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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900781

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) has already caused worldwide concern because of its high biotoxicity to human and plants. This study investigated how nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) enrichment alter the toxic morpho-physiological impacts of and accumulation of Cd in hydroponically grown Salix matsudana Koidz cuttings. Our results showed that Cd significantly depressed growth and induced a physiological response on S. matsudana cuttings, exhibiting by reduced biomass, decreased photosynthetic pigment concentrations, and increased soluble protein and peroxidase activity of shoots and roots. N and P enrichment alleviated the Cd toxic effects by increasing production of proline which prevented cuttings from damage by Cd-induced ROS, displaying with decreased malondialdehyde concentration, and stimulated overall Cd accumulation. Enrichment of N and P significantly decreased the upward Cd transfer, combing with enhanced root uptake (stimulated root activity) and retranslocation from stem, resulted in extensive Cd sequestration in S. matsudana roots. In both root and xylem, concentration of Cd is positively correlated with N and P. The improved phytoextraction potential by N and P enrichment was mainly via elevating Cd concentration in roots, probably by increased production of phytochelatins (e.g., proline) which form Cd chelates and help preventing damage from Cd-induced ROS. This study provides support for the application of S. matsudana in Cd phytoextraction even in eutrophic aquatic environments.

2.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 143: 242-255, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31789160

RESUMO

High incident rates of red tide have occurred off the coast of the Changjiang (Yangtze) River Estuary in summer, resulting from a magnified population growth discharging substantial nutrient loads into this vicinity. The presence of elevated Chlorophyll-a concentrations (≥36.3 µg/l), low suspended sediment concentrations in surface and mid-layers (<10 mg/l), a strong saline front and surface water temperature gradient, veering surface winds, and a bimodal shape to the Changjiang Diluted Water (CDW) revealed two red tide patches appearing between August 6-13, 2010. Two distinguishable hydrodynamic driving mechanisms, connected to these incidents, are diagnosed. Field observations and numerical simulations determined a red tide patch in the northeastern offshore area is caused by a northeast transport of the CDW truncated by a northwest intrusion of the Taiwan Warm Current (TWC) as winds deviated. Red tide occurrence in the southern nearshore area originated from a plume front where CDW interfaces with the TWC.

3.
Sci Total Environ ; : 135752, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791774

RESUMO

In light of environmental deterioration in coastal areas, deep sea cage aquaculture is becoming an increasingly attractive mode of mariculture. A key factor in determining the potential of deep sea cage aquaculture is to evaluate the environmental impacts of these practices. Here, a numerical model consisting of coupled hydrodynamic-, tracer-tracking- and 3-D Lagrangian particle-tracking models was set up and applied to evaluate the environmental impacts of deep sea cage cultivation of sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicus) in the Yellow Sea, China. The model was verified using water level data on August 1-31, 2018 and nutrient concentration in water and surface sediments in May, August, and November 2018, and January 2019. Results show that the model successfully captures the characteristics of local tidal currents and the total particulate nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations of the underlying sediments. Water quality simulations indicate that deep sea cages account for 26% of the total dissolved inorganic nitrogen and 19% of the active phosphorus content. Residual feed particles are predicted to fall in an ellipse centered on the cage location, with a long axis of 200 m and a short axis of 50 m. Feces are predicted to fall in an ellipse with a long axis of 1400 m and a short axis of 600 m. The Superposition particles are predicted to settle in an ellipse with a long axis of 320 m and a short axis of 150 m. The model results indicate that installation of all deep sea cages will lead to acceptable levels of water quality, but that sediments may become polluted. The coupled model can be used to predict the environmental impacts of deep sea cage farming and provide a useful tool for designing the layout of integrated multi-trophic aquaculture of organic extractive or inorganic extractive species.

