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1.
Phys Rev E ; 97(4-1): 043206, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29758736

RESUMO

The full melting of a two-dimensional plasma crystal was induced in a principally stable monolayer by localized laser stimulation. Two distinct behaviors of the crystal after laser stimulation were observed depending on the amount of injected energy: (i) below a well-defined threshold, the laser melted area recrystallized; (ii) above the threshold, it expanded outwards in a similar fashion to mode-coupling instability-induced melting, rapidly destroying the crystalline order of the whole complex plasma monolayer. The reported experimental observations are due to the fluid mode-coupling instability, which can pump energy into the particle monolayer at a rate surpassing the heat transport and damping rates in the energetic localized melted spot, resulting in its further growth. This behavior exhibits remarkable similarities with impulsive spot heating in ordinary reactive matter.

2.
Phys Rev E ; 95(4-1): 041201, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28505869

RESUMO

We study a complex plasma under microgravity conditions that is first stabilized with an oscillating electric field. Once the stabilization is stopped, the so-called heartbeat instability develops. We study how the kinetic energy spectrum changes during and after the onset of the instability and compare with the double cascade predicted by Kraichnan and Leith for two-dimensional turbulence. The onset of the instability manifests clearly in the ratio of the reduced rates of cascade of energy and enstrophy and in the power-law exponents of the energy spectra.

3.
Phys Rev Lett ; 118(7): 075002, 2017 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28256868

RESUMO

The wake-mediated propulsion of an "extra" particle in a channel of two neighboring rows of a two-dimensional plasma crystal, observed experimentally by Du et al. [Phys. Rev. E 89, 021101(R) (2014)PRESCM1539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.89.021101], is explained in simulations and theory. We use the simple model of a pointlike ion wake charge to reproduce this intriguing effect in simulations, allowing for a detailed investigation and a deeper understanding of the underlying dynamics. We show that the nonreciprocity of the particle interaction, owing to the wake charges, is responsible for a broken symmetry of the channel that enables a persistent self-propelled motion of the extra particle. We find good agreement of the terminal extra-particle velocity with our theoretical considerations and with experiments.

4.
Phys Rev E ; 96(1-1): 011201, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29347228

RESUMO

Spontaneous formation of spinning pairs of particles, or torsions, is studied in a single-layer complex plasma crystal by reducing the discharge power at constant neutral gas pressure. At higher gas pressures, torsions spontaneously form below a certain power threshold. Further reduction of the discharge power leads to the formation of multiple torsions. However, at lower gas pressures the torsion formation is preceded by mode-coupling instability (MCI). The crystal dynamics are studied with the help of the fluctuation spectra of crystal particles' in-plane velocities. Surprisingly, the spectra of the crystal with torsions and MCI are rather similar and contain hot spots at similar locations on the (k,ω) plane, despite very different appearances of the respective particle trajectories. The torsion rotation speed is close (slightly below) to the maximum frequency of the in-plane compressional mode. When multiple torsions form, their rotation speeds are distributed in a narrow range slightly below the maximum frequency.

5.
Phys Rev Lett ; 119(25): 255001, 2017 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29303297

RESUMO

We report an experimental observation of the coupling of the transverse vertical and longitudinal in-plane dust-lattice wave modes in a two-dimensional complex plasma crystal in the absence of mode crossing. A new large-diameter rf plasma chamber was used to suspend the plasma crystal. The observations are confirmed with molecular dynamics simulations. The coupling manifests itself in traces of the transverse vertical mode appearing in the measured longitudinal spectra and vice versa. We calculate the expected ratio of the trace to the principal mode with a theoretical analysis of the modes in a crystal with finite temperature and find good agreement with the experiment and simulations.

6.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 87(3): 033505, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27036775

RESUMO

Three-dimensional (3D) imaging of a single-layer plasma crystal was performed using a commercial plenoptic camera. To enhance the out-of-plane oscillations of particles in the crystal, the mode-coupling instability (MCI) was triggered in it by lowering the discharge power below a threshold. 3D coordinates of all particles in the crystal were extracted from the recorded videos. All three fundamental wave modes of the plasma crystal were calculated from these data. In the out-of-plane spectrum, only the MCI-induced hot spots (corresponding to the unstable hybrid mode) were resolved. The results are in agreement with theory and show that plenoptic cameras can be used to measure the 3D dynamics of plasma crystals.

