond in an aromatic polyketide-ACP analog, suggesting its distinct role in offloading the polyketide chain from ACP during the kinamycin biosynthesis. Finally, we successfully utilized AlpS to enhance the heterologous production of dehydrorabelomycin in Escherichia coli by nearly 25-fold, which resulted in 0.50 g/liter dehydrorabelomycin in a simple batch-mode shake flask culture. Taken together, our results provide critical knowledge to gain an insightful understanding of the chain-releasing process during type II polyketide synthesis, which, in turn, lays a solid foundation for future new applications in type II polyketide bioproduction.

Vias Biossintéticas , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Policetídeo Sintases/metabolismo , Policetídeos/classificação , Policetídeos/metabolismo , Metabolismo Secundário , Proteína de Transporte de Acila/genética , Proteína de Transporte de Acila/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/genética
Front Microbiol ; 11: 281, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32174898


The composting ecosystem provides a potential resource for finding new microorganisms with the capability for cellulose degradation. In the present study, Congo red method was used for the isolating of thermostable lignocellulose-degrading bacteria from chicken manure compost. A thermophilic strain named as Geobacillus thermodenitrificans Y7 with acid-resident property was successfully isolated and employed to degrade raw switchgrass at 60°C for 5 days, which resulted in the final degradation rates of cellulose, xylan, and acid-insoluble lignin as 18.64, 12.96, and 17.21%, respectively. In addition, GC-MS analysis about aromatic degradation affirm the degradation of lignin by G. thermodenitrificans Y7. Moreover, an endocellulase gene belong to M42 family was successfully cloned from G. thermodenitrificans Y7 and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21. Recombinant enzyme Cel-9 was purified by Ni-NTA column based the His-tag, and the molecular weight determined as 40.4 kDa by SDA-PAGE. The characterization of the enzyme Cel-9 indicated that the maximum enzyme activity was realized at 50°C and pH 8.6 and, Mn2+ could greatly improve the CMCase enzyme activity of Cel-9 at 10 mM, which was followed by Fe2+ and Co2+. Besides, it also found that the ß-1,3-1,4, ß-1,3, ß-1,4, and ß-1,6 glucan linkages all could be hydrolyzed by enzyme Cel-9. Finally, during the application of enzyme Cel-9 to switchgrass, the saccharification rates achieved to 1.81 ± 0.04% and 2.65 ± 0.03% for 50 and 100% crude enzyme, respectively. All these results indicated that both the strain G. thermodenitrificans Y7 and the recombinant endocellulase Cel-9 have the potential to be applied to the biomass industry.