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1.
J Chromatogr A ; : 460388, 2019 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351593

RESUMO

Qualitative and quantitative analysis of polysaccharides in herb formula remain challenge due to the limited choices of analytical methods concerning the intrinsic characteristics of large molecular mass. Herein, an oligosaccharide-marker approach was newly developed for quality assessment of polysaccharides in herbal materials, using Dendrobium officinale as a case study. This method involved partial acid hydrolysis of D. officinale polysaccharide (DOP) followed by p-aminobenzoic ethyl ester (ABEE) derivatization. Two ABEE-labeled oligosaccharides namely, Te-Man-ABEE and Pen-Man-ABEE, were selected as chemical markers due to their high specificity in herb formula. The linear relationship between the content of these two markers and the content of DOP was then successfully established respectively. The linear relationship was further transformed to that between peak area of chemical markers and DOP content so that chemical markers were not necessary to be isolated for analysis. This linear relationship was systemically validated in terms of precision and accuracy. The results showed that these two oligosaccharide-markers presented a good linear relationship with DOP (R2 ≥ 0.997) in the range of 0.68-16.02 µg. These markers also demonstrated satisfactory precision (RSD < 7.0%), and recovery (91.41%-118.30%) in real sample determination. Additionally, there was no significant difference between the results given by the two chemical markers as the RSD values were not more than 7.0%. While concerning the results given by the oligosaccharide-markers and the previously-published polysaccharide marker, the RSD value was not more than 6.4%. These suggest that the oligosaccharide-marker approach is a simple, quick, and reliable method to qualitatively and quantitatively determine of specific polysaccharide in herb formula.

2.
J Food Drug Anal ; 27(3): 766-777, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324292

RESUMO

Many Chinese medicinal materials (CMMs) are parts of plants or fungi that have been processed into different physical forms, termed decoction pieces, that are typically boiled in water for consumption. One CMM may have several decoction pieces forms, e.g., slices, small cubes (dice), or grains. The specifications that have different morphological parameters (shape, size and thickness) for these various decoction pieces have been developed over, in some cases, centuries of practice. Nevertheless, whether and how the form of decoction pieces affects the extraction (decoction) dynamics, and quality stability during storage has not been studied. Here, we investigated Poria cocos (PC) as a pilot study; we explore how the form of PC decoction pieces affects its chemistry using multidimensional chemical evaluation such as ultra-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-PDA-QTOF-MS/MS), ultra-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS) and high performance gel permeation chromatography coupled with charged aerosol detector (HPGPC-CAD), combined with analysis of variance (ANOVA), principal component analysis (PCA), factor analysis (FA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). The results indicated that different specifications had significant differences, and these specifications could be divided into four groups. The comprehensive results of the chemical analyses undertaken here indicate that the highest potentially available quality of PC decoction pieces was in the forms of curl, ultra-small grains and small grains, followed by thin slices. This information not only is conducive to promoting the standardization of the specification/form of PC decoction pieces and maximizing the benefits from its utilization, but also provide a promising strategy for assessing other CMM decoction pieces in different forms.

3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(26): 7304-7314, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31180668

RESUMO

Morindae Officinalis Radix (MOR), the dried root of Morinda officinalis F.C. How (Rubiaceae), is a popular food supplement in southeastern China for bone protection, andrological, and gynecological healthcare. In clinical use, 3-4 year old MOR is commonly used and the xylem is sometimes removed. However, there is no scientific rationale for these practices so far. In this study, metabolomics and glycomics were integrated using multiple chromatographic and mass spectrometric techniques coupled with multivariate statistical analysis to investigate the qualitative and quantitative variations of secondary metabolome and glycome in different growth years (1-7 years) and tissues (xylem and cortex) of MOR. The results showed that various types of bioactive components reached a maximum between 3 and 4 years of growth and that the xylem contained more potentially toxic constituents but less bioactive components than the cortex. This study provides the chemical basis for the common practice of using 3-4 year old MOR with the xylem removed.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Morinda/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/química , China , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/metabolismo , Glicômica , Metabolômica , Morinda/química , Morinda/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Xilema/química , Xilema/metabolismo
4.
Molecules ; 23(9)2018 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30200284