4.
Front Chem ; 7: 789, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31803722

RESUMO

Substantial consumption of fossil fuels causes an increase in CO2 emissions and intensifies global pollution problems, such as the greenhouse effect. Recently, a new type of ultra-low-density porous material, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), has been developed for the photocatalytic conversion of CO2. Herein, a composite photocatalytic catalyst based on NH2-MIL-125(Ti) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO@NH2-MIL-125) was fabricated through a facile "one-pot" process. The acquired materials were characterized to obtain their structures, morphologies, and optical information. The experimental results showed that methyl formate (MF) was the predominant reaction product, and rGO@NH2-MIL-125 exhibited the highest yield of 1,116 µmol·g-1·h-1, more than twice that of pure MIL-125. The high photoactivity of rGO@NH2-MIL-125 can be ascribed to the effective spatial separation and transfer of photoinduced carriers, largely due to the synergistic effect of amino functionality and rGO incorporation. rGO@NH2-MIL-125 also displayed acceptable repeatability in cyclic runs for CO2 reduction.

5.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 77: 105939, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718930

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) could induce lung injury. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is involved in the molecular mechanisms of prooxidative and pro-inflammatory effect of PM2.5. Molecular hydrogen has antioxidant properties. The protective effect and mechanism of hydrogen on PM2.5-induced lung injury remain unclear. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine whether hydrogen could alleviate lung injury in a rat model of subacute exposure to concentrated ambient PM2.5, and explore the mechanism related to AhR. METHODS: Male Wastar rats were exposed to either concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) (diameter: ≤2.5 µm, average concentration: 1328 ±â€¯730 µg/m3) or filtered air (FA) by nose-only inhalation (5 h/day, 5 days/week for 4 weeks). Hydrogen-treated rats inhaled 66.7% hydrogen from water electrolysis for 2 h after each exposure to CAPs or FA. RESULTS: CAPs inhalation induced lung injury, as demonstrated by pulmonary function decrease, histopathological damage, mucus hypersecretion [Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining for mucins, immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) for mucin 5AC (MUC5AC) expression], increased pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-8 and IL-1ß) and oxidative damage indexes [malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-isoprostane F2α (8-iso-PG)]. While, hydrogen inhalation significantly alleviated the damages mentioned above. In addition, low expression of AhR in lung tissues determined by Western Blot was found after CAPs exposure, whereas hydrogen inhibited AhR decline induced by CAPs. CONCLUSIONS: High concentrations of hydrogen could ameliorate pulmonary dysfunction, airway mucus hypersecretion, oxidation damage, and inflammation response in rats exposed to concentrated ambient PM2.5. Additionally, hydrogen alleviates lung injury induced by PM2.5 possibly through AhR-dependent mechanisms.

6.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(5)2019 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31067820

RESUMO

The liver plays a key role in metabolism and affects pig production. However, the functional annotation of noncoding regions of the pig liver remains poorly understood. We revealed the landscape of cis-regulatory elements and their functional characterization in pig liver. We identified 102,373 cis-regulatory elements in the pig liver, including enhancers, promoters, super-enhancers, and broad H3K4me3 domains, and highlighted 26 core transcription regulatory factors in the pig liver as well. We found similarity of cis-regulatory elements among those of pigs, humans, and cattle. Despite the low proportion of functionally conserved enhancers (~30%) between pig and human liver tissue, ~78% of the pig liver enhancer orthologues sequence could play an enhancer role in other human tissues. Additionally, we observed that the ratio of consistent super-enhancer-associated genes was significantly higher than the ratio of functionally conserved super-enhancers. Approximately 54% of the core regulation factors driven by super-enhancers were consistent across the liver from these three species. Our pig liver annotation and functional characterization studies provide a system and resource for noncoding annotation for future gene regulatory studies in pigs. Furthermore, our study also showed the high level functional conservation of cis-regulatory elements in mammals; it also improved our understanding of regulation function of mammal cis-regulatory elements.

7.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol ; 68: 155-163, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30986632

