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1.
Front Public Health ; 9: 644421, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34095052

RESUMO

Introduction: This study aimed to identify factors associated with individual emergency preparedness behaviors which play an important role in effective emergency response. Methods: Data were drawn from a cross-sectional survey conducted in China's Heilongjiang, Guangdong and Sichuan provinces in 2017. Questionnaires were administered through face-to-face interviews, and 2,506 were valid for data analyses. A structural equation model was established to test the direct and indirect effects of the relevant factors on individual emergency preparedness behaviors. Results: Low levels of emergency preparedness were found: 28% of respondents reported being fully/partly prepared. The attitudes of the respondents toward emergency preparedness had the strongest association with emergency preparedness behaviors, with a total effect of 0.483. This was followed by self-efficacy (0.305) and training/exercise (0.295). Risk perception had the weakest effect (0.045) on emergency preparedness behaviors. Discussion: Improving attitudes of the public as well as their ability to prepare for emergency events is important for effective emergency management.


Assuntos
Defesa Civil , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Emergências , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34096275

RESUMO

Constructing highly active and stable surface sites for O2 activation is essential to lower the barrier of Pt-based catalysts for CO oxidation. Although a few active Pt-metal oxide interfaces have been reported, questions about the stability of these sites under the long-term storage and operation remain unresolved. Here, based on developing a robust FeOx/LaFeO3 heterostructure as a support, we constructed stable Pt-support interfaces to achieve highly active CO oxidation at room temperature. Even after it is kept in the air for more than 6 months, the catalyst (without pretreatment) still maintains the high activity like a fresh one, which is superior to metal hydroxide-Pt interfaces, and meets the requirements of long-term storage for emergency use. In situ characterizations and systematic reaction results showed that CO oxidation occurs through an alternative mechanism, which is triggered by intrinsic reactants and self-adjusted to a more active interface in the reaction process. Theoretical calculations and 57Fe Mössbauer spectra revealed that abundant cation vacancies significantly increase the activity of surface oxygen species and should be responsible for this unique process. This work demonstrates an alternative concept to fabricate robust and highly active Pt-based catalysts for catalytic oxidation.

3.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 40(1): 179, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074322

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exosomes have emerged as critical mediators of intercellular communication. Hypoxia is widely recognized as a key regulator of tumor aggressiveness, and significantly affects exosome release by tumor cells. However, the effects of exosomes derived from hypoxic lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) cells are poorly understood. METHODS: Samples of miRNA isolated from hypoxic LUAD cell-derived exosomes (HExo) and normoxic LUAD cell-derived exosomes (NExo) were sequenced to identify miRNAs that might mediate tumor progression. Exosomal miRNA was co-cultured with LUAD cells to assess its biological effects on cell migration and metastasis both in vitro and in vivo. The cellular target of exosomal miRNA was confirmed by dual-luciferase assays. Western blot studies showed that exosomal miRNA regulated the related pathway. The availability of circulating exosomal miRNA derived from plasma was also evaluated. RESULTS: We found that HExo could significantly enhance the migration and invasion of normoxic LUAD cells. MiRNA sequencing results suggested that miR-31-5p was largely internalized within HExo and could be taken up by normoxic LUAD cells. Exosomal miR-31-5p was found to directly target Special AT-Rich Sequence-Binding Protein 2 (SATB2)-revered epithelial mesenchymal transition and significantly increase activation of MEK/ERK signaling, thereby contributing to tumor progression both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, higher levels of circulating exosomal miR-31-5p were detected in LUAD patients, especially in patients with metastatic disease. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that exosomal miR-31-5p exerts a crucial role in LUAD progression, and could serve as a diagnostic biomarker for LUAD.