RESUMO

Poria cocos (Schw.) Wolf (PC) is a well-known saprophytic fungus, and its sclerotium without the epidermis (PCS) is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine and as a functional food in many countries. PCS is normally collected from multiple geographical regions, but whether and how the quality of PCS correlates with where it grows have not been determined. This correlation could be significant both for quality control and optimum utilization of PCS as a natural resource. In this study, a qualitative fingerprint profiling method performed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) with diode array detection (DAD) combining quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (QTOF-MS/MS) and a quantitative UHPLC coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (QqQ-MS/MS) approach were established to investigate whether and how the quality of PCS correlates with its collection location. A standard fingerprint of PCS was generated by median simulation of 25 tested samples collected from four main producing areas of China, and similarity analysis was applied to evaluate the similarities between the fingerprints of samples and the standard fingerprint. Twenty three common peaks occurring in the fingerprint were unequivocally or tentatively identified by UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS. Meanwhile, principal component analysis (PCA), supervised orthogonal partial least squares-discriminate analysis (OPLS-DA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were employed to classify 25 batches of PCS samples into four groups, which were highly consistent with the four geographical regions. Ten compounds were screened out as potential markers to distinguish the quality of PCS. Nine triterpene acids, including five compounds that played important roles in the clusters between different samples collected from the four collection locations, were simultaneously quantified by using the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode of UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS. The current strategy not only clearly expounded the correlation between quality and geographical origins of PCS, but also provided a fast, accurate and comprehensive qualitative and quantitative method for assessing the quality of PCS.

5.
Front Pharmacol ; 9: 934, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30210339

RESUMO

Polygoni Multiflori Radix (PMR, Heshouwu in Chinese), derived from the tuberous roots of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb., is a widely-used Chinese medicinal material. For traditional clinical use, raw PMR (RPMR) is processed by nine cycles of steaming and drying to generate processed PMR (PPMR); RPMR and PPMR have distinct medicinal purposes based on the theory of traditional Chinese medicine. While PMR has been processed for hundreds of years, including the present, the chemistry of that processing has not been well studied. In this study, targeted and untargeted metabolomics analyses using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole/triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC-QqQ-MS/MS) were integrated to investigate the processing chemistry of PMR. The results demonstrate that processing by nine cycles of steaming and drying qualitatively and quantitatively alters the chemical profile of PMR. Several mechanisms, namely hydrolysis, dehydration, isomerization, and Maillard reaction appear to be involved in the chemical transformation that occurs. The qualitative and quantitative data further suggest that nine cycles might be necessary for the preparation of PPMR, as PPMR that has been processed nine times shows significant differences in its chemical profile.

6.
J Food Drug Anal ; 26(3): 1105-1112, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29976403

RESUMO

Lycii Fructus, a solanaceous drug, is widely used as functional foods and in Traditional Chinese Medicine. Samples collected from different regions of China have been found to be not identical in chemical compositions which might affect the biological activities. Although many chromatographic and spectrometric methods have been reported to determine the concentration of betaine and other bioactive amino acids, disturbance resulted from other polar substances with low UV-absorbance and expensive mass facilities reduced the applicability of these techniques. In the present study, the strong cation exchange solid phase extraction procedure incorporated with 1H NMR was successfully developed as a rapid and reliable method that can simultaneously determine betaine, citric acid, threonine, alanine, and proline in various Lycii Fructus. In addition, ERETIC 2 method based on PULCON principle was also applied and compared with conventional method. This feasible and practical method offers a very powerful tool for the quality control of commercial Lycii Fructus from different sources.

7.
J Food Drug Anal ; 26(3): 1122-1137, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29976405

RESUMO

Angelica radix (Danggui in Chinese) used in China and Japan is derived from two species of Angelica, namely Angelica sinensis and Angelica acutiloba, respectively. The differences in quality between A. sinensis radix (ASR) and A. acutiloba radix (AAR) should be therefore investigated to guide the medicinal and dietary applications of these two species. Secondary metabolites and carbohydrates have been demonstrated to be the two major kinds of bioactive components of Danggui. However, previously, quality comparison between ASR and AAR intensively concerned secondary metabolites but largely overlooked carbohydrates, thus failing to include or take into consideration an important aspect of the holistic quality of Danggui. In this study, untargeted/targeted metabolomics and glycomics were integrated by multiple chromatography-based analytical techniques for qualitative and quantitative characterization of secondary metabolites and carbohydrates in Danggui so as to comprehensively evaluate and compare the quality of ASR and AAR. The results revealed that not only secondary metabolites but also carbohydrates in ASR and AAR were different in type and amount, which should collectively contribute to their quality difference. By providing more comprehensive chemical information, the research results highlighted the need to assess characteristics of both carbohydrates and secondary metabolites for overall quality evaluation and comparison of ASR and AAR.

