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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34793117

RESUMO

Patch-type drug delivery has garnered increased attention as an attractive alternative to the existing drug delivery techniques. Thus far, needle phobia and efficient drug delivery remain huge challenges. To address the issue of needle phobia and enhance drug delivery, we developed a needle-free and self-adhesive microcup patch that can be loaded with an ultrathin salmon DNA (SDNA) drug carrier film. This physically integrated system can facilitate efficient skin penetration of drugs loaded into the microcup patch. The system consists of three main components, namely, a cup that acts as a drug reservoir, an adhesive system that attaches the patch to the skin, and physical stimulants that can be used to increase the efficiency of drug delivery. In addition, an ultrathin SDNA/drug film allows the retention of the drug in the cup and its efficient release by dissolution in the presence of moisture. This latter feature has been validated using gelatin as a skin mimic. The cup design itself has been validated by comparing its deformation and displacement with those of a cylindrical structure. Integration of the self-adhesive microcup patch with both ultrasonic waves and an electric current allows the model drug to penetrate the stratum corneum of the skin barrier and the whole epidermis, thereby enhancing transdermal drug delivery and reducing skin irritation. This system can be used as a wearable biomedical device for efficient transdermal and needle-free drug delivery.

3.
Front Oncol ; 11: 698113, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490093

RESUMO

Objective: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a common malignant tumour in Southeast Asia, especially in southern China. ABO blood groups have been proven to play an important role in many cancers. However, it is still controversial whether the ABO blood group has a definite relationship to susceptibility to NPC and the prognosis of NPC patients. This meta-analysis was performed to elucidate the correlation between ABO blood group and NPC to provide more data for clinical practice. Methods: A systematic search was performed of the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang, Web of Science, EMBASE, and PubMed databases up to December 31, 2020. Stata 11.0 statistical software was used for this meta-analysis. Results: According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, a total of 6 studies including 6938 patients with NPC were selected. Blood group O was relevant to Chinese NPC patients, and patients with blood group O had a significantly lower incidence of NPC, while blood group A had no correlation with susceptibility to NPC. There was no difference in the 3-year overall survival (OS), locoregional relapse-free survival (LRRFS) or distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) rates between patients with blood group O and those with non-O blood groups; worse 5-year OS, LRRFS and DMFS rates were found in patients with blood group O, whereas blood group A was not related to prognosis. Conclusion: Blood group O in Chinese patients with NPC seems to be a protective factor for morbidity. However, once patients with blood group O are diagnosed with NPC, this blood group often indicates unfavourable OS, LRRFS and DMFS rates. It is recommended that more attention should be paid to the influence of blood group factor on patients in the treatment of NPC.

4.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(29): 35069-35078, 2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282875

RESUMO

Many conventional micropatterning and nanopatterning techniques employ toxic chemicals, rendering them nonbiocompatible and unsuited for biodevice production. Herein the formation of water bridges on the surface of hyaluronic acid (HA) films is exploited to develop a transfer-based nanopatterning method applicable to diverse structures and materials. The HA film surface, made deformable via water bridge generation, is brought into contact with a functional material and subjected to thermal treatment, which results in film shrinkage, allowing a robust pattern transfer. The proposed biocompatible method, which avoids the use of extra chemicals, enables the transfer of nanoscale, microscale, and thin-film structures as well as functional materials such as metals and metal oxides. A nanopatterned HA film is transferred onto a moisture-containing contact lens to fabricate smart contact lenses with unique optical characteristics of rationally designed optical nanopatterns. These lenses demonstrated binocular parallax-induced stereoscopy via nanoline array polarization and acted as cutoff filters, with nanodot arrays, capable of treating Irlen syndrome.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Lentes de Contato , Ácido Hialurônico/química , Impressão , Materiais Inteligentes/química , Água/química , Percepção de Profundidade , Nanoestruturas/química , Poliuretanos/química , Prata/química
5.
Horm Behav ; 132: 104993, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33991799

