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1.
N Engl J Med ; 381(12): 1124-1135, 2019 09 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150573

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Platinum-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy is the standard of care for patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Additional gemcitabine and cisplatin induction chemotherapy has shown promising efficacy in phase 2 trials. METHODS: In a parallel-group, multicenter, randomized, controlled, phase 3 trial, we compared gemcitabine and cisplatin as induction chemotherapy plus concurrent chemoradiotherapy with concurrent chemoradiotherapy alone. Patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive gemcitabine (at a dose of 1 g per square meter of body-surface area on days 1 and 8) plus cisplatin (80 mg per square meter on day 1), administered every 3 weeks for three cycles, plus chemoradiotherapy (concurrent cisplatin at a dose of 100 mg per square meter every 3 weeks for three cycles plus intensity-modulated radiotherapy) or chemoradiotherapy alone. The primary end point was recurrence-free survival (i.e., freedom from disease recurrence [distant metastasis or locoregional recurrence] or death from any cause) in the intention-to-treat population. Secondary end points included overall survival, treatment adherence, and safety. RESULTS: A total of 480 patients were included in the trial (242 patients in the induction chemotherapy group and 238 in the standard-therapy group). At a median follow-up of 42.7 months, the 3-year recurrence-free survival was 85.3% in the induction chemotherapy group and 76.5% in the standard-therapy group (stratified hazard ratio for recurrence or death, 0.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.34 to 0.77; P = 0.001). Overall survival at 3 years was 94.6% and 90.3%, respectively (stratified hazard ratio for death, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.24 to 0.77). A total of 96.7% of the patients completed three cycles of induction chemotherapy. The incidence of acute adverse events of grade 3 or 4 was 75.7% in the induction chemotherapy group and 55.7% in the standard-therapy group, with a higher incidence of neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, anemia, nausea, and vomiting in the induction chemotherapy group. The incidence of grade 3 or 4 late toxic effects was 9.2% in the induction chemotherapy group and 11.4% in the standard-therapy group. CONCLUSIONS: Induction chemotherapy added to chemoradiotherapy significantly improved recurrence-free survival and overall survival, as compared with chemoradiotherapy alone, among patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma. (Funded by the Innovation Team Development Plan of the Ministry of Education and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01872962.).


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Quimiorradioterapia , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Quimioterapia de Indução , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Cisplatino/efeitos adversos , Desoxicitidina/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Quimioterapia de Indução/efeitos adversos , Leucopenia/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/terapia , Análise de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
2.
Int J Cancer ; 145(1): 295-305, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30613964

RESUMO

To report long-term results of a randomized controlled trial that compared cisplatin/fluorouracil/docetaxel (TPF) induction chemotherapy (IC) plus concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) with CCRT alone in locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Patients with stage III-IVB (except T3-4 N0) NPC were randomly assigned to receive IC plus CCRT (n = 241) or CCRT alone (n = 239). IC included three cycles of docetaxel (60 mg/m2 d1), cisplatin (60 mg/m2 d1), and fluorouracil (600 mg/m2 /d civ d1-5) every 3 weeks. Patients from both groups received intensity-modulated radiotherapy concurrently with three cycles of 100 mg/m2 cisplatin every 3 weeks. After a median follow-up of 71.5 months, the IC plus CCRT group showed significantly better 5-year failure-free survival (FFS, 77.4% vs. 66.4%, p = 0.019), overall survival (OS, 85.6% vs. 77.7%, p = 0.042), distant failure-free survival (88% vs. 79.8%, p = 0.030), and locoregional failure-free survival (90.7% vs. 83.8%, p = 0.044) compared to the CCRT alone group. Post hoc subgroup analyses revealed that beneficial effects on FFS were primarily observed in patients with N1, stage IVA, pretreatment lactate dehydrogenase ≥170 U/l, or pretreatment plasma Epstein-Barr virus DNA ≥6000 copies/mL. Two nomograms were further developed to predict the potential FFS and OS benefit of TPF IC. The incidence of grade 3 or 4 late toxicities was 8.8% (21/239) in the IC plus CCRT group and 9.2% (22/238) in the CCRT alone group. Long-term follow-up confirmed that TPF IC plus CCRT significantly improved survival in locoregionally advanced NPC with no marked increase in late toxicities and could be an option of treatment for these patients.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/radioterapia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/radioterapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Quimiorradioterapia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Nomogramas , Prognóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
3.
Eur J Cancer ; 75: 150-158, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28235726