4.
J Environ Manage ; 295: 113077, 2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34146778

RESUMO

Eco-tourism is rapidly developing in giant panda nature reserves in China, and is considered a popular tool for biodiversity conservation and the welfare of local communities. However, there is lack of empirical evidence on whether eco-tourism promotes the conservation behavior of local communities members, who live around nature reserves. To this end, this study constructed a framework to measure households' forest conservation activities, and conducted a questionnaire survey in 12 giant panda nature reserves in Sichuan Province, China. A total of 686 valid samples were obtained. A logit model was used to confirm whether income from community-based ecotourism (CBET) could enhance households' conservation behavior. The results show that households prefer three types of conservation practices, and CBET could significantly improve the income of households engaged in it. Income from CBET has motivated local households to participate in conservation activities; however, but the effects are different. In all three conservation activities, income from CBET has shown significant effects on promoting forest maintenance and protection activities, but not on reforestation ones. The results of this research could help us better understand the relationship between CBET and local households' conservation behavior. It also provides information for policymakers seeking for the best way to balance conservation and development.

5.
IEEE Trans Biomed Eng ; PP2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34101581

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Based on the hypothesis that adding a cross-modal and cross-attention (C2MA) mechanism into a deep learning network improves accuracy and efficacy of medical image segmentation, we propose to test a novel network to segment acute ischemic stroke (AIS) lesions from four CT perfusion (CTP) maps. METHODS: The proposed network uses a C2MA module directly to establish a spatial-wise relationship by using the multigroup non-local attention operation between two modal features and performs dynamic group-wise recalibration through group attention block. This C2MA-Net has a multipath encoder-decoder architecture, in which each modality is processed in different streams on the encoding path, and the pair related parameter modalities are used to bridge attention across multimodal information through the C2MA module. A public dataset involving 94 training and 62 test cases are used to build and evaluate the C2MA-Net. AIS segmentation results on the test cases are analyzed and compared with other state-of-the-art models reported in the literature. RESULTS: By calculating several average evaluation scores, C2MA-network improves Recall, F1, and F2 scores by 4.0%, 1.4%, and 3.0%, respectively. In the ablation experiment, the F1 score of C2MA-Net is at least 7.8% higher than that of single-input single-modal self-attention networks. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates advantages of applying C2MA-network to segment AIS lesions, which yields promising segmentation accuracy, and achieves semantic decoupling by processing different parameter modalities separately. SIGNIFICANCE: Proving the potential of cross-modal interactions in attention to assist identifying new imaging biomarkers for more accurately predicting AIS prognosis in future studies.

6.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 84, 2021 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34118989

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many valuable and productive patented technologies have been developed to control schistosomiasis in China in the past 70 years. We conducted a research to analyse patented technologies for schistosomiasis control and prevention filed by Chinese applicants for determining the future patent layout. METHODS: The patent databases of China National Intellectual Property Administration and Baiten were comprehensively searched, and patented technologies for schistosomiasis control and prevention, published between January 1950 and December 2020 filed by Chinese applicants were sorted on 30 December 2020. The patent types, technical fields, and patent development trends were analysed using patent indexing. RESULTS: There are 184 valid schistosomiasis control technology patents, among them 128 invention patents. The patents related to schistosomiasis control and prevention technology have gone through the germination, growth, and maturity stages. These phases correspond with three phases in schistosomiasis control in China. The main technical aspects were fundamental research (n = 37), detection (n = 13), chemotherapy (n = 61), and armamentarium/devices (n = 73), of which the number of patents for detection for diagnosis was smaller. The top three specialised technical fields for patents subgroups, focusing on antiparasitic agents, DNA or RNA, vectors and medicines, of which schistosomicides are the major dominant subgroup. CONCLUSIONS: We recommend that technologies to be patented for schistosomiasis control and prevention be focused on detection, preliminary studies for molecular detection methods should be significantly enhanced, and patent layout must be performed, which will, in turn, promote accuracy of early diagnosis, not only in humans but also in livestock. It is necessary to develop more anti-schistosomal drugs safely and effectively, exceptionally eco-friendly molluscicides and herbal extracts anti-schistosomes, improve treatment, develop vaccines for use in humans.

