Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 133
Filtrar
1.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2131: 289-297, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32162262

RESUMO

Accurate prediction of discontinuous antigenic epitopes is important for immunologic research and medical applications, but it is not an easy problem. Currently, there are only a few prediction servers available, though discontinuous epitopes constitute the majority of all B-cell antigenic epitopes. In this chapter, we describe two online servers, EPCES and EPSVR, for discontinuous epitope prediction. All methods were benchmarked by a curated independent test set, in which all antigens had no complex structures with the antibody, and their epitopes were identified by various biochemical experiments. The servers and all datasets are available at http://sysbio.unl.edu/EPCES/ and http://sysbio.unl.edu/EPSVR/ .

2.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2131: 299-307, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32162263

RESUMO

Identifying protein antigenic epitopes recognizable by antibodies is the key step for new immuno-diagnostic reagent discovery and vaccine design. To facilitate this process and improve its efficiency, computational methods were developed to predict antigenic epitopes. For the linear B-cell epitope prediction, many methods were developed, including BepiPred, ABCPred, AAP, BCPred, BayesB, BEOracle/BROracle, BEST, and SVMTriP. Among these methods, SVMTriP, a frontrunner, utilized Support Vector Machine by combining the tri-peptide similarity and Propensity scores. Applied on non-redundant B-cell linear epitopes extracted from IEDB, SVMTriP achieved a sensitivity of 80.1% and a precision of 55.2% with a five-fold cross-validation. The AUC value was 0.702. The combination of similarity and propensity of tri-peptide subsequences can improve the prediction performance for linear B-cell epitopes. A webserver based on this method was constructed for public use. The server and all datasets used in the corresponding study are available at http://sysbio.unl.edu/SVMTriP . This chapter describes the webserver of SVMTriP.

3.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; : 1-6, 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32186894

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical manifestations and CT features of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pneumonia in 15 pregnant women and to provide some initial evidence that can be used for guiding treatment of pregnant women with COVID-19 pneumonia. MATERIALS AND METHODS. We reviewed the clinical data and CT examinations of 15 consecutive pregnant women with COVID-19 pneumonia in our hospital from January 20, 2020, to February 10, 2020. A semiquantitative CT scoring system was used to estimate pulmonary involvement and the time course of changes on chest CT. Symptoms and laboratory results were analyzed, treatment experiences were summarized, and clinical outcomes were tracked. RESULTS. Eleven patients had successful delivery (10 cesarean deliveries and one vaginal delivery) during the study period, and four patients were still pregnant (three in the second trimester and one in the third trimester) at the end of the study period. No cases of neonatal asphyxia, neonatal death, stillbirth, or abortion were reported. The most common early finding on chest CT was ground-glass opacity (GGO). With disease progression, crazy paving pattern and consolidations were seen on CT. The abnormalities showed absorptive changes at the end of the study period for all patients. The most common onset symptoms of COVID-19 pneumonia in pregnant women were fever (13/15 patients) and cough (9/15 patients). The most common abnormal laboratory finding was lymphocytopenia (12/15 patients). CT images obtained before and after delivery showed no signs of pneumonia aggravation after delivery. The four patients who were still pregnant at the end of the study period were not treated with antiviral drugs but had achieved good recovery. CONCLUSION. Pregnancy and childbirth did not aggravate the course of symptoms or CT features of COVID-19 pneumonia. All the cases of COVID-19 pneumonia in the pregnant women in our study were the mild type. All the women in this study-some of whom did not receive antiviral drugs-achieved good recovery from COVID-19 pneumonia.

4.
J Comput Assist Tomogr ; 44(2): 269-274, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32195807

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To prospectively compare the performance of model-based and model-free dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) pharmacokinetic parameters in monitoring breast cancers' early response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT). METHODS: Sixty patients, with 61 pathology-proven breast cancers, were examined using DCE magnetic resonance imaging before, after the first cycle, and after full cycles of NACT. Both model-based (Ktrans and others) and model-free parameters, mainly time-intensity curve (TIC), were measured. According to Miller-Payne grading, patients were divided into response and nonresponse group. Mann-Whitney U test, Fisher exact test, multivariate logistic regression, and receiver operating characteristic curve were used in analysis. RESULTS: After the first cycle, among all the parameters, Ktrans and TIC were strongly associated with tumors' early response. There was no significant difference between the areas under receiver operating characteristic curve of Ktrans and TIC (0.768, 0.852, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Model-based and model-free DCE parameters, especially Ktrans and TIC, have similar performance in predicting the efficacy of NACT for breast cancers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Meios de Contraste/farmacocinética , Aumento da Imagem/métodos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Terapia Neoadjuvante/métodos , Adulto , Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Radiat Oncol ; 15(1): 47, 2020 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32103762