8.
Molecules ; 23(5)2018 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29738485

RESUMO

In commercial herbal markets, Polygoni Multiflori Radix (PMR, the tuberous roots of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb.), a commonly-used Chinese medicinal material, is divided into different grades based on morphological features of size and weight. While more weight and larger size command a higher price, there is no scientific data confirming that the more expensive roots are in fact of better quality. To assess the inherent quality of various grades and of various tissues in PMR and to find reliable morphological indicators of quality, a method combining laser microdissection (LMD) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC-QqQ-MS/MS) was applied. Twelve major chemical components were quantitatively determined in both whole material and different tissues of PMR. Determination of the whole material revealed that traditional commercial grades based on size and weight of PRM did not correspond to any significant differences in chemical content. Instead, tissue-specific analysis indicated that the morphological features could be linked with quality in a new way. That is, PMR with broader cork and phloem, as seen in a transverse section, were typically of better quality as these parts are where the bioactive components accumulate. The tissue-specific analysis of secondary metabolites creates a reliable morphological criterion for quality grading of PMR.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/metabolismo , Fallopia multiflora/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Metabolismo Secundário , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Fallopia multiflora/química , Especificidade de Órgãos , Raízes de Plantas/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
9.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 107(Pt A): 332-342, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28867225

RESUMO

This study establishes a new combinatorial approach for histochemical analysis of polysaccharides in herbal medicines using laser microdissection followed by high performance gel permeation chromatography coupled with charged aerosol detector and ultra-performance liquid chromatography hyphenated with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. Ginseng was employed as a study model. Tissue-specific qualitative and quantitative characterization of ginseng polysaccharides was performed by determining their molar masses and monosaccharide compositions in three macro-dissected parts (rhizome, main and branched roots) and five micro-dissected tissues (cork, cortex, xylem, phloem and resin canal). The results showed that ginseng "flesh" (xylem, phloem and resin canal) contained more polysaccharides with larger molecular weights and higher ratios of glucose residue, whereas ginseng "skin" (cork and cortex) had fewer polysaccharides with smaller molecular weights and higher ratios of non-glucose constituents (e.g. galacturonic acid, galactose, arabinose and rhamnose). These findings suggested that the polysaccharides of the "flesh" were predominantly starch-like glucans, while those of the "skin" were of a higher proportion of acidic pectins. The revealed histologic distribution and accumulation pattern of ginseng polysaccharides contributes to the scientific understanding of ginseng regarding the biosynthesis and transportation of polysaccharides, medicinal quality evaluation as well as empirical clinical application.


Assuntos
Panax/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Cromatografia em Gel , Cromatografia Líquida , Glucose/química , Microdissecção e Captura a Laser , Espectrometria de Massas , Peso Molecular , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Rizoma/química
10.
Phytomedicine ; : 152761, 2018 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31005370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ginseng has therapeutic potential for treating obesity and the associated gut microbiota dysbiosis. However, whether white ginseng and red ginseng, the two kinds of commonly used processed ginseng, possess different anti-obesity effects remains unknown. PURPOSE: Anti-obesity effects of water extracts of white ginseng and red ginseng (WEWG and WERG) were compared, and the potential mechanisms were discussed. METHODS: Chemical profiles of WEWG and WERG were characterized by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS) and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with evaporative light scattering detector (HPLC-ELSD). Anti-obesity effects of WEWG/WERG were examined by determining fat accumulation, systemic inflammation, enteric metabolic disorders and gut microbiota dysbiosis in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed obese mice. RESULTS: Both WEWG and WERG exerted anti-obesity effects, with WEWG stronger than WERG. Compared to WERG, WEWG contained less contents of carbohydrates (polysaccharides, oligosaccharides, free monosaccharides) and ginsenosides, but chemical structures or compositions of these components in WEWG were characteristic, i.e. narrower molecular weight distribution and higher molar ratios of glucose residues of polysaccharides; higher content ratios of oligosaccharides DP2-3 (di-/tri-saccharides)-to-oligosaccharides DP4-7 (tetra-/penta-/hexa-/hepta-saccharides), sucrose-to-melibiose, maltose-to-trehalose and high-polar-to-low-polar ginsenosides. WEWG better ameliorated fat accumulation, enteric metabolic disorders and gut microbiota dysbiosis in HFD-fed obese mice than WERG. CONCLUSION: The stronger anti-obesity effect of white ginseng appears to correlate with differences in its chemical profile as compared to red ginseng. The carbohydrates and ginsenosides in WEWG potentially present more structural and compositional specificity to the obesity-associated gut bacteria, allowing more beneficial effects of WEWG on the gut microbiota dysbiosis. This consequently better alleviates the enteric metabolic disorders and systemic inflammation, thereby contributing to the stronger anti-obesity effect of WEWG as compared to WERG.