RESUMO

Thyroid hormones have a profound influence on development, cellular differentiation and metabolism, and are also suspected of playing a role in aggression. We measured territorial aggression, body temperature (Tb) and serum thyroid hormones levels of male striped hamsters (Cricetulus barabensis) acclimated to either cold (5 °C), cool (21 °C) or hot (34 °C) ambient temperatures. The effects of methimazole on territorial aggression, food intake, metabolic rate and serum thyroid hormone levels, were also examined. Territorial aggression was significantly lower in male hamsters acclimated to the hot temperature compared to those acclimated to the cool or cold temperatures. Tb significantly increased during aggressive territorial interactions with intruders but did not significantly differ among the three temperature treatments. Serum T3, T4 and cortisol levels of hamsters acclimated to 34 °C were significantly lower than those acclimated to 21 °C. In addition to significantly reducing territorial aggression, treatment with methimazole also significantly reduced serum T3 and T4 levels, Tb and metabolic rate. These results suggest that exposure to high temperatures reduces the capacity of hamsters to dissipate heat causing them to lower their metabolic rate, which, in turn, causes them to reduce territorial aggression to prevent hyperthermia. The lower metabolic rate mediated by down-regulated thyroid hormones inhibits territorial aggression and could thereby determine the outcome of territorial conflicts.


Assuntos
Agressão , Temperatura Alta , Aclimatação , Animais , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Masculino , Temperatura
7.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 42, 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33771234

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of human brucellosis in Qinghai Province of China has been increasing rapidly, with confirmed cases distributed across 31 counties. However, the epidemiology of brucellosis transmission has not been fully elucidated. To characterize the infecting strains isolated from humans, multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeats analysis (MLVA) and whole-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based approaches were employed. METHODS: Strains were isolated from two males blood cultures that were confirmed Brucella melitensis positive following biotyping and MLVA. Genomic DNA was extracted from these two strains, and whole-genome sequencing was performed. Next, SNP-based phylogenetic analysis was performed to compare the two strains to 94 B. melitensis strains (complete genome and draft genome) retrieved from online databases. RESULTS: The two Brucella isolates were identified as B. melitensis biovar 3 (QH2019001 and QH2019005) following conventional biotyping and were found to have differences in their variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs) using MLVA-16. Phylogenetic examination assigned the 96 strains to five genotype groups, with QH2019001 and QH2019005 assigned to the same group, but different subgroups. Moreover, the QH2019005 strain was assigned to a new subgenotype, IIj, within genotype II. These findings were then combined to determine the geographic origin of the two Brucella strains. CONCLUSIONS: Utilizing a whole-genome SNP-based approach enabled differences between the two B. melitensis strains to be more clearly resolved, and facilitated the elucidation of their different evolutionary histories. This approach also revealed that QH2019005 is a member of a new subgenotype (IIj) with an ancient origin in the eastern Mediterranean Sea.


Assuntos
Brucella melitensis , Brucelose , Brucella melitensis/genética , Brucelose/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Repetições Minissatélites/genética , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Filogenia
8.
ACS Nano ; 15(1): 503-514, 2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33439612

RESUMO

The fabrication of large-area and flexible nanostructures currently presents various challenges related to the special requirements for 3D multilayer nanostructures, ultrasmall nanogaps, and size-controlled nanomeshes. To overcome these rigorous challenges, a simple method for fabricating wafer-scale, ultrasmall nanogaps on a flexible substrate using a temperature above the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the substrate and by layer-by-layer nanoimprinting is proposed here. The size of the nanogaps can be easily controlled by adjusting the pressure, heating time, and heating temperature. In addition, 3D multilayer nanostructures and nanocomposites with 2, 3, 5, 7, and 20 layers were fabricated using this method. The fabricated nanogaps with sizes ranging from approximately 1 to 40 nm were observed via high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The multilayered nanostructures were evaluated using focused ion beam (FIB) technology. Compared with conventional methods, our method could not only easily control the size of the nanogaps on the flexible large-area substrate but could also achieve fast, simple, and cost-effective fabrication of 3D multilayer nanostructures and nanocomposites without any post-treatment. Moreover, a transparent electrode and nanoheater were fabricated and evaluated. Finally, surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrates with different nanogaps were evaluated using rhodamine 6G. In conclusion, it is believed that the proposed method can solve the problems related to the high requirements of nanofabrication and can be applied in the detection of small molecules and for manufacturing flexible electronics and soft actuators.