7.
Phys Rev E ; 93(1): 013204, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26871180

RESUMO

The spectral asymmetry of the wave-energy distribution of dust particles during mode-coupling-induced melting, observed for the first time in plasma crystals by Couëdel et al. [Phys. Rev. E 89, 053108 (2014)PLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.89.053108], is studied theoretically and by molecular-dynamics simulations. It is shown that an anisotropy of the well confining the microparticles selects the directions of preferred particle motion. The observed differences in intensity of waves of opposed directions are explained by a nonvanishing phonon flux. Anisotropic phonon scattering by defects and Umklapp scattering are proposed as possible reasons for the mean phonon flux.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25353582

RESUMO

The observation is presented of naturally occurring pairing of particles and their cooperative drift in a two-dimensional plasma crystal. A single layer of plastic microspheres was suspended in the plasma sheath of a capacitively coupled radio-frequency discharge in argon at a low pressure of 1 Pa. The particle dynamics were studied by combining the top-view and side-view imaging of the suspension. Cross-analysis of the particle trajectories allowed us to identify naturally occurring metastable pairs of particles. The lifetime of pairs was long enough for their reliable identification.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25353583

RESUMO

Network analysis was used to study the structure and time evolution of driven three-dimensional complex plasma clusters. The clusters were created by suspending micron-size particles in a glass box placed on top of the rf electrode in a capacitively coupled discharge. The particles were highly charged and manipulated by an external electric field that had a constant magnitude and uniformly rotated in the horizontal plane. Depending on the frequency of the applied electric field, the clusters rotated in the direction of the electric field or remained stationary. The positions of all particles were measured using stereoscopic digital in-line holography. The network analysis revealed the interplay between two competing symmetries in the cluster. The rotating cluster was shown to be more cylindrical than the nonrotating cluster. The emergence of vertical strings of particles was also confirmed.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25353905

RESUMO

The kinematics of dust particles during the early stage of mode-coupling induced melting of a two-dimensional plasma crystal is explored. It is found that the formation of the hybrid mode causes the particle vibrations to partially synchronize at the hybrid frequency. Phase- and frequency-locked hybrid particle motion in both vertical and horizontal directions (hybrid mode) is observed. The system self-organizes in a rhythmic pattern of alternating in-phase and antiphase oscillating chains of particles. The spatial orientation of the synchronization pattern correlates well with the directions of the maximal increment of the shear-free hybrid mode.


Assuntos
Cristais Líquidos/química , Modelos Químicos , Modelos Moleculares , Oscilometria/métodos , Reologia/métodos , Simulação por Computador , Movimento (Física)
11.
Phys Rev Lett ; 113(13): 135002, 2014 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25302896

RESUMO

A theory of the mode-coupling instability (MCI) in a fluid two-dimensional complex plasma is developed. In analogy to the point-wake model of the wake-mediated interactions commonly used to describe MCI in two-dimensional crystals, the layer-wake model is employed for fluids. It is demonstrated that the wake-induced coupling of wave modes occurs in both crystalline and fluid complex plasmas, but the confinement-density threshold, which determines the MCI onset in crystals, virtually disappears in fluids. The theory shows excellent qualitative agreement with available experiments and provides certain predictions to be verified.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24580343

RESUMO

We study the effects of the particle-wake interactions on the dispersion and polarization of dust lattice wave modes in two-dimensional plasma crystals. Most notably, the wake-induced coupling between the modes causes the branches to "attract" each other, and their polarizations become elliptical. Upon the mode hybridization the major axes of the ellipses (remaining mutually orthogonal) rotate by 45°. To demonstrate the importance of the obtained results for experiments, we plot representative particle trajectories and spectral densities of the longitudinal and transverse waves. These characteristics reveal distinct fingerprints of the mixed polarization. Furthermore, we show that at strong coupling the hybrid mode is significantly shifted towards smaller wave numbers, away from the border of the first Brillouin zone (where the hybrid mode is localized for a weak coupling).

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24329366

RESUMO

The internal structures of most periodic crystalline solids contain defects. This affects various important mechanical and thermal properties of crystals. Since it is very difficult and expensive to track the motion of individual atoms in real solids, macroscopic model systems, such as complex plasmas, are often used. Complex plasmas consist of micrometer-sized grains immersed into an ion-electron plasma. They exist in solidlike, liquidlike, and gaseouslike states and exhibit a range of nonlinear and dynamic effects, most of which have direct analogies in solids and liquids. Slabs of a monolayer hexagonal complex plasma were subjected to a cycle of uniaxial compression and decompression of large amplitudes to achieve plastic deformations, both in experiments and simulations. During the cycle, the internal structure of the lattice exhibited significant rearrangements. Dislocations (point defects) were generated and displaced in the stressed lattice. They tended to glide parallel to their Burgers vectors under load. It was found that the deformation cycle was macroscopically reversible but irreversible at the particle scale.