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of prolonged exposure to high concentrations of PM2.5 on the trachea and lungs of mice and to determine whether the damages to the trachea and lung are induced by necroptosis. METHODS: Six- to eight-week-old female Balb/C mice of PM group were restrained in an animal restraining device using a nose-only "PM2.5 online enrichment system" for 8 weeks, in Shijiazhuang, Hebei, China. Anti -Fas group was exposed to PM2.5 inhalation and anti-Fas treatment via intranasal instillation. The mice in the control group inhaled filtered clean air. PM2.5 sample was collected and analyzed. Airway Hyperresponsiveness (AHR) was tested. Lung tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were analyzed for Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, electron microscopy, cellular inflammation, cytokines, Tunel, Fas, RIPK3 and MLKL expression. RESULTS: Compared to the other two groups, PM group displayed significantly increased AHR, neutrophils in BALF, significant bronchitis and alveolar epithelial hyperplasia and inflammation and necroptosis which were indicated by increased TUNEL, Fas, RIPK3 and MLKL measure. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that PM2.5 can enhance AHR and these changes are induced by necroptosis-related inflammation.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/induzido quimicamente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Respiratórios/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/citologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/fisiologia , Pulmão/ultraestrutura , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Necrose/induzido quimicamente , Necrose/metabolismo , Necrose/patologia , Necrose/fisiopatologia , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/metabolismo , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/patologia , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/fisiopatologia , Traqueia/efeitos dos fármacos , Traqueia/patologia , Traqueia/fisiologia , Traqueia/ultraestrutura
8.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(10): 9672-9685, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30734252

RESUMO

Photocatalytic oxidation of formaldehyde (HCHO) is considered as one of the promising ways to resolve indoor air HCHO pollution. TiO2 has been well known as the most extended application in photocatalysis due to its strong oxidizing ability and stability. Owing to high activity under visible light irradiation, TiO2 and Bi2O3 doping mixed with Bi2WO6 was analyzed in this study. The formation of two kinds of heterojunction caused efficient charge separation, leading to the effective reduction in the recombination of photo-generated electron and hole. The special structure and enhanced performance of these catalysts were analyzed. For the first time, the loading of alkali salts was researched for photocatalytic oxidation. In order to understand the reaction mechanism of alkali salts enhanced effects, the catalysts were investigated by using BET, XRD, UV-Vis, FT-IR, SEM, and XPS. The results found more than 2 wt% of Na2SO4 loading and the mixed methods with different solutions were key factors affecting the performance of catalysts. Nearly 92% HCHO conversion could be completed over Bi2WO6/Bi0.15Ti0.85O2 (Na2SO4), and the concentration of HCHO was only 0.07 mg/m3 for 24 h, which was below the limit of specification in China. The results also indicated that the solution mixing method was more favorable to increase the HCHO conversion due to decrease the size of Bi0.15Ti0.85O2 particles. The catalysts with Na2SO4 loading provided more surface-adsorbed oxygen that facilitated the desorption of CO2 and markedly increased the photocatalytic oxidation of HCHO. Graphical abstract Plausible mechanism over W-Bi2WO6/ Bi0.15Ti0.85O2-Na2SO4 (1:4) catalysts.


Assuntos
Formaldeído/química , Modelos Químicos , Adsorção , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Álcalis , Bismuto/química , Catálise , China , Luz , Oxirredução , Oxigênio , Processos Fotoquímicos , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Titânio/química , Compostos de Tungstênio/química
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 657: 270-278, 2019 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30543976

RESUMO

Ammopiptanthus mongolicus, the only drought-resistant, leguminous, evergreen shrub in the desert region of China, is endangered due to climate change and its growth stages urgently need to be non-destructively detected. Although many spectral indexes have been proposed for characterizing vegetation, the relationships are often inconsistent, making it challenging to characterize the status of vegetation across all growth stages. This study investigated the Spectral Features of the endangered desert plant A. mongolicus at different growth stages, and extracted the identified Spectral Features for the establishment of detection and discrimination models using Partial Least Square Regression (PLSR) and Fisher Linear Discriminate Analysis (FLDA), respectively. The results showed spectral reflectance of A. mongolicus differed across different growth stages and it generally increased with the degree of senescence. Poor performance was found in the single factor model, with RMSE ranging from 20.34 to 27.39 or Overall Accuracy of 60% in the validation datasets. The multivariate PLSR model, based on Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Normalized Difference Red Edge Index (NDRE), Physiological Reflectance Index (PhRI) and Plant Senescence Reflectance Index (PSRI), turned out to be accurate in detecting the growth stages, with R2 of 0.89 and RMSE of 12.46, and the performance of the multivariate FLDA model based on 14 Spectral Features was acceptable, with an Overall Accuracy of 89% in the validation datasets. This research provides useful insights for timely and non-destructively discriminating different growth stages by using multivariate PLSR and FLDA analysis.