9.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(2): 3358-3368, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33347263

RESUMO

A novel method for fabricating shape-controlled and well-arrayed heterogeneous nanostructures by altering the melting point of the metal thin film at the nanoscale is proposed. Silver nanofilms (AgNFs) are transformed into silver nanoislands (AgNIs), silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), and silver nanogaps (AgNGs) that are well-ordered and repositioned inside the gold nanoholes (AuNHs) depending on the diameter of the AuNHs, the thickness of the AgNF, and the heating temperature (120-200 °C). This method demonstrates the ability to fabricate uniform, stable, and unique structures with a fast, simple, and mass-producible process. For demonstrating the diverse applicability of the developed structures, high-density AgNGs inside the AuNHs are utilized as surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrates. These AgNGs-based SERS substrates exhibit a performance enhancement, which is 1.06 × 106 times greater than that of a metal film, with a relative standard deviation of 19.8%. The developed AgNP/AgNI structures are also used as nonreproducible anti-counterfeiting signs, and the anti-counterfeiting/readout system is demonstrated via image processing. Therefore, our method could play a vital role in the nanofabrication of high-demand nanostructures.

10.
Cell Mol Bioeng ; 13(6): 621-631, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33281991

RESUMO

Introduction: Sirtuin1 (SIRT1), one of NAD+-dependent protein deacetylases, is proved to be neuroprotective in aging diseases, but its effect on neuronal apoptosis has not been clarified. To investigate the role of SIRT1 in inhibiting neuronal apoptosis, SIRT1 was interfered or overexpressed in cortical neurons. Methods: We exerted overloading laminar shear stress with 10 dyn/cm2 for 4, 8, and 12 h on neurons to cause cortical neuronal apoptosis, and the apoptosis percentage was tested by TUNEL assay. The adenovirus plasmids containing SIRT1 RNA interference or SIRT1 wild type gene were transfected into neurons before shear stress loading. SIRT1 mRNA and protein level were tested by Real-time PCR, immunofluorescence and western blots assay. Results: SIRT1 was primarily expressed in nucleus of cortical neurons, and its mRNA level was significantly increased after 4 h stimulation. SIRT1 RNAi cortical neurons had higher TUNEL positive cells, while SIRT1 overexpression significantly decreased the percentage of died cells induced by shear stress compared to control group. Conclusions: SIRT1 plays a neuroprotective role in shear stress induced apoptosis and could be as potential pharmacological targets against neuronal degeneration in future.

11.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 33(10): 750-759, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33228834

RESUMO

Objective: To explore potential serum biomarkers of children with Kashin-Beck Disease (KBD) and the metabolic pathways to which the biomarkers belong. Methods: A two-stage metabolomic study was employed. The discovery cohort included 56 patients, 51 internal controls, and 50 external controls. The metabolites were determined by HPLC-(Q-TOF)-MS and confirmed by Human Metabolome Databases (HMDB) and Metlin databases. MetaboAnalyst 3.0 and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database were used to analyze the metabolic pathways of the candidate metabolites. The use of HPLC-(Q-TRAP)-MS enabled quantitative detection of the target metabolites which were chosen using the discovery study and verified in another independent verification cohort of 31 patients, 41 internal controls, and 50 external controls. Results: Eight candidate metabolites were identified out in the discovery study, namely kynurenic acid, N-α-acetylarginine, 6-hydroxymelatonin, sphinganine, ceramide, sphingosine-1P, spermidine, and glycine. These metabolites exist in sphingolipid, glutathione, and tryptophan metabolic pathways. In the second-stage study, five candidate metabolites were validated, including kynurenic acid, N-α-acetylarginine, sphinganine, spermidine, and sphingosine-1P. Except for spermidine, all substances exhibited low expression in the case group compared with the external control group, and the difference in levels of sphinganine, spermidine, and sphingosine-1P was statistically significant. Conclusion: The direction of change of levels of sphinganine, spermidine, and sphingosine-1P in the two-stage study cohorts was completely consistent, and the differences were statistically significant. Therefore, these substances can be used as potential biomarkers of KBD. Furthermore, these results raise the possibility that sphingolipid metabolic pathways may be closely related to KBD.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Doença de Kashin-Bek/sangue , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Metaboloma , Adolescente , Criança , China , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
12.
Pharmaceutics ; 12(10)2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33050428