14.
J Environ Radioact ; 124: 13-21, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23639690

RESUMO

Currently, due to the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons there is a highly topical issue of an accurate verification of nuclear explosion venues. This paper proposes to consider new method for verification by using tritium as an indicator. Detailed studies of the tritium content in the air were carried in the locations of underground nuclear tests - "Balapan" and "Degelen" testing sites located in Semipalatinsk Test Site. The paper presents data on the levels and distribution of tritium in the air where tunnels and boreholes are located - explosion epicentres, wellheads and tunnel portals, as well as in estuarine areas of the venues for the underground nuclear explosions (UNE).


Assuntos
Poluentes Radioativos do Ar/análise , Armas Nucleares , Monitoramento de Radiação/métodos , Trítio/análise , Cazaquistão
15.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys ; 86(4 Pt 2): 046401, 2012 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23214694

RESUMO

Melting of a two-dimensional plasma crystal occurring due to a mode-coupling instability is studied using particle tracking and particle image velocimetry techniques. By combining these techniques, it is possible to identify the location of a propagating melting front and find a characteristic scale length for the temperature gradient across the front. It is found that the measurements of heat transport are consistent with a simple two-dimensional model allowing us to estimate the thermal diffusivity. The measured values for the thermal diffusivity are consistent with previously measured values.

16.
Phys Rev Lett ; 109(17): 175001, 2012 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23215194

RESUMO

The structure of Mach cones in a crystalline complex plasma has been studied experimentally using an intensity sensitive imaging, which resolved particle motion in three dimensions. This revealed a previously unknown out-of-plane cone structure, which appeared due to excitation of the vertical wave mode. The complex plasma consisted of micron sized particles forming a monolayer in a plasma sheath of a gas discharge. Fast particles, spontaneously moving under the monolayer, created Mach cones with multiple structures. The in-plane cone structure was due to compressional and shear lattice waves.

17.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys ; 86(6 Pt 2): 065401, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23367995

RESUMO

The observation of a well-developed treelike string structure supported by a gas flow in a three-dimensional dc complex plasma is presented. The dynamically stable strings, comprising 10-20 particles, were up to 5 mm long. The experiments were performed using neon gas at a pressure of 100 Pa and melamine-formaldehyde particles with a diameter of 3.43 µm. Inside the discharge glass tube a nozzle had been built in to supply the controllable gas (plasma) flux intensity distribution along the tube. The walls of the nozzle were transparent for the laser light illuminating the particles. That gave the opportunity to closely study the particle dynamics deep inside the nozzle.

18.
Phys Rev Lett ; 104(19): 195001, 2010 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20866969

RESUMO

Dedicated experiments on melting of two-dimensional plasma crystals were carried out. The melting was always accompanied by spontaneous growth of the particle kinetic energy, suggesting a universal plasma-driven mechanism underlying the process. By measuring three principal dust-lattice wave modes simultaneously, it is unambiguously demonstrated that the melting occurs due to the resonance coupling between two of the dust-lattice modes. The variation of the wave modes with the experimental conditions, including the emergence of the resonant (hybrid) branch, reveals exceptionally good agreement with the theory of mode-coupling instability.

19.
Phys Rev Lett ; 105(4): 045001, 2010 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20867851

RESUMO

Using experiments and combining theory and computer simulations, we show that binary complex plasmas are particularly good model systems to study the kinetics of fluid-fluid demixing at the "atomistic" (individual particle) level. The essential parameters of interparticle interactions in complex plasmas, such as the interaction range(s) and degree of nonadditivity, can be varied significantly, which allows systematic investigations of different demixing regimes. The critical role of competition between long-range and short-range interactions at the initial stage of the spinodal decomposition is discussed.

20.
Phys Rev Lett ; 102(25): 255005, 2009 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19659088

RESUMO

Investigations of the dynamical evolution of a complex plasma, in which a vertical temperature gradient compensates gravity, were carried out. At low power the formation of microparticle bubbles, blobs, and spraying cusps was observed. This activity can be turned on and off by changing control parameters, such as the rf power and the gas pressure. Several observational effects indicate the presence of surface tension, even at small "nanoscales" of a few 100's of particles. By tracing the individual microparticle motion the detailed (atomistic) dynamics can be studied as well as the pressure dependence of the forces. A possible mechanism that could drive the observed phenomena is analogous to the Rayleigh-Taylor instability.

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