7.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(11): 2327-2338, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33967609

RESUMO

Background: An increasing number of studies had shown that tertiary lymphoid structure (TLS) plays an important role in tumor progression. However, the prognostic role of TLS in various tumors remains controversial. This meta-analysis aims to investigate the clinicopathological and prognostic values of TLS in solid tumors. Methods: A systematic search was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Library undated to November 2, 2020. Odds ratios of clinical parameters, hazard ratio (HR) of overall survival (OS), relapse-free survival (RFS), disease-free survival (DFS) and relapse rate were calculated in order to evaluate the relationship between TLS expression and clinicopathological or prognostic values in different tumors. Result: 27 eligible studies including 6647 patients with different types of tumors were analyzed. High TLS expression was associated with a longer OS (HR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.50 - 0.86, P = 0.002) and RFS (HR = 0.61, 95% CI: 0.47 - 0.79, P = 0.0001). Moreover, high TLS levels in tumor were associated with a low risk of recurrence (HR = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.32 - 0.57, P < 0.0001). However, there was no relationship between TLS expression and DFS. Meanwhile, high TLS expression was associated with smaller tumor size (P < 0.00001) and higher tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). Furthermore, the subgroup analysis showed high TLS expression that may be associated with a lower clinical grading and N stage in breast cancer and colorectal cancer. Conclusion: High TLS expression is associated with the longer OS and RFS in solid tumors, and a lower risk of cancer relapse. Meanwhile, high TLS expression is also associated with a smaller tumor size, higher infiltration of TILs, lower clinical grading and N stage in the tumor. Therefore, high TLS expression in the tumor is a favorable prognostic biomarker for solid tumor patients.

8.
Drug Deliv ; 28(1): 995-1006, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34042551

RESUMO

The effective delivery system plays an important role in the application of siRNA in the antitumor study. However, until now, researches on the delivery systems targeting hepatocarcinoma cells are still being explored. Here we designed and prepared a novel siRNA delivery system, cRGD-PSH-NP, which was based on a modified polyethyleneimine (PSH) and DSPE-PEG2000-cRGD. cRGD-PSH-NP loaded with survivin siRNA (cRGD-PSH-NP/S) was composed of egg phosphatidylcholine, cationic PSH, PEGylated lipids, survivin siRNA, and cRGD peptide as a targeting ligand. The formulations of cRGD-PSH-NP/S were optimized and characterized. In vitro investigations showed excellent gene silencing and antitumor activity compared with the unmodified nanoparticles in HepG2 cells. In vivo antitumor efficacy of cRGD-PSH-NP/S exhibited potent tumor inhibition (74.71%) in HepG2-bearing nude mice without inducing toxicity. These data suggested further research of cRGD-PSH-NP/S in hepatocarcinoma therapy.

9.
Can J Cardiol ; 2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33964369

RESUMO

The apprenticeship model of surgical education, relying solely on operating room training, may be insufficient to meet current needs of cardiac surgery trainees. Challenges such as resident duty hour restrictions, increasing case complexity, and novel techniques limit direct intraoperative experience. Simulation is a widely accepted educational tool in surgery. The purpose of this study was to establish an understanding of the current use of simulation in Canadian cardiac surgery, and to examine the attitudes of Canadian educators and residents towards simulation training. Canadian cardiac surgery residents and faculty surgeons were surveyed at each of the 12 Canadian academic institutions. Simulation was used at all 12 academic programs with the average use being 3-4 times a year. The most common simulators used were anastomotic task trainers and porcine heart models. Simulation sessions were deemed incomplete, lacking clearly stated learning objectives and evaluations. There was an overall desire from both residents and faculty surgeons to have more simulation use at their centre. This study identified that while simulation is employed and valued within Canada, it is not yet employed to maximum potential. Simulation cannot replace operative experience, but current demands on surgeons and residents mandates a broader, more effective application of simulation as an educational adjunct.