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the consequences of residual setup error on target dose distribution using various image registration strategies for breast cancer treated with intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Among 11 post-lumpectomy patients who received IMPT, 44 dose distributions were computed. For each patient, the original plan (Plan-O) and three verification plans were calculated using different alignments: bony anatomy (VPlan-B), breast tissue (VPlan-T), and skin (VPlan-S). The target coverage were evaluated for each alignment technique. Additionally, 2 subvolumes-BreastNearSkin (1-cm rim of anterior CTV) and BreastNearCW (1-cm rim of posterior CTV)-were created to help localize CTV underdosing. Furthermore, we divided the setup error into the posture error and breast error. Patients with a large posture error and those with good posture setup but a large breast error were identified to evaluate the effect of posture error and breast error. RESULTS: For Plan-O, VPlan-B, VPlan-T, and VPlan-S, respectively, the median (interquartile range) breast CTV D95 was 95.7%(94.7-96.3%), 95.1% (93.9-95.7%), 95.2% (94.8-95.6%), and 95.2% (94.9-95.7%); BreastNearCW D95 was 96.9% (95.6-97.3%), 94.8% (93.5-97.0%), 95.6% (94.8-97.0%), 95.6% (94.8-97.1%); and BreastNearSkin D95 was 94.1% (92.7-94.4%), 93.6% (92.2-94.5%), 93.5% (92.4-94.5%), and 94.4% (92.2-94.5%) of the prescription dose. 4/11 patients had ≥1% decrease in breast CTV D95, 1 of whom developed breast edema while the other 3 all had a > 2o posture error. The CTV D95 variation was within 1% for the patients with good posture setup but >2o breast error. CONCLUSION: Acceptable target coverage was achieved with all three alignment strategies. Breast tissue and skin alignment maintained the breast target coverage marginally better than bony alignment, with which the posterior CTV along the chest wall is the predominant area affected by under-dosing. For target dose distribution, posture error appears more influential than breast error.

6.
Radiat Oncol ; 15(1): 33, 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32054487

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The development of radiation pneumonitis (RP) after Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) is known to be associated with many different factors, although historical analyses of RP have commonly utilized heterogeneous fractionation schemes and methods of reporting. This study aims to correlate dosimetric values and their association with the development of Symptomatic RP according to recent reporting standards as recommended by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine. METHODS: We performed a single-institution retrospective review for patients who received SBRT to the lung from 2010 to 2017. Inclusion criteria required near-homogeneous tumoricidal (α/ß = 10 Gy) biological effective dose (BED10) of 100-105 Gy (e.g., 50/5, 48/4, 60/8), one or two synchronously treated lesions, and at least 6 months of follow up or documented evidence of pneumonitis. Symptomatic RP was determined clinically by treating radiation oncologists, requiring radiographic evidence and the administration of steroids. Dosimetric parameters and patient factors were recorded. Lung volumes subtracted gross tumor volume(s). Wilcoxon Rank Sums tests were used for nonparametric comparison of dosimetric data between patients with and without RP; p-values were Bonferroni adjusted when applicable. Logistic regressions were conducted to predict probabilities of symptomatic RP using univariable models for each radiation dosimetric parameter. RESULTS: The final cohort included 103 treated lesions in 93 patients, eight of whom developed symptomatic RP (n = 8; 8.6%). The use of total mean lung dose (MLD) > 6 Gy alone captured five of the eight patients who developed symptomatic RP, while V20 > 10% captured two patients, both of whom demonstrated a MLD > 6 Gy. The remaining three patients who developed symptomatic RP without exceeding either metric were noted to have imaging evidence of moderate interstitial lung disease, inflammation of the lungs from recent concurrent chemoradiation therapy to the contralateral lung, or unique peri-tumoral inflammatory appearance at baseline before treatment. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the largest dosimetric analysis of symptomatic RP in the literature, of which we are aware, that utilizes near-homogenous tumoricidal BED fractionation schemes. Mean lung dose and V20 are the most consistently reported of the various dosimetric parameters associated with symptomatic RP. MLD should be considered alongside V20 in the treatment planning process. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Retrospectively registered on IRB 398-17-EP.