Assuntos
Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Fabaceae/fisiologia , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto , Análise Espectral , China , Fabaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Modelos Lineares
10.
Environ Technol ; 40(15): 1937-1947, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29364059

RESUMO

Bi2O3/TiO2 photocatalysts were prepared by a hydrothermal method. The photocatalysts were applied to the catalytic oxidation of indoor formaldehyde vapors under irradiation by an light-emitting diode energy-saving lamp. The characterization methods including Brunauer-Emmett-Teller, X-ay diffraction, UV-vis spectra, scanning electron microscopy, Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis were used to investigate the crystalline structure, morphology, specific surface area and porosity. The effects of the preparation conditions, including the type of alcohols, molar ratio and calcination temperature, on the morphology, structure and crystalline phase of the catalyst were also investigated. The results reveal that the morphology could be controlled by using different types of alcohols, especially mixed alcohols. The morphology played a key role in determining the photodegradation efficiency of formaldehyde. According to the experimental results, the Bi2O3/TiO2 catalysts with amorphous particles showed the highest activity. The presence of anatase TiO2 and Bi4(TiO4)3 with a heterojunction structure was the main reason for the high activity, and they were beneficial for increasing the separation of the photogenerated electrons and holes and decreasing their recombination through electron transformations.


Assuntos
Álcoois , Titânio , Catálise , Oxirredução , Espectroscopia Fotoeletrônica , Fotólise
11.
Mol Med Rep ; 19(1): 499-507, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30483785

RESUMO

Diabetic cardiomyopathy is one of the major complications of diabetes, and due to the increasing number of patients with diabetes it is a growing concern. Diabetes­induced cardiomyopathy has a complex pathogenesis and histone deacetylase­mediated epigenetic processes are of prominent importance. The olfactory bromodomain­containing protein 4 (BRD4) is a protein that recognizes and binds acetylated lysine. It has been reported that the high expression of BRD4 is involved in the process of cardiac hypertrophy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the function of BRD4 in the process of high glucose (HG)­induced cardiac hypertrophy, and to clarify whether epigenetic regulation involving BRD4 is an important mechanism. It was revealed that BRD4 expression levels were increased in H9C2 cells following 48 h of HG stimulation. This result was also observed in a diabetic rat model. Furthermore, HG stimulation resulted in the upregulation of the myocardial hypertrophy marker, atrial natriuretic peptide, the cytoskeletal protein α­actin and fibrosis­associated genes including transforming growth factor­ß, SMAD family member 3, connective tissue growth factor and collagen, type 1, α1. However, administration of the specific BRD4 inhibitor JQ1 (250 nM) for 48 h reversed this phenomenon. Furthermore, protein kinase B (AKT) phosphorylation was activated by HG stimulation and suppressed by JQ1. In conclusion, BRD4 serves an important role in the pathogenesis of HG­induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy through the AKT pathway.


Assuntos
Cardiomegalia/metabolismo , Cardiomegalia/patologia , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Epigênese Genética/fisiologia , Masculino , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Regulação para Cima/fisiologia
12.
Ecol Evol ; 8(18): 9439-9450, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30377513

RESUMO

A major gap to understand the effects of plant secondary compounds on litter decomposition in the brown food web is lack of information about how these secondary compounds modify the activities of soil decomposers. To address this question, we conducted an experiment where aqueous extracts and tannins prepared from Pinus massoniana needles were added to soils collected either from P. massoniana (pine soil) or Quercus variabilis (oak soil). Our objective was to investigate the cascading effects of the two compounds on isopod (Armadillidium vulgare) activity and subsequent change in Q. variabilis litter decomposition. We found that in pine soil, both aqueous extracts and tannins (especially at high concentrations) had positive effects on litter decomposition rates when isopods were present. While without isopods, litter decomposition was enhanced only by high concentrations of aqueous extracts, and tannins had no significant effect on decomposition. In oak soil, high concentrations of aqueous extracts and tannins inhibited litter decomposition and soil microbial biomass, regardless of whether isopods were present or not. Low concentrations of aqueous extracts increased litter decomposition rates and soil microbial biomass in oak soil in the absence of isopods. Based on our results, we suggest that the high concentration of secondary compounds in P. massoniana is a key factor influencing the effects of decomposers on litter decomposition rates, and tannins form a major part of secondary compounds. These funding particularly provide insight into form- and concentration-oriented effects of secondary compounds and promote our understanding of litter decomposition and soil nutrient cycling in forest ecosystem.

13.
Environ Technol ; : 1-13, 2018 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30379618

RESUMO

A series of MnOx-CeO2 catalysts with MOx doping (M = Cu, Fe, Co and La) supported on cordierite were synthesized by the citric acid complex method, showing preferable catalytic oxidation of chlorobenzene. The distribution of active oxides, surface areas, as well as the structural morphology of M-MnOx-CeO2 catalysts varied with the different Mn/Ce and M/Mn molar ratios. Meanwhile, physicochemical properties of these catalysts were characterized by XRD, BET, SEM, TEM, H2-TPR and IR. More importantly, the catalytic oxidation routes were also investigated where the process was from chlorobenzene to CO2, H2O, HCl and other by-products for the FeOx-MnOx-CeO2 and CuO-MnOx-CeO2 catalysts. The CuO-MnOx-CeO2 catalysts showed a higher chlorobenzene conversion, and the measured light-off temperature T90 was approximately 400°C. However, a large amount of chloropropane as main by-products was observed. For the FeOx-MnOx-CeO2 catalysts, more carbon monoxide could be found with inadequate oxidation. Comparative analyses of two catalysts indicated that the main cause of the oxidation activities and mechanisms were different in the oxidation capacity and water absorbability of FeOx and CuO. Nevertheless, all of these catalysts did not exhibit any deactivation due to chloride with a high reaction temperature, with chloride transformed to form HCl in the off-gas stream.

14.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 131(20): 2461-2473, 2018 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30334531

RESUMO

Background: Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exacerbates airway inflammation and hyperreactivity in patients with asthma, but the mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this study was to observe the effects of prolonged exposure to high concentrations of PM2.5on the pathology and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) of BALB/c mice undergoing sensitization and challenge with ovalbumin (OVA) and to observe the effects of apoptosis and T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 1 (TIM-1) in this process. Methods: Forty female BALB/c mice were divided into four groups: control group, OVA group, OVA/PM group, and PM group (n = 10 in each group). Mice in the control group were exposed to filtered clean air. Mice in the OVA group were sensitized and challenged with OVA. Mice in the OVA/PM group were sensitized and challenged as in the OVA group and then exposed to PM2.5for 4 h per day and 5 days per week for a total of 8 weeks using a nose-only "PM2.5online enrichment system" in The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University. Mice in the PM group were exposed to the PM2.5 online enrichment system only. AHR was detected. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected for cell classification. The levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, and IL-33 in BALF were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Changes in histological structures were examined by light microscopy, and changes in ultramicrostructures were detected by electron microscopy. Apoptosis was determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay in the lung tissues. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were utilized to analyze the expression of Bcl-2, Bax, and TIM-1 in the lungs. Results: The results showed that AHR in the OVA/PM group was significantly more severe than that in the OVA and PM groups (P < 0.05). AHR in the PM group was also considerably more severe than that in the control group (P < 0.05). The BALF of OVA/PM group (28.00 ± 6.08 vs. 12.33 ± 4.51, t = 4.631, P = 0.002) and PM group (29.00 ± 3.00 vs. 12.33 ± 4.51, t = 4.927, P = 0.001) had more lymphocytes than the BALF of the control group. The number of neutrophils in the BALF of the OVA/PM group (6.67 ± 1.53 vs. 3.33 ± 1.53, t = 2.886, P = 0.020) and PM group (6.67 ± 1.53 vs. 3.33 ± 1.53, t = 2.886, P = 0.020) was much higher than those in the BALF of OVA group (P < 0.05). TUNEL assays showed that the number of apoptotic cells in the OVA/PM group was significantly higher than that in the OVA group (Tunel immunohistochemical scores [IHS%], 1.20 ± 0.18 vs. 0.51 ± 0.03, t = 8.094, P < 0.001) and PM group (Tunel IHS%, 1.20 ± 0.18 vs. 0.51 ± 0.09, t = 8.094, P < 0.001), and that the number of apoptotic cells in the PM group was significantly higher than that in the control group (Tunel IHS%, 0.51 ± 0.09 vs. 0.26 ± 0.03, t = 2.894, P = 0.020). The concentrations of IL-4 (77.44 ± 11.19 vs. 48.02 ± 10.02 pg/ml, t = 4.595, P = 0.002) and IL-5 (15.65 ± 1.19 vs. 12.35 ± 0.95 pg/ml, t = 3.806, P = 0.005) and the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio (1.51 ± 0.18 vs. 0.48 ± 0.10, t = 9.654, P < 0.001) and TIM-1/ß-actin ratio (0.78 ± 0.11 vs. 0.40 ± 0.06, t = 6.818, P < 0.001) in the OVA/PM group were increased compared to those in the OVA group. The concentrations of IL-4 (77.44 ± 11.19 vs. 41.47 ± 3.40 pg/ml, t = 5.617, P = 0.001) and IL-5 (15.65 ± 1.19 vs. 10.99 ± 1.40 pg/ml, t = 5.374, P = 0.001) and the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio (1.51 ± 0.18 vs. 0.97 ± 0.16, t = 5.000, P = 0.001) and TIM-1/ß-actin ratio (0.78 ± 0.11 vs. 0.31 ± 0.06, t = 8.545, P < 0.001) in the OVA/PM group were increased compared to those in the PM group. The concentration of IL-4 (41.47 ± 3.40 vs. 25.46 ± 2.98 pg/ml, t = 2.501, P = 0.037) and the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio (0.97 ± 0.16 vs. 0.18 ± 0.03, t = 7.439, P < 0.001) and TIM-1/ß-actin ratio (0.31 ± 0.06 vs. 0.02 ± 0.01, t = 5.109, P = 0.001) in the PM group were also higher than those in the control group. Conclusions: Exacerbated AHR associated with allergic asthma caused by PM2.5is related to increased apoptosis and TIM-1 activation. These data might provide insights into therapeutic targets for the treatment of acute exacerbations of asthma induced by PM2.5.