RESUMO

Here, we propose a novel and simple method to efficiently capture the diffusion of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran from a biocompatible substance and load the drug only to the tip of DNA microneedles. A dispensing and suction method was chosen to fabricate the designed microneedles with efficient amounts of FITC as the drug model. Importantly, the vacuum process, which could influence the capturing of FITC diffusion from the tip, was evaluated during the manufacturing process. In addition, the simulations were consistent with the experimental results and showed apparent diffusion. Moreover, dextrans of different molecular weights labeled with FITC were chosen to fabricate the tip of microneedles for demonstrating their applicability. Finally, a micro-jetting system with a micro-nozzle (diameter: 80 µm) was developed to achieve the accurate and rapid loading of small amounts of FITC using the anti-diffusion and micro-jetting methods. Our method not only uses a simple and fast manufacturing process, but also fabricates the tips of microneedles more efficiently with FITC compared with the existing methods. We believe that the proposed method is essential for the clinical applications of the microneedle drug delivery platform.

13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(39): 24352-24358, 2020 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32929014

RESUMO

Predicted increases in global average temperature are physiologically trivial for most endotherms. However, heat waves will also increase in both frequency and severity, and these will be physiologically more important. Lactating small mammals are hypothesized to be limited by heat dissipation capacity, suggesting high temperatures may adversely impact lactation performance. We measured reproductive performance of mice and striped hamsters (Cricetulus barabensis), including milk energy output (MEO), at temperatures between 21 and 36 °C. In both species, there was a decline in MEO between 21 and 33 °C. In mice, milk production at 33 °C was only 18% of that at 21 °C. This led to reductions in pup growth by 20% but limited pup mortality (0.8%), because of a threefold increase in growth efficiency. In contrast, in hamsters, MEO at 33 °C was reduced to 78.1% of that at 21 °C, yet this led to significant pup mortality (possibly infanticide) and reduced pup growth by 12.7%. Hamster females were more able to sustain milk production as ambient temperature increased, but they and their pups were less capable of adjusting to the lower supply. In both species, exposure to 36 °C resulted in rapid catastrophic lactation failure and maternal mortality. Upper lethal temperature was lowered by 3 to 6 °C in late lactation, making it a critically sensitive window to high ambient temperatures. Our data suggest future heat wave events will impact breeding success of small rodents, but this is based on animals with a long history in captivity. More work should be performed on wild rodents to confirm these impacts.


Assuntos
Cricetinae/fisiologia , Lactação , Camundongos/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais Recém-Nascidos/metabolismo , Animais Selvagens/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais Selvagens/fisiologia , Cricetinae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ecossistema , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Leite/metabolismo , Gravidez , Reprodução , Temperatura
14.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(33): 37128-37136, 2020 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32814411

RESUMO

The high surface-to-volume ratio of nanostructured materials is the key factor for excellent performance when applied to chemical sensors. In order to achieve this by a facile and low-cost fabrication strategy, buffered oxide etchant (BOE) treatment of a silicon (Si)-based sensor was proposed. An n+-n--n+ Si nanofilm structure was treated with a BOE, and palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) were coated on the n-type Si channel surface via short-time electron beam evaporation to enable a highly sensitive and selective sensing of hydrogen (H2) gas. The BOE treatment effect on lightly doped n-type Si was investigated, and the surface morphology of the etched Si was analyzed. Furthermore, the H2 sensing characterization of PdNP-decorated Si devices with various BOE treatment times was systematically evaluated at room temperature. The results revealed that the surface of n-type Si is roughened by BOE treatment, which can further enhance the H2-sensing performance of Pd-decorated Si. The elaborate study on the BOE-post-treated Si H2 sensor showed that the performance enhancement was stable. The BOE treatment strategy was also applied to the nanopatterned Si sensors, which induced a clear performance enhancement for the H2 sensing.