10.
Parasite ; 28: 41, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33944774

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite that causes toxoplasmosis and threatens warm-blooded animal and human health worldwide. Simple and applicable diagnostic methods are urgently needed to guide development of effective approaches for prevention of toxoplasmosis. Most molecular diagnostic tools for T. gondii infection require high technical skills, sophisticated equipment, and a controlled lab environment. In this study, we developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification-lateral-flow-dipstick (LAMP-LFD) assay that specifically targets the 529 bp for detecting T. gondii infection. This novel portable device is universal, fast, user-friendly, and guarantees experimental sensitivity as well as low risk of aerosol contamination. Our LAMP-LFD assay has a detection limit of 1 fg of T. gondii DNA, and shows no cross-reaction with other parasitic pathogens, including Cryptosporidium parvum, Leishmania donovani, and Plasmodium vivax. We validated the developed assay by detecting T. gondii in DNA extracted from blood samples collected from 318 stray cats and dogs sampled from Deqing, Wenzhou, Yiwu, Lishui and Zhoushan cities across Zhejiang province, Eastern China. The LAMP-LFD device detected T. gondii DNA in 4.76 and 4.69% of stray cats and dogs, respectively. In conclusion, the developed LAMP-LFD assay is efficient, minimizes aerosol contamination, and is therefore suitable for detecting T. gondii across basic medical institutions and field settings.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Toxoplasma , Animais , Gatos , China , Cães , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Toxoplasma/genética
11.
Acta Parasitol ; 2021 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34019278

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are three epidemiological types of visceral leishmaniasis in China, which are caused by Leishmania strains belonging to the L. donovani complex. The mechanisms underlying their differences in the population affected, disease latency, and animal host, etc., remain unclear. We investigated the protein abundance differences among Leishmania strains isolated from three types of visceral leishmaniasis endemic areas in China. METHODS: Promastigotes of the three Leishmania strains were cultured to the log phase and harvested. The protein tryptic digests were analyzed with liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS), followed by label-free quantitative analysis. The MS experiment was performed on a Q Exactive mass spectrometer. Raw spectra were quantitatively analyzed with the MaxQuant software (ver 1.3.0.5) and matched with the reference database. Differentially expressed proteins were analyzed using the bioinformatics method. The MS analysis was repeated three times for each sample. RESULTS: A total of 5012 proteins were identified across the KS-2, JIASHI-5 and SC6 strains in at least 2 of the three samples replicate. Of them, 1758 were identified to be differentially expressed at least between 2 strains, including 349 with known names. These differentially expressed proteins with known names are involved in biological functions such as energy and lipid metabolic process, nucleotide acid metabolic process, amino acid metabolic process, response to stress, cell membrane/cytoskeleton, cell cycle and proliferation, biological adhesion and proteolysis, localization and transport, regulation of the biological process, and signal transduction. CONCLUSION: The differentially expressed proteins and their related biological functions may shed light on the pathogenicity of Leishmania and targets for the development of vaccines and medicines.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34019324

RESUMO

In pursuit of novel adsorbents with efficient adsorptive gas storage and separation capabilities remains highly desired and challenging. Although the documented zirconium-tricarboxylate-based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have displayed a variety of topologies encompassing underlying and geometry mismatch ones, the employed organic linkers are exclusively rigid and poorly presenting one type of conformation in the resultant structures. Herein, a used and semirigid tricarboxylate ligand of H3TATAB was judiciously selected to isolate a zirconium-based spe-MOF after the preliminary discovery of srl-MOF. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction reveals that the fully deprotonated TATAB linker in spe-MOF exhibits two distinct conformers, concomitant with popular Oh and rare S6 symmetrical Zr6 molecular building blocks, generating an unprecedented (3,3,12,12)-c nondefault topology. Specifically, the spe-MOF exhibits structurally higher complexity, hierarchical micropores, open metal sites free and rich electronegative groups on the pore surfaces, leading to relatively high methane storage capacity without considering the missing-linker defects and efficient MTO product separation performance.

14.
Prostate ; 2021 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34056739

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate long-term oncological outcomes of radical prostatectomy (RP) plus androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in oligometastatic prostate cancer (PCa) patients. METHODS: Our study included oligometastatic PCa patients hospitalized between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2015, who received ADT with or without RP. We evaluated survival by employing Kaplan-Meier methods, with log-rank tests and univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses. A meta-analysis of previously published studies was additionally performed. RESULTS: The median follow-up times of both groups were 68.4 months (interquartile range = 56.5-85.0). In this cohort study, significant statistical difference in preoperative total prostate-specific antigen (tPSA; p = .121), clinical T stage (p = .115), and N stage (p = .394) were not found between the two groups. Meanwhile, the difference in overall survival (OS) between the two groups did not reach statistical significance (p = .649). A significant difference was not observed in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC)-free survival between two groups as well (p = .183). Numbers of metastases might be an independent prognosis factor (p = .05) for OS, and postoperative tPSA is a risk predictor for CRPC-free survival (p = .032). A meta-analysis of four relevant studies demonstrated significant statistical difference in clinical improvement with RP plus ADT over ADT alone in OS survival (p < .001; hazard ratio [HR] = 0.51; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.38-0.69) instead of CRPC-free survival (p = .42; HR = 0.86; 95% CI = 0.59-1.24). CONCLUSION: The addition of RP to ADT for the treatment of oligometastatic PCa was associated with an improved OS instead of CRPC-free survival.

15.
Int J Biol Sci ; 17(7): 1757-1768, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33994860

RESUMO

Background: Long noncoding RNA KCNQ1 opposite strand/antisense transcript 1 (lncRNA KCNQ1OT1) is abnormally expressed in various solid tumors. The purpose of this study was to explore the prognostic value and potential functional role of lncRNA KCNQ1OT1 across cancers. Methods: We performed a meta-analysis of published literature to evaluate the prognostic value of lncRNA KCNQ1OT1 across cancers. Verification, functional analysis, and genomic variation analysis were performed using the GEPIA, TIMER, and LnCeVar databases. According to the immune cell infiltration level, we established a prognostic model of lncRNA KCNQ1OT1 expression using public datasets of TIMER. We used quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blot to detect the expression levels of lncRNA KCNQ1OT1 and the CD155 protein in colorectal cancer (CRC) tissues and cell lines. Then, a lncRNA KCNQ1OT1-knockdown cell line was cocultured to explore the role of lncRNA KCNQ1OT1 and CD155 in the T cell response by flow cytometric analysis. Results: Our results showed that the high expression of lncRNA KCNQ1OT1 was significantly related to poor overall survival across cancers, especially CRC. Interestingly, we found that COAD patients with high lncRNA KCNQ1OT1 expression and high CD8+ T cell infiltration levels had a worse prognosis than those with low lncRNA KCNQ1OT1 expression and high CD8+ T cell infiltration levels. Moreover, lncRNA KCNQ1OT1 and CD155 showed significantly higher expression in CRC tissue than in normal tissue, and lncRNA KCNQ1OT1 expression was positively correlated with CD155 expression in CRC. Finally, knockdown of lncRNA KCNQ1OT1 reduced CD155 expression in HCT116 and SW620 cells and enhanced the immune response in coculture with CD8+ T cells. Conclusions: High lncRNA KCNQ1OT1 expression is significantly correlated with poor prognosis of CRC patients and mediates the CD8+ T cell response in CRC. These findings indicate that lncRNA KCNQ1OT1 is a prognostic biomarker and potential immune therapeutic target for enhancing the CD8+ T cell response in CRC.

16.
Semin Ophthalmol ; : 1-4, 2021 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33998380

RESUMO

Purpose: To describe the spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) features of typical cystoid degeneration.Methods: This was a retrospective study of 11 eyes with typical cystoid degeneration (TCD). All patients had a complete ocular examination, ultra-widefield (UWF) pseudocolor fundus photography and SD-OCT with a 55° wide-field lens. We analyzed the cross-sectional structural information of SD-OCT imaging with TCD.Results: On SD-OCT, the TCD regions exhibited rolling hills patterns with irregularly elevated retinal surface, and multiple intraretinal hyporeflective cavities separated by irregular septums were seen in the neurosensory retina. Destructive changes were seen in the ellipsoid zone and the pigment epithelium. Consolidated vitreous with moderate to high reflectivity was seen over the lesion and there might be vitreoretinal adhesions and tractions.Results: SD-OCT shows exquisite structural features of the anatomy in vivo detail of the TCD. This imaging technique may deepen our structural understanding of TCD and may influence decision-making in clinical practice.

