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1.
Artigo em Chinês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-1005911

RESUMO

Objective To investigate the epidemic features and pathogen spectrum distribution of diarrhea cases in Minhang District of Shanghai City so as to provide scientific evidence for developing prevention and control measures. Methods Surveillance on diarrhea was conducted in sentinel hospitals in Minghang District from 2018 to 2020. According to the quantity of outpatients in the monitoring hospital, the stool samples were collected by systematic sampling method according to the fixed interval proportion in the case queue which met the requirements of the monitored cases, and the pathogenic composition and epidemiological characteristics were analyzed. Results Among the 721 samples detected , 307(42.58%) were pathogen positive, The main positive bacteria was Vibrio parahaemolyticus, which accounted for 36.11%(39/108) among all positive bacteria.The main positive virus was norovirus GII, which accounted for 24.43%(75/307) among all positive virus. Positive cases were detected among all age groups. 81 positive cases (26.38%) were detected among 31-40 years old, with the highest detection rate. There was no difference in the positive detection rate between genders(χ2= 1.95, P = 0.16). The positive cases showed two peaks during the season of winter and spring. The positive rate of bacteria was highest in the third quarter and positive rate of viruses was highest in the first quarter. The mixed infection rate of bacteria and viruses was highest in the second quarter. Conclusions Diarrhea cases in Minhang District of Shanghai from 2018 to 2020 is caused by a variety of pathogens and related seasonality is obvious in Minghang District, Shanghai City in 2018-2020. It is necessary to take specific prevention based on various pathogens to reduce the incidence of diarrhea.

2.
Artigo em Chinês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-993070

RESUMO

Objective:To investigate the effect of radiofrequency radiation (RF) from 5G mobile phone communication frequency bands (3.5 GHz and 4.9 GHz) on the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in mice.Methods:A total of 24 healthy adult male C57BL/6 mice (6-8 weeks old) were randomly divided into Sham, 3.5 GHz RF and 4.9 GHz RF groups, and 8 mice in each group. Mice in the RF groups were systemically exposed to 5G cell phone radiation for consecutive 35 d(1 h/d) with 50 W/m 2 power density. The BBB permeability of mice was detected by Evans Blue (EB) fluorescence experiment. The expression levels of the BBB tight junction-related proteins (ZO-1, occludin and claudin-11) and the gap junction-related protein Connexin 43 were determined by Western blot. Results:The number of spots, fluorescence intensity and comprehensive score of EB were significantly increased in 3.5 GHz RF group and 4.9 GHz RF group compared with the Sham group ( t=12.98, 17.82, P<0.001). Compared with the Sham group, the content of S100B in mouse serum was significantly increased in 3.5 GHz RF group and 4.9 GHz RF group ( t=19.34, 14.68, P<0.001). The BBB permeability was increased in the RF group. The expression level of occludin protein was significantly reduced in the 3.5 GHz RF group ( t=-3.13, P<0.05), and this decrease was much profound in the 4.9 GHz RF group ( t=-6.55, P<0.01). But the protein levels of ZO-1, Claudin-11 and Connexin 43 in the cerebral cortex of the RF groups had no significantly difference in comparison with the Sham group( P>0.05). Conclusions:The continuous exposure of mobile phone RF at 3.5 GHz or 4.9 GHz for 35 d (1 h/d) induces an increase of BBB permeability in the mouse cerebral cortex, perhaps by reducing the expression of occludin protein.

3.
Artigo em Chinês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-924167

RESUMO

ObjectiveTo determine the epidemiological characteristics and risk factors of a norovirus GII.17 outbreak in Minhang District of Shanghai in 2018, and provide evidence for prevention and control measures of norovirus infection. MethodsDescriptive epidemiological analysis was performed. In addition, a retrospective cohort study was conducted to determine the risk factors. ResultsFrom May 30th to June 1st of 2018, a total of 132 cases (126 clinical cases and 6 confirmed cases) were documented,with an attack rate of 29.20%(132/452).All cases were children in a kindergarten, with the average age of 5 years and 43.9% being male. The cases were reported in all the classes, with no clustering by class or floor.The epidemic curve was characterized by a point source exposure, which was estimated to be probably between 7 AM on May 30thand 0:30 AM on May 31st. The retrospective cohort study showed that the attack rate significantly differed between the children who had taken and did not take the school lunch (RR=∞) on May 30th,and those who had taken and did not take seafood noodles (RR=4.11, 95%CI:1.09-15.55) (P<0.05). Among a total of 73 specimens, six specimens collected in child cases and one specimen in an asymptomatic chef tested positive for GII.17 type of norovirus. In addition, one retained food specimen of seafood noodles was positive for Aeromonas hydrophila. Viral shedding in the asymptomatic chef remained over 30 days. ConclusionThe outbreak was caused by seafood noodles contaminated by norovirus. It warrants enhancement in the regulation of food safety in canteens and regular examination of norovirus infection in catering industry employees.

4.
Artigo em Chinês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-929590

RESUMO

ObjectiveThis study aimed to understand the epidemiological characteristics of hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) in Minhang District, Shanghai from 2009 to 2020, and provide a scientific basis for the prevention and control of HFMD. MethodsThe case information of HFMD was collected from the National Notifiable Infectious Diseases Reporting System of Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. We used descriptive epidemiological methods to analyze the population characteristics, temporal and spatial distribution of HFMD, the pathogen composition of the case and its changing trend. ResultsFrom 2009 to 2020, a total of 66,198 cases of HFMD were reported in Minhang District, Shanghai, including 377 severe cases (severe case rate 0.57%) and 3 deaths (severs case fatality rate 0.80%). There were more cases of HFMD in boys than in girls (1.5∶1). HFMD patients aged under 5 years predominated, accounting for 88.91% of all cases. Majority of the cases (91.42%) were in scattered children (55.80%) and children in kindergartens (35.62%). The incidence showed a cyclical trend, with low incidence years and high incidence years appearing alternately. The peak period was from April to July, and sometimes there were small peaks during October to December. A total of 12 years time-space scanning analysis revealed 3 clusters. The cluster centers were located in Wujing Town, Huacao Town and Xinzhuang Town, respectively. The proportion of EV71 in common cases was generally decreasing, and reduced to zero in 2019. The proportion of CoxA6 had increased year by year, and reached 75.00% in 2020. CoxA6 became the dominant pathogen in recent years. The number of severe cases had decreased year by year since 2010, and the dominant pathogen was EV71 (90.03% on average) in severe cases. ConclusionThe incidence of HFMD in Minhang District of Shanghai has a downward trend from 2014. The dominant pathogen changes from EV71 to CoxA6, and the dominant pathogen in severe cases is EV71. The discovered temporal and spatial clustering pattern is helpful for in-depth understanding of the distribution and epidemic trend of HFMD in Minhang District, and provides a scientific basis for epidemic prevention and control.

5.
Artigo em Chinês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-957823

RESUMO

Objective:To investigate the effect of optimizing perioperative measures on reducing postoperative gastric emptying disorder in gastrointestinal reconstruction after pancreaticoduodenectomy.Methods:The clinical data of 146 patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy from Jan 2019 to Dec 2020 at the Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery,the First Affiliated Hospital ,Anhui Medical University were analyzed retrospectively. Among them, 78 cases underwent traditional Billroth Ⅱ gastrojejunal anastomosis for gastrointestinal reconstruction, and 68 cases in the improvement group took optimization measures. The time to first postoperative flatus, time to oral intake, postoperative hospital stay and complications were observed.Results:The operation time in the control group was (351.4±71.6) min, less than that in the improved group (368.8±97.6) min, while the time [(9.9±6.5)d vs. (7.6±6.0)d] to first oral take and postoperative hospital stay [(20.7±8.6)d vs. (17.9±7.0)d] were significantly longer than those in the improved group. The incidence of postoperative gastric emptying disorder (19.2% vs. 7.4%) was significantly higher than that in the improved group ( P<0.05). There was no significant difference in postoperative time to first flatus and postoperative gastrointestinal bleeding between the two groups (all P>0.05). Conclusions:The measures of optimizing gastrointestinal reconstruction in the perioperative period of pancreaticoduodenectomy have obvious advantages in reducing gastric emptying disorder, promoting the recovery of gastrointestinal function and shortening the length of hospital stay.

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