15.
Cell Biosci ; 10: 90, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760495

RESUMO

Background: NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is involved in the radiation resistance of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), but the underlying molecular mechanism is unclear. The purpose of our study was to explore the role of Nrf2 in the radiation resistance of ESCC and the potential molecular mechanism. Results: Nrf2 expression was introduced into Ec109 and KYSE-30 ESCC cells with lentivirus. CCK-8 and colony formation assays were used to evaluate the effect of Nrf2 on radioresistance in culture. The autophagy level was assessed by western blotting, flow cytometry, and confocal fluorescence microscopy. The effect of Nrf2 on the transcription of Ca2 +/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II α (CaMKIIα) was studied by chromatin immunoprecipitation. We found that the overexpression of Nrf2 increased the radiation resistance of ESCC cells. Mechanistically, Nrf2 triggered the radiation resistance of ESCC cells by targeting CaMKIIα and subsequently activating autophagy. In addition, we found that Nrf2 directly regulated the transcription of CaMKIIα by binding to its promoter region. The effect of Nrf2 on radiation resistance was also explored in both a xenograft mouse model and ESCC patient samples. Consistent with the results of the in vitro study, high Nrf2 expression level resulted in in vivo radioresistance in an Ec109-derived xenograft mouse model. Furthermore, we also demonstrated that upregulations of both Nrf2 and CaMKIIα was closely related to lower survival rates of ESCC patients. Conclusions: Our study reveals that Nrf2 promotes the radiation resistance of ESCC by targeting CaMKIIα and subsequently activating autophagy, which is characterized by the suppression of phosphorylated mTOR and p62, activation of Beclin 1, and transformation of LC3-I to LC3-II.

16.
J Exp Biol ; 223(Pt 17)2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32665446

RESUMO

High temperatures and heatwaves are rapidly emerging as an important threat to many aspects of physiology and behavior in females during lactation. The body's capacity to dissipate heat is reduced by high ambient temperatures, increasing the risk of hyperthermia. Exposure to wind, a pervasive environmental factor for most terrestrial animals, is known to increase heat loss, but its effects on the reproductive performance of small mammals remains unclear. In the present study, the effects of wind on the energy budgets, resting metabolic rate and milk energy output (MEO) were measured in lactating Swiss mice at 21 and 32.5°C. Females kept at 32.5°C had a significantly lower resting metabolic rate, food intake and MEO, and lighter offspring, than those kept at 21°C. However, exposure to wind increased the asymptotic food intake of females kept at 32.5°C by 22.5% (P<0.01), their MEO by 20.7% (P<0.05) and their litter mass by 17.6% (P<0.05). The body temperature of females kept at 32.5°C was significantly higher during lactation than that of females kept at 21°C, but this difference was reduced by exposure to wind. These findings suggest that exposure to wind considerably improves reproductive performance, increasing the fitness of small mammals while undergoing hot temperatures during heatwaves.


Assuntos
Temperatura Alta , Lactação , Animais , Ingestão de Energia , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos , Camundongos , Gravidez , Vento
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673739

RESUMO

Adaptive adjustments of energy intake and body fat play an important role in allowing animals' to meet the energy demands of thermoregulation during cold conditions and reproduction. Body fat is usually metabolized during lactation, which is one of the most energetically demanding activities of female mammals, however the effect of this on the energy budget and body fat regulation after lactation remains unclear. We compared the energy intake and body fat of female striped hamsters (Cricetulus barabensis) fed either a high-fat or low-fat diet for 21 days after the end of lactation (post-lactation, PL) to those of virgin controls. Serum leptin levels and the expression of hypothalamic orexigenic and anorexigenic neuropeptide genes were also measured and compared. Although lactating females consumed significantly more food, they had significantly lower body fat than virgin controls. The energy intake and body fat levels of the PL females were, however, significantly higher than those of virgin females. This was particularly true for the PL females that were fed high-fat diet. These females had significantly higher serum leptin concentrations, but lower hypothalamic leptin receptor gene expression, than virgin females. Neither orexigenic nor anorexigenic neuropeptide levels in the hypothalamus differed significantly between the PL and virgin females. This suggests that a negative energy balance during lactation drives fat accumulation after lactation. Furthermore, leptin resistance may occur after the end of lactation, causing females to consume more food, and accumulate more fat, than virgin females.