11.
J Food Drug Anal ; 25(4): 946-959, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28987372

RESUMO

Bai-Hu-Tang (BHT), a classic traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula used for clearing heat and promoting body fluid, consists of four traditional Chinese medicines, i.e., Gypsum Fibrosum (Shigao), Anemarrhenae Rhizoma (Zhimu), Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma Praeparata cum Melle (Zhigancao), and nonglutinous rice (Jingmi). The chemical composition of BHT still remains largely elusive thus far. To qualitatively and quantitatively characterize secondary metabolites and carbohydrates in BHT, here a combination of analytical approaches using ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detector was developed and validated. A total of 42 secondary metabolites in BHT were tentatively or definitely identified, of which 10 major chemicals were quantified by the extracting ion mode of quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Meanwhile, polysaccharides, oligosaccharides, and monosaccharides in BHT were also characterized via sample pretreatment followed by sugar composition analysis. The quantitative results indicated that the determined chemicals accounted for 35.76% of the total extract of BHT, which demonstrated that the study could be instrumental in chemical dissection and quality control of BHT. The research deliverables not only laid the root for further chemical and biological evaluation of BHT, but also provided a comprehensive analytical strategy for chemical characterization of secondary metabolites and carbohydrates in traditional Chinese medicine formulas.


Assuntos
Carboidratos/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Plantas Medicinais/química , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/metabolismo , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , Controle de Qualidade , Metabolismo Secundário
12.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 42(2): 396-404, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28948750

RESUMO

Based on a systematic review of morphology and distribution of plants, alternate names, actions, and properties of herbs recorded in ancient and modern literatures, in combination of field investigation, 18 Chinese herbal medicines recorded in ancient bencao literature were regarded to be derived from 7 species in the Ardisia genus. Among them, the variety Ardisia crenata f. hortensis was identified as the source of Zhushagen and Zijinniu. A. hanceana is referenced as Tiesan in the illustrated atlas of Botanical Nomenclature (Zhiwu Mingshi Tukao). The name Pingdimu refers to a different substance in the illustrated atlas of Botanical Nomenclature and the Flower Mirror (Huajing). The medicinals named Yedihong, Aicha, and Duanjiao sanlangare all derived from A. japonica. The origin of the herb Xiaoqing referenced in the Illustrated Classic of the Materia Medica (Bencao Tujing) is A. pusilla. The medicinals Bailiangjin, Jiuguanxue and Zoumatai are derived from A. crispa, A. brevicaulis, and A. gigantifolia, respectively. This investigation clarifies the botanical sources and actions of related Chinese medicinal materials in the genus Ardisia, and provides clues and evidence for utilizing and developing their medicinal plant resources.


Assuntos
Ardisia/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Materia Medica
13.
Phytother Res ; 31(9): 1376-1383, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28730733

RESUMO

Although Radix Paeoniae Alba (RPA) has been ranked as one of the top 6 herbs used frequently to prevent and treat miscarriages clinically, there is no clear evidence regarding its safety in embryonic development. This study aims to evaluate the potential impacts of RPA on embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and pregnant mice. Cytotoxicity assays of the extract were performed in ESCs and 3T3 cells. Pregnant ICR mice were orally treated with RPA extracts at dosages of 0 (G1 group as negative controls), 2, 8 and 32 g/kg/day (G2, G3 and G4 groups) respectively from the gestation day (Gd) 6-15. On Gd 18, there was no significant difference in the IC50 values between ESCs and 3T3 cells (p > 0.05). There was no significant difference in the maternal and fetal evaluations among four groups (p > 0.05). Fetal IL-2, IL-2r, TNF-α, TNF-αr, IL-4, IL-4r, IL-10r, IL-17 and IL-17r of G4 group were significantly lower than G1 group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, RPA at dosage of 32 g/kg/day (16-folds of human daily dosage) did not cause adverse impact in cultured ESCs and pregnant mice. RPA might down-regulate fetal Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines and receptors maybe beneficial to embryonic survival and development. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/efeitos dos fármacos , Paeonia/química , Células 3T3 , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Feto/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Gravidez , Receptores de Citocinas/metabolismo
14.
J Sep Sci ; 40(17): 3440-3452, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28683180