7.
BMC Med Imaging ; 20(1): 14, 2020 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32041549

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Our study aims to reveal whether the low b-values distribution, high b-values upper limit, and the number of excitation (NEX) influence the accuracy of the intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) parameter derived from multi-b-value diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the brain. METHODS: This prospective study was approved by the local Ethics Committee and informed consent was obtained from each participant. The five consecutive multi-b DWI with different b-value protocols (0-3500 s/mm2) were performed in 22 male healthy volunteers on a 3.0-T MRI system. The IVIM parameters from normal white matter (WM) and gray matter (GM) including slow diffusion coefficient (D), fast perfusion coefficient (D*) and perfusion fraction (f) were compared for differences among defined groups with different IVIM protocols by one-way ANOVA. RESULTS: The D* and f value of WM or GM in groups with less low b-values distribution (less than or equal to 5 b-values) were significantly lower than ones in any other group with more low b-values distribution (all P <  0.05), but no significant differences among groups with more low b-values distribution (P > 0.05). In addition, no significant differences in the D, D* and f value of WM or GM were found between group with one and more NEX of low b-values distribution (all P > 0.05). IVIM parameters in normal WM and GM strongly depended on the choice of the high b-value upper limit. CONCLUSIONS: Metrics of IVIM parameters can be affected by low and high b value distribution. Eight low b-values distribution with high b-value upper limit of 800-1000 s/mm2 may be the relatively proper set when performing brain IVIM studies.

8.
Radiology ; : 200370, 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053470

RESUMO

Background Chest CT is used to assess the severity of lung involvement in COVID-19 pneumonia. Purpose To determine the change in chest CT findings associated with COVID-19 pneumonia from initial diagnosis until patient recovery. Materials and Methods This retrospective review included patients with RT-PCR confirmed COVID-19 infection presenting between 12 January 2020 to 6 February 2020. Patients with severe respiratory distress and/ or oxygen requirement at any time during the disease course were excluded. Repeat Chest CT was obtained at approximately 4 day intervals. The total CT score was the sum of lung involvement (5 lobes, score 1-5 for each lobe, range, 0 none, 25 maximum) was determined. Results Twenty one patients (6 males and 15 females, age 25-63 years) with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia were evaluated. These patients under went a total of 82 pulmonary CT scans with a mean interval of 4±1 days (range: 1-8 days). All patients were discharged after a mean hospitalized period of 17±4 days (range: 11-26 days). Maximum lung involved peaked at approximately 10 days (with the calculated total CT score of 6) from the onset of initial symptoms (R2=0.25), p<0.001). Based on quartiles of patients from day 0 to day 26 involvement, 4 stages of lung CT were defined: Stage 1 (0-4 days): ground glass opacities (GGO) in 18/24 (75%) patients with the total CT score of 2±2; (2)Stage-2 (5-8d days): increased crazy-paving pattern 9/17 patients (53%) with a increase in total CT score (6±4, p=0.002); (3) Stage-3 (9-13days): consolidation 19/21 (91%) patients with the peak of total CT score (7±4); (4) Stage-4 (≥14 days): gradual resolution of consolidation 15/20 (75%) patients with a decreased total CT score (6±4) without crazy-paving pattern. Conclusion In patients recovering from COVID-19 pneumonia (without severe respiratory distress during the disease course), lung abnormalities on chest CT showed greatest severity approximately 10 days after initial onset of symptoms.