Assuntos
Cricetulus/fisiologia , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Lactação , Leptina/biossíntese , Receptores para Leptina/biossíntese , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Ração Animal , Animais , Sangue , Composição Corporal , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Cricetinae , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Feminino , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo
18.
Physiol Biochem Zool ; 93(4): 282-295, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484722

RESUMO

The limitations on energy availability and outputs have been implied to have a profound effect on the evolution of many morphological and behavioral traits. It has been suggested that the reproductive performance of mammals is frequently constrained by intrinsic physiological factors, such as the capacity of the mammary glands to produce milk (the peripheral limitation [PL] hypothesis) or that of the body to dissipate heat (the heat dissipation limitation [HDL] hypothesis). Research on a variety of small mammals, however, has so far failed to provide unequivocal support for one hypothesis over the other. We tested the PL and HDL hypotheses in female striped hamsters (Cricetulus barabensis) with artificially manipulated litter sizes of two (three or four pups removed from natural litter size), five, eight (two or three pups added to natural litter size), and 12 (five to seven pups added to natural litter size) pups at ambient temperatures of 21° and 30°C. Energy intake and milk output of mothers, litter size, and litter mass were measured throughout lactation. Several markers indicating digestive enzyme activity and the gene expression of hypothalamic neuropeptides related to food intake were also measured. Food consumption and milk output increased with increasing litter size but reached a ceiling at 12 pups, causing 12-pup litters to have significantly lower litter mass and pup body mass than litters composed of fewer pups. Litter mass and maternal metabolic rate, milk output, maltase, sucrase, and aminopeptidase activity in the small intestine, and gene expression of hypothalamic orexigenic peptides were significantly lower at 30°C than at 21°C, and these differences were considerably more pronounced in 12-pup litters. These results suggest that PL and HDL can operate simultaneously but that the HDL hypothesis is probably more valid at warmer temperatures. Our results suggest that increased environmental temperatures in future climates may limit reproductive output through heat dissipation limits.


Assuntos
Regulação da Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Cricetulus/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Lactação/fisiologia , Temperatura , Proteína Relacionada com Agouti/genética , Proteína Relacionada com Agouti/metabolismo , Animais , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Intestino Delgado/enzimologia , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos , Neuropeptídeo Y/genética , Neuropeptídeo Y/metabolismo , Reprodução
20.
ACS Sens ; 5(8): 2367-2377, 2020 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321242

RESUMO

Herein, a nanowelding technique is adopted to fabricate three-dimensional layer-by-layer Pd-containing nanocomposite structures with special properties. Nanowires fabricated from noble metals (Pd, Pt, Au, and Ag) were used to prepare Pd-Pd nanostructures and Pd-Au, Pd-Pt, Pd-Ag, and Pd-Pt-Au nanocomposite structures by controlling the welding temperature. The recrystallization behavior of the welded composite materials was observed and analyzed. In addition, their excellent mechanical and electrical properties were confirmed by performing 10,000 bending test cycles and measuring the resistances. Finally, flexible and wearable nanoheaters and gas sensors were fabricated using our proposed method. In comparison with conventional techniques, our proposed method can not only easily achieve sensors with a large surface area and flexibility but also improve their performance through the addition of catalyst metals. A gas sensor fabricated using the Pd-Au nanocomposites demonstrated 3.9-fold and 1.1-fold faster H2 recovery and response, respectively, than a pure Pd-Pd gas sensor device. Moreover, the Pd-Ag nanocomposite exhibited a high sensitivity of 5.5% (better than that of other fabricated gas sensors) for 1.6% H2 concentration. Therefore, we believe that the fabricated nanocomposites appear promising for wide applications in wearable gas sensors, flexible optical devices, and flexible catalytic devices.


Assuntos
Nanocompostos , Nanofios , Catálise , Hidrogênio
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