Assuntos
Asma/induzido quimicamente , Asma/imunologia , Imunoglobulinas/metabolismo , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/fisiologia , Asma/metabolismo , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/imunologia , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
15.
Cancer Sci ; 109(12): 3762-3773, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30290033

RESUMO

Urea Transporter B (UT-B) is a membrane channel protein that mediates the rapid transmembrane transport of urea and participates in urine concentration. Urea Transporter B is expressed in skin, but we found that there is little expression in human melanoma tissue. In this study, we examined the effects of UT-B overexpression in melanoma. The results indicated that there is no UT-B mRNA expression in B16 cells, and UT-B overexpression repressed B16 cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in vitro. We show that UT-B overexpression causes increased reactive oxygen species production, which may be caused by mitochondria dysfunction. The mitochondrial membrane potential (ΨΔm) was lower in UT-B-overexpressing B16 cells. The proteins involved in complexes I, III, IV and V of the respiratory chain were clearly downregulated in UT-B-overexpressing B16 cells, which would strongly reduce the activity of the electron transport chain. We found that mitochondrial release of cytochrome C into the cytoplasm also increased, indicating that apoptosis had been activated. In addition, UT-B overexpression reduced AKT phosphorylation and MDM2 expression and increased p53 expression; p53 activation may be involved in the anticancer effects of UT-B overexpression. Urea Transporter B overexpression also inhibited tumor growth in vivo. In conclusion, we demonstrated that UT-B may be related to the occurrence of melanoma and play a role in tumor development.


Assuntos
Melanoma Experimental/metabolismo , Melanoma/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/fisiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Idoso , Animais , Morte Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Citocromos c/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma Experimental/genética , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transdução de Sinais , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 97(33): e11930, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30113495

RESUMO

This study assessed whether C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) levels can discriminate between infectious fever and tumor fever (TF) in non-neutropenic patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC).This retrospective clinical study included 96 adults with NSCLC who were admitted to the Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University between July 2015 and July 2017. Febrile, non-neutropenic patients were enrolled. CRP and PCT levels, neutrophil count, and antimicrobial response were evaluated.This study included 26 patients with TF, 49 with localized bacterial infection (LBI), and 21 with bloodstream infection (BSI). CRP levels in BSI were significantly higher than in TF (P < .05) and LBI (P < .05). No statistically significant difference was found between patients with TF and LBI (P > .05). PCT levels were significantly higher in BSI and LBI than in TF (P < .05). CRP and PCT levels in patients with stage IV disease were significantly higher than in those with stage II to III disease (P < .05). CRP and PCT levels declined significantly in patients with BSI who were responding to antimicrobials (P < .05).Compared with CRP levels, PCT levels can discriminate between TF and infectious fever more accurately. PCT and CRP levels may predict different stages of lung cancer.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Calcitonina/análise , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/sangue , Febre/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções Bacterianas/etiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/complicações , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/microbiologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Febre/etiologia , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/complicações , Neoplasias Pulmonares/microbiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutrófilos , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Genes (Basel) ; 9(7)2018 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29973485

RESUMO

Feed efficiency (FE) is one of the main factors that determine the production costs in the pig industry. In this study, RNA Sequencing (RNA-seq) was applied to identify genes and long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) that are differentially expressed (DE) in the adipose tissues of Yorkshire pigs with extremely high and low FE. In total, 147 annotated genes and 18 lincRNAs were identified as DE between high- and low-FE pigs. Seventeen DE lincRNAs were significantly correlated with 112 DE annotated genes at the transcriptional level. Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed that DE genes were significantly associated with cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) metabolic process and Ca2+ binding. cAMP, a second messenger has an important role in lipolysis, and its expression is influenced by Ca2+ levels. In high-FE pigs, nine DE genes with Ca2+ binding function, were down-regulated, whereas S100G, which encodes calbindin D9K that serve as a Ca2+ bumper, was up-regulated. Furthermore, ATP2B2, ATP1A4, and VIPR2, which participate in the cAMP signaling pathway, were down-regulated in the upstream of lipolysis pathways. In high-FE pigs, the key genes involved in the lipid biosynthetic process (ELOVL7 and B4GALT6), fatty acid oxidation (ABCD2 and NR4A3), and lipid homeostasis (C1QTNF3 and ABCB4) were down-regulated. These results suggested that cAMP was involved in the regulation on FE of pigs by affecting lipid metabolism in adipose tissues.

18.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 104: 788-797, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29852353

RESUMO

Lung cancer is one of the most common lethal malignancies in the globe. The patients' prognoses are dim due to its high metastatic potential and drug resistance. Therefore, in the present study, we aim to find a more potent therapeutic approach for lung cancer. We mainly explored the function of hydrogen gas (H2) on cell viability, apoptosis, migration and invasion in lung cancer cell lines A549 and H1975 by CCK-8, flow cytometry, wound healing and transwell assays, respectively. We used RNA-seq, qPCR and western blotting to detect the different expression genes (DEGs) between H2 group and control group to find the gene related to chromosome condensation. Besides, we confirmed the structural maintenance of chromosomes 3 (SMC3) and H2 on the progression of lung cancer in vitro and vivo. Results showed that H2 inhibited cell viability, migration and invasion, and catalyzed cell apoptosis and H2 induced A549 and H1975 cells G2/M arrest. Besides, H2 down-regulated the expression of NIBPL, SMC3, SMC5 and SMC6, and also reduced the expression of Cyclin D1, CDK4 and CDK6. H2 translocated the subcellular location of SMC3 during cell division and decreased its stability and increased its ubiquitination in both A549 and H1975 cells. In addition, inhibition of the proliferation, migration and invasion and promotion of the apoptosis of A549 and H1975 cells induced by H2 were all abolished when overexpressed SMC3 in the presence of H2. Animal experimental assay demonstrated that the tumor weight in H2 group was significantly smaller than that in control group, but was bigger than cis-platinum group. The expression of Ki-67, VEGF and SMC3 were decreased when mice were treated with H2 or cis-platinum, especially for cis-platinum. All data suggested that H2 inhibited lung cancer progression through down-regulating SMC3, a regulator for chromosome condensation, which provided a new method for the treatment of lung cancer.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Proteoglicanas de Sulfatos de Condroitina/metabolismo , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/metabolismo , Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Células A549 , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Divisão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fase G2/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Antígeno Ki-67/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
19.
Lipids ; 53(4): 375-386, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29766503

RESUMO

>Emerging evidence indicates that microRNA (miRNA) plays an important role in adipogenesis and disease pathogenesis. To investigate the miRNA involved in regulating different periods of adipogenesis, we performed a comprehensive study on microRNAome during the stimulation of adipogenesis by an adipogenic differentiation cocktail in C2C12 myoblasts at 0, 2, 4, and 7 days using the Solexa sequencing technology. In this study, we identified 52 differentially expressed (DE) miRNA. Functional annotation indicated that the target genes of DE miRNA were mostly enriched in adipogenic transdifferentiation and fat metabolism-related pathways, including Wnt, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and insulin signaling. The insulin signaling pathway was further analyzed for its close connections to Wnt and MAPK signaling pathways as well as for the containing of thymoma viral proto-oncogene-3 (Akt3) and glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (Gsk3b), which were both target genes predicted by most DE miRNA. CLIP-seq (crosslinking-immunprecipitation and high-throughput sequencing) data showed that Akt3 was targeted by seven DE miRNA, including five upregulated (miR-203-3p, miR-181c-5p, miR-322-5p, miR-351-5p, and miR-181a-5p) and two downregulated (miR-15b-5p and miR-17-5p) ones. Likewise, Gsk3b was targeted by six DE miRNA, including four upregulated (miR-199a-3p, miR-126-5p, miR-26a-5p, and miR-101a-3p) and two downregulated (miR-150-5p and miR-140-3p) ones. Moreover, Akt3 could regulate the key transcription factor (TF) Foxo1, targeted by two downregulated miRNA (miR-96-5p and miR-183-5p). The expression levels of Akt3 and Gsk3b were downregulated, and TF Foxo1, which worked on the transcription axis of Pgc1a-Pparα-Rxrg-Pparγ to regulate adipogenesis, was upregulated. In conclusion, DE miRNA stimulated the adipogenesis of C2C12 myoblasts through the targeted insulin signaling pathway involving the genes Akt3, Gsk3b, and TF Foxo1.


Assuntos
Adipogenia/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , MicroRNAs/genética , Mioblastos/citologia , Mioblastos/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Camundongos , MicroRNAs/metabolismo
20.
Med Sci Monit ; 24: 2758-2766, 2018 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29724989

RESUMO

BACKGROUND HIF-1α plays an important role in hypoxia-ischemia brain damage. Accumulating evidences demonstrates that HIF-1α can contribute to cell autophagy. Oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) is a commonly used ischemic model in vitro. Our study was performed to investigate the influences of HIF-1α on autophagy in SH-SY5Y cells under OGD treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS An OGD model was constructed in SH-SY5Y cells. PI method and MTT assay were used to test cell death and viability, respectively. Western blot assay was used to estimate the protein levels of HIF-1α and LC3. Quantitative GFP-LC3 light microscopy autophagy assay was performed for SH-SY5Y cells. 2ME2 and siRNA-HIF-1α were applied to investigate the effects of HIF-1α-knockdown on LC3 expression. Additionally, 3-MA (autophagy inhibitor) and autophagy inducer rapamycin (Rapa) were used to investigate the effects of autophagy on cell survival under OGD condition. RESULTS Under OGD, the apoptosis of SH-SY5Ycells was increased while cell viability rate was decreased. The expression of HIF-1α was increased along with the advancement of OGD treatment and achieved the highest level at 24 h. However, inhibiting HIF-1α expression decreased the cell apoptosis and increased cell viability. LC3-II expression was gradually increased with the duration of OGD condition and knockdown of HIF-1α resulted in decreased expression of LC3. Inhibiting autophagy significantly enhanced the viability and reduced the apoptosis of SH-SY5Y cells, while enhancing autophagy showed the opposite effects. CONCLUSIONS Enhanced expression of HIF-1α may be related to autophagy activation in SH-SY5Y cells, thus contributing to ischemic/hypoxic brain damage.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Glucose/deficiência , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Adenina/análogos & derivados , Adenina/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipóxia Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Sirolimo/farmacologia
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