9.
World Neurosurg ; 136: e487-e495, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954885

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hyperglycemia is common in patients with ischemic stroke (IS) and has been proven to be associated with worse clinical outcomes. However, it is controversial whether intensive glucose control (IGC) is superior to standard glucose control (SGC). Therefore, we carried out this meta-analysis based on randomized controlled trials (RCTs). METHODS: We systematically searched databases for RCTs that evaluated the efficacy of IGC versus SGC in patients with IS. The retrieval time was limited from the establishment of the database to October 2019. The retrieval databases included PubMed, Medline, Embase, OVID, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and a Chinese literature database. Two researchers independently screened and evaluated the quality of literature. We used Stata 11.0 software for data analysis. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to compare the results. RESULTS: Finally, 7 RCTs including 1691 participants were included in this study. Among the patients, 857 patients were in the IGC group and 834 were in the SGC group. Our results show that IGC significantly increased the risk of hypoglycemia compared with SGC (OR, 4.76; 95% CI, 1.17-19.45). No significant differences were observed in modified Rankin scale score ≤2 (OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.75-1.25), National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score ≤2 (OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 0.54-4.06), and death (OR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.53-1.02) between the 2 groups within 3 months. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest there is no evidence that IGC is superior to SGC in patients with IS, but IGC increases the risk of hypoglycemia.

10.
J Nat Med ; 74(2): 331-340, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31897975

RESUMO

Morus genus plants are mainly distributed in the temperate to tropical areas over the world and include 17 species and two subspecies. Due to their excellent pharmacological activity, security in food additives and high value in the national economy, Morus genus plants have drawn more and more attention in recent years. In the light of the references published over the last few decades, flavonoids, benzofurans, stilbenes, and Diels-Alder adducts have been reported to be the main bioactive constituents of Morus genus plants. This review summarizes the compounds with excellent bioactivities isolated from Morus genus plants as well as their structure-activity relationships (SARs), which might be useful for the further research and development of Morus genus plants. The aromatic heterocycles with excellent bioactivities isolated from Morus genus plants as well as their structure-activity relationships (SARs) were summarized.

11.
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol ; 318(1): G162-G173, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604033

RESUMO

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) exploits multiple strategies to evade host immune surveillance. Programmed cell death 1 (PD-1)/programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) signaling plays a critical role in regulating T cell homeostasis. However, it remains largely unknown as to how HBV infection elevates PD-L1 expression in hepatocytes. A mouse model of HBV infection was established by hydrodynamic injection with a vector containing 1.3-fold overlength HBV genome (pHBV1.3) via the tail vein. Coculture experiments with HBV-expressing hepatoma cells and Jurkat T cells were established in vitro. We observed significant decrease in the expression of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) and increase in ß-catenin/PD-L1 expression in liver tissues from patients with chronic hepatitis B and mice subjected to pHBV1.3 hydrodynamic injection. Mechanistically, decrease in PTEN enhanced ß-catenin/c-Myc signaling and PD-L1 expression in HBV-expressing hepatoma cells, which in turn augmented PD-1 expression, lowered IL-2 secretion, and induced T cell apoptosis. However, ß-catenin disruption inhibited PTEN-mediated PD-L1 expression, which was accompanied by decreased PD-1 expression, and increased IL-2 production in T cells. Luciferase reporter assays revealed that c-Myc stimulated transcriptional activity of PD-L1. In addition, HBV X protein (HBx) and HBV polymerase (HBp) contributed to PTEN downregulation and ß-catenin/PD-L1 upregulation. Strikingly, PTEN overexpression in hepatocytes inhibited ß-catenin/PD-L1 signaling and promoted HBV clearance in vivo. Our findings suggest that HBV-triggered PTEN/ß-catenin/c-Myc signaling via HBx and HBp enhances PD-L1 expression, leading to inhibition of T cell response, and promotes HBV immune evasion.NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study demonstrates that during HBV infection, HBV can increase PD-L1 expression via PTEN/ß-catenin/c-Myc signaling pathway, which in turn inhibits T cell response and ultimately promotes HBV immune evasion. Targeting this signaling pathway is a potential strategy for immunotherapy of chronic hepatitis B.