17.
Adv Ther ; 38(6): 3444-3454, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34021888

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Anterior serratus muscle plane block is a novel regional block technique for blockade of the sensory plane of the lateral cutaneous branch of the intercostal nerve (T2-T9), which effectively relieves the pain of patients and improves the quality of recovery. This study aimed to observe the early effectiveness and safety of serratus anterior plane block combined with general anesthesia and patient-controlled serratus anterior plane block in early postoperative recovery in breast cancer. METHODS: The study involved a total of 84 patients undergoing radical mastectomy in our hospital. The patients were randomly divided into three groups: the serratus anterior block + general anesthesia + patient-controlled serratus anterior plane block group (PCSAPB group), the serratus anterior block + general anesthesia + patient-controlled intravenous analgesia group (PCIA group), and the general anesthesia + PCIA group (control group), with n = 28 cases in each group. RESULTS: The visual analogue scale (VAS) scores of the three groups were compared before and after the operation (P < 0.001), and the anxiety visual analogue scale (AVAS) scores after operation were compared among the three groups (P < 0.001). The total number of postoperative analgesic pumps in the PCSAPB group was significantly lower than that in the control group (P < 0.05). The incidence of adverse reactions in the three groups was statistically significant (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The combination of anterior serratus plane block and general anesthesia and patient-controlled anterior serratus plane block reduced pain and adverse events, alleviating anxiety, improving the quality of early postoperative recovery among patients with breast cancer after modified radical mastectomy.

18.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(10): 14015-14038, 2021 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34030133

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sorafenib can improve the survival of metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) patients. However, its benefits are modest, as patients eventually become resistant, and the mechanisms remain elusive. NUPR1, a stress-induced protein, has been reported in malignancies and functions as an oncogene by modulating the stress response, facilitating survival in harsh environments and conferring drug resistance. However, its role in ccRCC has not been explored. METHODS: The expression and clinical significance of NUPR1 were analyzed in ccRCC patients in in-house patients and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) cohorts. The biological functions of NUPR1 were investigated. Xenografts were performed to confirm the effects of NUPR1 on tumorigenesis. The molecular mechanism of NUPR1 was investigated in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS: NUPR1 expression was upregulated in tumor tissue. Further analysis showed that NUPR1 overexpression was associated with an aggressive phenotype and predicted a poor prognosis. Depletion of NUPR1 suppressed tumorigenesis and sensitized cells to sorafenib treatment. Finally, mechanistic investigations indicated that NUPR1 promoted tumorigenesis in ccRCC by increasing stemness and activating the PTEN/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our results suggest that NUPR1 may serve as a predictor of ccRCC. Notably, NUPR1 silencing reversed sorafenib resistance in ccRCC. These findings provide a novel potential therapeutic target in the clinical management of ccRCC.

19.
Biosci Rep ; 41(6)2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33997894

RESUMO

Histone deacetylase (HDAC) 10, a class II family, has been implicated in various tumors and non-tumor diseases, which makes the discovery of biological functions and novel inhibitors a fundamental endeavor. In cancers, HDAC10 plays crucial roles in regulating various cellular processes through its epigenetic functions or targeting some decisive molecular or signaling pathways. It also has potential clinical utility for targeting tumors and non-tumor diseases, such as renal cell carcinoma, prostate cancer, immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN), intracerebral hemorrhage, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and schizophrenia. To date, relatively few studies have investigated HDAC10-specific inhibitors. Therefore, it is important to study the biological functions of HDAC10 for the future development of specific HDAC10 inhibitors. In this review, we analyzed the biological functions, mechanisms and inhibitors of HDAC10, which makes HDAC10 an appealing therapeutic target.

20.
Trends Cancer ; 2021 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33865798

RESUMO

Biguanides are a class of antidiabetic drugs that includes phenformin and metformin; however, the former was withdrawn from approval in many countries due to its toxicity. Findings from retrospective epidemiological studies in diabetic populations and preclinical laboratory models have demonstrated that biguanides possess antitumor activities that suggest their repurposing for cancer prevention and treatment. However, a better understanding of how these biguanides behave as antitumor agents is needed to guide their improved applications in cancer therapy, spurring increased interest in their pharmacology. Here, we present evidence for proposed mechanisms of action related to their antitumor activity, including their effects on central carbon metabolism in cancer cells and immune-modulating activity, and then review progress on biguanide repurposing in cancer therapeutics and the possible re-evaluation of phenformin as a cancer therapeutic agent.

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