RESUMO

AIM OF THE STUDY: Previous results from our trial showed that adjuvant cisplatin and fluorouracil chemotherapy did not significantly improve survival after concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) in locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) at 2 years. Here, we present the data of long-term survival and late toxicities to further assess the ultimate therapeutic index of adjuvant chemotherapy (AC). METHODS: Patients with stage III-IVB (except T3-4N0) NPC were randomly assigned to receive CCRT plus AC or CCRT only at seven institutions in China. Patients in both groups received cisplatin 40 mg/m2 weekly up to 7 weeks concurrently with radiotherapy. The CCRT plus AC group subsequently received adjuvant cisplatin 80 mg/m2 and fluorouracil 800 mg/m2/d for 120 h every 4 weeks for three cycles. The primary end-point was failure-free survival. RESULTS: Two hundred and fifty-one patients were randomised to the CCRT plus AC group and 257 to the CCRT only group. After a median follow-up of 68.4 months, estimated 5-year failure-free survival rate was 75% in the CCRT plus AC group and 71% in the CCRT only group (hazard ratio 0.88, 95% confidence interval 0.64-1.22; p = 0.45). 66 (27%) of 249 patients in the CCRT plus AC group and 53 (21%) of 254 patients in the CCRT only group developed one or more late grade 3-4 toxicities (p = 0.14). CONCLUSION: Adjuvant cisplatin and fluorouracil chemotherapy still failed to demonstrate significant survival benefit after CCRT in locoregionally advanced NPC based on the long-term follow-up data, and addition of adjuvant cisplatin and fluorouracil did not significantly increase late toxicities. REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT00677118.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma/terapia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma/mortalidade , Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Quimiorradioterapia/mortalidade , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/métodos , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/mortalidade , China/epidemiologia , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/mortalidade , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
4.
Lancet Oncol ; 17(11): 1509-1520, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27686945

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The value of adding cisplatin, fluorouracil, and docetaxel (TPF) induction chemotherapy to concurrent chemoradiotherapy in locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma is unclear. We aimed to compare TPF induction chemotherapy plus concurrent chemoradiotherapy with concurrent chemoradiotherapy alone in a suitably powered trial. METHODS: We did an open-label, phase 3, multicentre, randomised controlled trial at ten institutions in China. Patients with previously untreated, stage III-IVB (except T3-4N0) nasopharyngeal carcinoma, aged 18-59 years without severe comorbidities were enrolled. Eligible patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive induction chemotherapy plus concurrent chemoradiotherapy or concurrent chemoradiotherapy alone (three cycles of 100 mg/m2 cisplatin every 3 weeks, concurrently with intensity-modulated radiotherapy). Induction chemotherapy was three cycles of intravenous docetaxel (60 mg/m2 on day 1), intravenous cisplatin (60 mg/m2 on day 1), and continuous intravenous fluorouracil (600 mg/m2 per day from day 1 to day 5) every 3 weeks before concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Randomisation was by a computer-generated random number code with a block size of four, stratified by treatment centre and disease stage (III or IV). Treatment allocation was not masked. The primary endpoint was failure-free survival calculated from randomisation to locoregional failure, distant failure, or death from any cause; required sample size was 476 patients (238 per group). We did efficacy analyses in our intention-to-treat population. The follow-up is ongoing; in this report, we present the 3-year survival results and acute toxic effects. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01245959. FINDINGS: Between March 1, 2011, and Aug 22, 2013, 241 patients were assigned to induction chemotherapy plus concurrent chemoradiotherapy and 239 to concurrent chemoradiotherapy alone. After a median follow-up of 45 months (IQR 38-49), 3-year failure-free survival was 80% (95% CI 75-85) in the induction chemotherapy plus concurrent chemoradiotherapy group and 72% (66-78) in the concurrent chemoradiotherapy alone group (hazard ratio 0·68, 95% CI 0·48-0·97; p=0·034). The most common grade 3 or 4 adverse events during treatment in the 239 patients in the induction chemotherapy plus concurrent chemoradiotherapy group versus the 238 patients in concurrent chemoradiotherapy alone group were neutropenia (101 [42%] vs 17 [7%]), leucopenia (98 [41%] vs 41 [17%]), and stomatitis (98 [41%] vs 84 [35%]). INTERPRETATION: Addition of TPF induction chemotherapy to concurrent chemoradiotherapy significantly improved failure-free survival in locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma with acceptable toxicity. Long-term follow-up is required to determine long-term efficacy and toxicities. FUNDING: Shenzhen Main Luck Pharmaceuticals Inc, Sun Yat-sen University Clinical Research 5010 Program (2007037), National Science and Technology Pillar Program during the Twelfth Five-year Plan Period (2014BAI09B10), Health & Medical Collaborative Innovation Project of Guangzhou City (201400000001), Planned Science and Technology Project of Guangdong Province (2013B020400004), and The National Key Research and Development Program of China (2016YFC0902000).