12.
Photosynth Res ; 143(2): 221-231, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317382

RESUMO

Visible light-driven redox reactions have been widely adopted for the production of chemicals to combat energy shortage and global warming. Key elements of such a reaction system include a photosensitizer, a catalyst, and an electron source. In this review, we introduce the small molecules and nanoparticles that are widely used as photosensitizers, as well as the development of a photosensitizer protein that is based on the expansion of genetic code, with a fluorescent protein that is used as a scaffold. Visible light-driven enzymes using proteins as photosensitizers or as catalysts such as carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH), formic acid dehydrogenase (FDH), hydrogenase, nitrogenase, cytochrome P450 BM3, and alkane synthase are then described. CODH can be coupled with photosensitizing nanoparticles to reduce CO2 to CO, and hydrogenase can produce H2 using high-energy electrons produced from dye-sensitized nanoparticles. When water-soluble zinc porphyrin is coupled with FDH, visible light drives CO2 to produce formic acid. Nitrogenase can reduce N2 to NH3 using CdS nanoparticle as photosensitizer. Cytochrome P450 BM3 can be enhanced by a visible light-driven redox system and thus by hydroxylate lauric acid or fatty acids. CvFAP, an alkane synthase, can decarboxylate palmitic acid to pentadecane under blue light excitation. Moreover, we describe a genetically encoded photosensitive protein, which mimics the function of natural photosynthesis and catalyzes the conversion of CO2 to CO when covalently attached with a Ni-terpyridine complex.

13.
Pract Radiat Oncol ; 10(1): 59-69, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31627030

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To study the feasibility and the effectiveness of a novel implementation of robust optimization on 2 sets of computed tomography (CT) data simultaneously for skin flashing in intensity modulated radiation therapy for breast cancer. METHOD AND MATERIALS: Five patients who received treatment to the breast and regional lymphatics were selected for this study. For each patient, 3 plans were generated using 3 different skin-flashing methods, including (1) a manual flash plan with optimization on the nominal planning target volume (PTV) not extending beyond the skin that required manually postplanning the opening of the multi-leaf collimator and jaw to obtain flash; (2) an expanded PTV plan with optimization on an expanded PTV that included the target in the air beyond the skin; and (3) a robust-optimized (RO) plan using robust optimization that simultaneously optimizes on the nominal CT data set and a simulated geometry error CT data set. The feasibility and the effectiveness of the robust optimization approach was investigated by comparing it with the 2 other methods. The robustness of the plan against target position variations was studied by simulating 0-, 5-, 10-, and 15-mm geometry errors. RESULTS: The RO plans were the only ones able to meet acceptable criteria for all patients in both the nominal and simulated geometry error scenarios. The expanded PTV plans developed major deviation on the maximum dose to the PTV for 1 patient. For the manual flash plans, every patient developed major deviation either on 95% of the dose to the PTV or the maximum dose to the PTV in the simulated geometry error scenarios. The RO plan demonstrated the best robustness against the target position variation among the 3 methods of skin flashing. The doses to the lung and heart were comparable for all 3 planning techniques. CONCLUSION: Using robust optimization for skin flash in breast intensity modulated radiation therapy planning is feasible. Further investigation is warranted to confirm the clinical effectiveness of this novel approach.

16.
Fitoterapia ; 139: 104358, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629047

RESUMO

Nine new isoprenoids, named as dictamtrinor-guaianols A (1), B (2), C (3), D (4), and E (5), dictamnorsesquiterpenol A (6), dictamnorsesquiterpenosides B (7) and C (8), as well as dictamtriterpenol A (9), along with eight known compounds (10-17) were obtained from 70% EtOH extract of Cortex Dictamni. Their structures were ascertained based on the extensive spectroscopic methods and ECD data analysis. Moreover, LC-MS analysis result suggested compounds 2 and 3 were natural products. Furthermore, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage model were used to evaluate nitric oxide production inhibitory activities of them, and compounds 2, 3, 5, 6, 8-11, as well as 15-17 displayed significant activities at 40 µM.


Assuntos
Dictamnus/química , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Terpenos/farmacologia , Animais , China , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Células RAW 264.7 , Sesquiterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Terpenos/isolamento & purificação
17.
Cell Rep ; 29(2): 511-521.e2, 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597107

RESUMO

Several phage-tail-like nanomachines were shown to play an important role in the interactions between bacteria and their eukaryotic hosts. These apparatuses appear to represent a new injection paradigm. Here, with three verified extracellular contractile injection systems (eCISs), a protein profile and genomic context-based iterative approach was applied to identify 631 eCIS-like loci from the 11,699 publicly available complete bacterial genomes. The eCIS superfamily, which is phylogenetically diverse and sub-divided into six families, is distributed among Gram-negative and -positive bacteria in addition to archaea. Our results show that very few bacteria are seen to possess intact operons of both eCIS and type VI secretion systems (T6SSs). An open access online database of all detected eCIS-like loci is presented to facilitate future studies. The presence of this bacterial injection machine in a multitude of organisms suggests that it may play an important ecological role in the life cycles of many bacteria.