RESUMO

As a traditional medicinal plant, Juglans mandshurica has been used for the treatment of cancer. Different organs of this plant showed anti-tumor activity in clinic and laboratory. Comparative identification of constituents in different plant organs is essential for investigation of the relationship between chemical constituents and pharmacological activities. For this aim, the roots, branches, and leaves of J. mandshurica were extracted with 50% v/v methanol and then subjected to ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis conducted under low and high energy. As a result, we have to date identified 111 compounds consisting of 56 tannins, 29 flavonoids, 13 organic acids, 8 naphthalene derivatives, and 5 anthracenes. Five compounds, namely, diquercetin trihydroxy-truxinoyl-glucoside, two quercetin kaempferol dihydroxy-truxinoyl-glucosides, syringoyl-tri-galloyl-O-glucose, and dihydroxy-naphthalene syringoyl-glucoside, were tentatively identified as new compounds. Of the compounds identified, 76 were found in the root extract, 67 in the branch extract, and 37 in the leaf extract. Only six compounds including four organic acids and two tannins were found in all three extracts. We developed a rapid and sensitive ultra high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry approach to identify multiple constituents of complex extracts without separation and ion selection. The results presented provide useful information on further research of the bioactive compounds of J. mandshurica.


Assuntos
Juglans/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Espectrometria de Massas , Folhas de Planta/química , Raízes de Plantas/química
15.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-24, 2017 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28678527

RESUMO

Oolong tea (OT) is a traditional Chinese tea (Camellia sinensis) and is especially popular in south China. This review is to comprehensively summarize the miscellaneous research that has been done towards to the processing, phytochemistry, health benefit, and risk of OT. These literatures were carried out not only from different electronic databases but also from text books written in English, Japanese, and Chinese, including those traditional records tracing back to the Tang Dynasty (A.D. 618-907). The full process OT producing is depicted below in this review. The phytochemistry of OT has been comprehensively investigated. More than 100 chemical compositions have been isolated and identified. In health benefit, OT performs outstandingly in reducing obesity and controlling diabetes explained by modern pharmacological studies. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (6) in OT prevention of cancerous cells developing. OT can also improve and reduce on heart and vascular disease, protect teeth and bone, function as anti-oxidative and antibacterial agents. This review also mentioned the risk, summarized briefly on various forms of toxicity and harmful associated with OT. In short, this review can provided a natural product library of OT, gave inspirations for further new garden systems, designed idea on quality, bioactivity-oriented screening. In addition, it is suggested more scientists and education is necessary to guarantee the stability and safety of drinking OT.

16.
Chin J Nat Med ; 15(5): 392-400, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28558875

RESUMO

Aristolochiae Fructus, a Chinese herbal medicine derived from the fruit of Aristolochia contorta Bge., contains nephrotoxic aristolochic acid analogues (AAAs). According to ancient medical texts, various medicinal parts of the fruit of A. contorta were ever used. In order to reveal which part could be safely and effectively used, it is necessary to analyze the chemical profiles of different medicinal parts. Herein we compared the chemical compositions and determined aristolochic acid I (AA-I) and aristolochic acid II (AA-II) in the four parts viz. outer pericarp, inner pericarp, septum, and seed. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography equipped with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS) was applied for chemical profiling. Ultra-high performance liquid coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QqQ-MS) was employed to quantify AA-I and AA-II in different parts. It was found that the chemical compositions of the four parts varied both qualitatively and quantitatively. A total of 10 AAAs, including 5 aristolochic acids and 5 aristolactams, together with 3 alkaloids, were unambiguously or tentatively identified by UHPLC-QTOF-MS. The quantitatively analytical results obtained by UHPLC-QqQ-MS showed that AA-I and AA-II exclusively accumulate in the seeds of A. contorta. These findings provide supporting data for the rational selection of medicinal parts.


Assuntos
Aristolochia/química , Ácidos Aristolóquicos/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Frutas/química , Estrutura Molecular , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
17.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 145: 59-70, 2017 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28651108

RESUMO

Carbohydrates and ginsenosides in ginseng are biologically interrelated. Their synchronous analysis is therefore essential in chemical research on ginseng to characterize its "holistic" quality. Here we investigated the processing chemistry of red ginseng (RG), a ginseng product processed by water-steaming, for which both carbohydrates and ginsenosides were qualitatively and quantitatively determined through multiple analytical techniques. Results revealed that the steam-processing not only qualitatively and quantitatively altered the ginsenosides but also affected the polymeric carbohydrates via changing their physiochemical parameters, i.e. water-solubility, molecular size, types and ratios of constituent monosaccharides. Potential mechanisms involved in the transformation of ginseng chemicals are proposed and discussed, including hydrolysis (deglycosylation, demalonylation, deacetylation), dehydration, polymerization, volatilization, reduction and the Maillard reaction. The study strengthens the research on the processing chemistry of RG, and therefore should be helpful for elucidating the scientific basis of RG preparation and application.


Assuntos
Panax , Ginsenosídeos , Hidrólise , Extratos Vegetais
19.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 17(1): 305, 2017 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28606186

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bupleuri Radix (Chaihu) represents one of the most successful and widely used herbal medicines in Asia for the treatment of many diseases such as inflammatory disorders and infectious diseases over the past 2000 years. In the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, Chaihu is recorded as the dried roots of Bupleurum chinense DC. and B. scorzonerifolium Willd. (Umbelliferae). However, the widespread demand for the herb has tended to far outstrip the supply. Whether the aerial parts, which account for 70 ~ 85% of the dry weights of Bupleurum species, could be used as an alternative for the root has become an important scientific issue for the sustainable utilization of Bupleurum species. On the other hand, in some areas including the southeast of China as well as in Spain, the aerial parts of Bupleurum species have already been used in the folk medications. Therefore, to clarify whether the root and aerial parts of Bupleurum species are "equivalent" in the types and quantities of chemical constituents which subsequently influence their biological activities and therapeutic effects is of great importance for both the rational and sustainable use of this herb. METHODS: In the present study, the chemical profiles between the root and aerial parts of Bupleurum species from different species and collected from various locations were analyzed and compared by the ultra-high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole/time of flight-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS). RESULTS: A total of 56 peaks were identified in the root and/or aerial parts from different batches of Bupleurum species, by comparison of references standards or with those reported in the literature. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was conducted for displaying the differentiating clustering between these two parts. CONCLUSION: The results disclosed the distinct variations between them, which indicated that the aerial parts could not be used as an alternative of root from a chemodiversity perspective. The differentiating markers resulted from the PCA analysis could also be utilized for the differentiation between them. Further validation of their biological differences is anticipated in the future study.


Assuntos
Bupleurum/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , China , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Espectrometria de Massas , Metabolômica , Raízes de Plantas/química
20.
Drug Test Anal ; 9(8): 1105-1115, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27764538

RESUMO

Herbal healthcare products are used worldwide as relatively safe and effective alternatives to allopathic drugs. Saussurea laniceps Hand.-Mazz. (SL), S. medusa Maxim. (SM) and S. involucrata (Kar. et Kir.) Sch.Bip. (SI) are three sources of the renowned 'snow lotus', Chinese materia medica for treating inflammatory diseases. The three species have different therapeutic effects, among which SL has been proved to be the most potent, but they are frequently confused on the market and in the academic community. An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-quadrupole time of flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS) method was developed and used to analyze 49 herbal samples for species analysis and overall quality evaluation. With 25 simultaneously identified constituents, of which 12 were quantified, the three herbs showed different chemical profiles. Four-dimensional principle component analysis (4D-PCA) and orthogonal hierarchical cluster analysis (2D-HCA) results illustrated that SL should be grouped away from SM and SI, contradicting the botanical record in Flora of China. The present chemical determination and pattern recognition results directly explain the therapeutic potency of SL and distinguish the three confused snow lotus herbs. Furthermore, the findings suggest a possible extensive quality evaluation model for multi-origin medicinal plants and help monitor falsification of snow lotus herbal products on the market, contributing to a more regulated pharmaceutical industry. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Saussurea/química , Análise por Conglomerados , Análise de Componente Principal
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