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Quimiorradioterapia , Quimioterapia de Indução , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/terapia , Adulto , Carcinoma , Quimiorradioterapia/efeitos adversos , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Docetaxel , Feminino , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Quimioterapia de Indução/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/mortalidade , Taxoides/administração & dosagem
5.
BMC Cancer ; 16: 193, 2016 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26951097

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Radiation therapy is the method of choice for subjects with inoperable salivary gland malignancies. I-125 brachytherapy, delivering a high radiation dose to a tumor but sparing surrounding normal tissues, is supposed to be ideal modality for the treatment of salivary gland malignancies. We designed a randomised controlled clinical trial to compare the efficacy of I-125 permanent brachytherapy (PBT) versus intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for inoperable salivary gland malignancies. METHODS/DESIGN: In this study, inclusion criteria are subjects with inoperable salivary gland malignancies, aged 18-80 years, have provided informed consent, with at least one measurable tumor focus, be able to survive ≥3 months, Karnofsky performance status ≥60, have adequate hematopoietic function of bone marrow, have normal liver and kidney function, and are willing to prevent pregnancy. Exclusion criteria include a history of radiation or chemotherapy, a history of other malignant tumors in the past 5 years, receiving other effective treatments, participating in other clinical trials, with circulatory metastasis, cognitive impairment, severe cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, acute infection, uncontrolled systemic disease, history of interstitial lungdisease, and being pregnant or breast feeding. The study will be conducted as a clinical, prospective, randomised controlled trial with balanced randomisation (1:1). The planned sample size is 90 subjects. Subjects with inoperable salivary gland malignancies are randomised to receive either I-125 PBT or IMRT, with stratification by tumor size and neck lymph node metastasis. Participants in both groups will be followed up at 2, 4, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21 and 24 months after randomization. The primary outcome is local control rate of the primary site (based on imaging findings and clinical examination, RECIST criteria) in 1 year. Secondary outcomes are progression-free survival, overall survival, quality of life (QOL) measured with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QOL Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ-H&N35) of Chinese version, and safety of treatment. Chi-squared test is used to compare the local control rates in both groups. The survival curves are estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method, and log-rank test is used to test the significant difference. DISCUSSION: Only few observational studies have investigated the effect of I-125 PBT on inoperable salivary gland malignancies. To our knowledge, this is the first randomised controlled trial to investigate the efficacy of I-125 PBT for subjects with inoperable salivary gland malignancies, and will add to the knowledge base for the treatment of these subjects. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study is registered to Clinical Trials.gov ( NCT02048254 ) on Jan 29, 2014.


Assuntos
Protocolos Antineoplásicos , Braquiterapia , Radioisótopos do Iodo/uso terapêutico , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada , Neoplasias das Glândulas Salivares/patologia , Neoplasias das Glândulas Salivares/radioterapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
6.
Lancet Oncol ; 13(2): 163-71, 2012 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22154591

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of the addition of adjuvant chemotherapy to concurrent chemoradiotherapy in locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma is unclear. We aimed to assess the contribution of adjuvant chemotherapy to concurrent chemoradiotherapy versus concurrent chemoradiotherapy alone. METHODS: We did an open-label phase 3 multicentre randomised controlled trial at seven institutions in China. Randomisation was by a computer-generated random number code. Patients were stratified by treatment centre and randomly assigned in blocks of four. Treatment allocation was not masked. We randomly assigned patients with non-metastatic stage III or IV (except T3-4N0) nasopharyngeal carcinoma to receive concurrent chemoradiotherapy plus adjuvant chemotherapy or concurrent chemoradiotherapy alone. Patients in both groups received 40 mg/m(2) cisplatin weekly up to 7 weeks, concurrently with radiotherapy. Radiotherapy was given as 2·0-2·27 Gy per fraction with five daily fractions per week for 6-7 weeks to a total dose of 66 Gy or greater to the primary tumour and 60-66 Gy to the involved neck area. The concurrent chemoradiotherapy plus adjuvant chemotherapy group subsequently received 80 mg/m(2) adjuvant cisplatin and 800 mg/m(2) per day fluorouracil for 120 h every 4 weeks for three cycles. Our primary endpoint was failure-free survival. We did efficacy analyses in our intention-to-treat population. Our trial is ongoing; in this report we present the 2 year survival results and acute toxic effects. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00677118. FINDINGS: 251 patients were assigned to the concurrent chemoradiotherapy plus adjuvant chemotherapy group and 257 to the concurrent chemoradiotherapy alone group. After a median follow-up of 37·8 months (range 1·3-61·0), the estimated 2 year failure-free survival rate was 86% (95% CI 81-90) in the concurrent chemoradiotherapy plus adjuvant chemotherapy group and 84% (78-88) in concurrent chemoradiotherapy only group (hazard ratio 0·74, 95% CI 0·49-1·10; p=0·13). Stomatitis was the most commonly reported grade 3 or 4 adverse event during both radiotherapy (76 of 249 patients in the concurrent chemoradiotherapy plus adjuvant chemotherapy group and 82 of 254 in the concurrent chemoradiotherapy alone group) and adjuvant chemotherapy (43 [21%] of 205 patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy). INTERPRETATION: Adjuvant cisplatin and fluorouracil chemotherapy did not significantly improve failure-free survival after concurrent chemoradiotherapy in locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Longer follow-up is needed to fully assess survival and late toxic effects, but such regimens should not, at present, be used outside well-designed clinical trials. FUNDING: Sun Yat-sen University Clinical Research 5010 Programme (No 2007037), Science Foundation of Key Hospital Clinical Programme of Ministry of Health PR China (No 2010-178), and Guangdong Province Universities and Colleges Pearl River Scholar Funded Scheme (2010).


Assuntos
Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/métodos , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/terapia , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Carcinoma , China , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Cisplatino/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Adulto Jovem
7.
Chin J Cancer Res ; 23(4): 259-64, 2011 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23359752

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A dosimetric study was performed to evaluate the performance of volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy with RapidArc on locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). METHODS: The CT scan data sets of 20 patients of locally advanced NPC were selected randomly. The plans were managed using volumetric modulated arc with RapidArc and fixed nine-field coplanar dynamic intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for these patients. The dosimetry of the planning target volumes (PTV), the organs at risk (OARs) and the healthy tissue were evaluated. The dose prescription was set to 70 Gy to the primary tumor and 60 Gy to the clinical target volumes (CTV) in 33 fractions. Each fraction applied daily, five fractions per week. The monitor unit (MU) values and the delivery time were scored to evaluate the expected treatment efficiency. RESULTS: Both techniques had reached clinical treatment's requirement. The mean dose (Dmean), maximum dose (Dmax) and minimum dose (Dmin) in RapidArc and fixed field IMRT for PTV were 68.4±0.6 Gy, 74.8±0.9 Gy and 56.8±1.1 Gy; and 67.6±0.6 Gy, 73.8±0.4 Gy and 57.5±0.6 Gy (P<0.05), respectively. Homogeneity index was 78.85±1.29 in RapidArc and 80.34±0.54 (P<0.05) in IMRT. The conformity index (CI: 95%) was 0.78±0.01 for both techniques (P>0.05). Compared to IMRT, RapidArc allowed a reduction of Dmean to the brain stem, mandible and optic nerves of 14.1% (P<0.05), 5.6% (P<0.05) and 12.2% (P<0.05), respectively. For the healthy tissue and the whole absorbed dose, Dmean of RapidArc was reduced by 3.6% (P<0.05), and 3.7% (P<0.05), respectively. The Dmean to the parotids, the spinal cord and the lens had no statistical difference among them. The mean MU values of RapidArc and IMRT were 550 and 1,379. The mean treatment time of RapidArc and IMRT was 165 s and 447 s. Compared to IMRT, the delivery time and the MU values of RapidArc were reduced by 63% and 60%, respectively. CONCLUSION: For locally advanced NPC, both RapidArc and IMRT reached the clinic requirement. The target volume coverage was similar for the different techniques. The RapidArc technique showed some improvements in OARs and other tissue sparing while using reduced MUs and delivery time.

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