18.
Technol Cancer Res Treat ; 18: 1533033819873922, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495281

RESUMO

Treatment planning is an essential step of the radiotherapy workflow. It has become more sophisticated over the past couple of decades with the help of computer science, enabling planners to design highly complex radiotherapy plans to minimize the normal tissue damage while persevering sufficient tumor control. As a result, treatment planning has become more labor intensive, requiring hours or even days of planner effort to optimize an individual patient case in a trial-and-error fashion. More recently, artificial intelligence has been utilized to automate and improve various aspects of medical science. For radiotherapy treatment planning, many algorithms have been developed to better support planners. These algorithms focus on automating the planning process and/or optimizing dosimetric trade-offs, and they have already made great impact on improving treatment planning efficiency and plan quality consistency. In this review, the smart planning tools in current clinical use are summarized in 3 main categories: automated rule implementation and reasoning, modeling of prior knowledge in clinical practice, and multicriteria optimization. Novel artificial intelligence-based treatment planning applications, such as deep learning-based algorithms and emerging research directions, are also reviewed. Finally, the challenges of artificial intelligence-based treatment planning are discussed for future works.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Neoplasias/radioterapia , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador , Algoritmos , Humanos , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/normas , Fluxo de Trabalho
19.
Molecules ; 24(15)2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370202

RESUMO

Pluchea indica Less. is a medicine and food dual-use plant, which belongs to the Pluchea genus, Asteraceae family. Its main constituents are quinic acids, flavonoids, thiophenes, phenolic acids, as well as sesquiterpenes. In order to provide a comprehensive chemical profiling of P. indica, an orthogonal chromatography combining reverse-phase chromatography BEHC18 column with a normal-phase chromatography silica column as the separation system and a ESI-Q-Orbitrap MS as the detector in both positive and negative ion modes were used. According to the retention time (tR) and the exact mass-to-charge ratio (m/z), 67 compounds were unambiguously identified by comparing to the standard references. Moreover, 47 compounds were tentatively speculated on the basis of the rules of MS/MS fragmentation pattern and chromatographic elution order generalized from the above-mentioned reference standards. Among them, 10 of them were potentially novel.


Assuntos
Asteraceae/química , Flavonoides/química , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Cromatografia Líquida , Etanol/química , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Sílica Gel/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
20.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 133(13): 1523-1536, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270147

RESUMO

Cigarette smoke (CS) is the major cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). CS heightens inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis. Ergosterol is the main bioactive ingredient in Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis), a traditional medicinal herb for various diseases. The objective of this work was to investigate the effects of ergosterol on anti-inflammatory and antioxidative stress as well as anti-apoptosis in a cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced COPD model both in vitro and in vivo Our results demonstrate that CSE induced inflammatory and oxidative stress and apoptosis with the involvement of the Bcl-2 family proteins via the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB)/p65 pathway in both 16HBE cells and Balb/c mice. CSE induced epithelial cell death and increased the expression of nitric oxide (NO), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), malondialdehyde (MAD) and the apoptosis-related proteins cleaved caspase 3/7/9 and cleaved-poly-(ADP)-ribose polymerase (PARP) both in vitro and in vivo, whereas decreased the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). Treatment of 16HBE cells and Balb/c mice with ergosterol inhibited CSE-induced inflammatory and oxidative stress and apoptosis by inhibiting the activation of NF-κB/p65. Ergosterol suppressed apoptosis by inhibiting the expression of the apoptosis-related proteins both in vitro and in vivo Moreover, the usage of QNZ (an inhibitor of NF-κB) also partly demonstrated that NF-κB/p65 pathway was involved in the ergosterol protective progress. These results show that ergosterol suppressed COPD inflammatory and oxidative stress and apoptosis through the NF-κB/p65 pathway, suggesting that ergosterol may be partially responsible for the therapeutic effects of cultured C. sinensis on COPD patients.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA