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2.
J Surg Res ; 284: 245-250, 2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36603517

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The effects of smoking and alcohol use on the risk of thyroid cancer remain unclear. We sought to investigate the association between these social habits, molecular testing results, and the risk of thyroid cancer. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients with indeterminate thyroid nodules (Bethesda III and IV) who underwent molecular testing. The frequency of abnormal molecular testing results was compared among patients with varying smoking and alcohol consumption habits. RESULTS: Of 460 patients, median age was 51.8 y, 78.3% were female, 60.7% were White, and 79.8% presented with Bethesda III nodules. The rate of malignancy was 42.6% overall; 73.4% of molecular testing was performed with Afirma, 20.1% with ThyroSeq, and 5.0% with ThyGeNEXT. For social habits, 72.2% never smoked and 40.9% never drank alcohol. Never/rare drinkers were less likely to have abnormal results compared to routine drinkers when considering all types of molecular testing together (83.2% versus 91.3%, P = 0.046), as were those who underwent ThyroSeq molecular testing (71.8% versus 94.4%, P = 0.045). Multivariable analysis revealed that being a routine drinker (adjusted OR 2.19, 95% CI 1.08-4.88), having a larger lesion (adjusted OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.54-0.77), being tested by ThyroSeq (adjusted OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.22-0.76), and other commercial panels (adjusted OR 0.12, 95% CI 0.02-0.64) were independent predictors of abnormal molecular testing results. CONCLUSIONS: Our patients' social habits may be associated with the molecular testing results of their indeterminate thyroid nodules but not with their surgical pathology results.

3.
Adv Med Sci ; 68(1): 46-53, 2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36610261

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to explore the effect and mechanism of pirfenidone (PFD) combined with 2-methoxyestradiol (2-ME2) perfusion through portal vein on hepatic artery hypoxia-induced hepatic fibrosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 5 groups (n â€‹= â€‹3/group): control group, hepatic artery ligation (HAL) group, HAL â€‹+ â€‹PFD (portal vein perfusion of PFD) group, HAL+2-ME2 (portal vein perfusion of 2-ME2) group and HAL â€‹+ â€‹PFD+2-ME2 group depending on whether they received HAL and/or portal vein perfusion (PFD and/or 2-ME2). Livers were harvested for pathology, western blotting (WB), and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). RESULTS: Sirius red staining showed that portal vein perfusion of drugs resulted in degradation of liver fibrosis. Immunohistochemistry showed decreased hypoxia-inducible factor-1 α (HIF-1α) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) after portal intravenous drugs infusion compared with HAL group (P â€‹< â€‹0.05). WB analysis showed increased Smad7 in HAL â€‹+ â€‹PFD group compared with HAL group (P â€‹< â€‹0.05). qRT-PCR analysis showed decreased matrix metallo-proteinase 2 (MMP2), transforming growth factor ß1 (TGF-ß1), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and Collagen I mRNA in HAL â€‹+ â€‹PFD group except for tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) compared with HAL group (P â€‹< â€‹0.05). Compared with HAL â€‹+ â€‹PFD group, the addition of 2-ME2 did not lead to better results in qRT-PCR analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The portal vein perfusion of PFD significantly reduced the hepatic artery hypoxia-induced fibrosis degree in treated rats by down-regulating the expression of HIF-1α, α-SMA, MMP2, TGF-ß1, MCP-1, and Collagen I, as well as up-regulating the TIMP-1 expression and Smad7 protein level. Combined 2-ME2 infusion was not better than PFD alone.

4.
Anal Chem ; 95(2): 695-702, 2023 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36598765

RESUMO

As the usage of long-chain perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) may be gradually restricted, short-chain and even ultra-short-chain PFASs have been widely produced and used, which has put forward new requirements for the simultaneous analysis of the above substances. Using solid phase extraction two-fraction elution and ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS), an experimental method was established for the simultaneous analysis of ultrashort-chain, short-chain, and long-chain PFASs and the precursor perfluorohexanesulfonamide (FHxSA) in low-concentration water, such as tap water and bottled water. By optimizing the volume of methanol in the first-fraction elution, the concentration of ammonia in the second-fraction elution, and the concentration of ammonium acetate in the mobile phase, the high recovery and low detection limit (0.01-3 ng/L) were obtained. In addition, this method was used to measure nine tap water samples and six bottled water samples for validation, and the results showed that the concentration of PFASs in bottled water was lower than that in tap water. This study first reported the trifluoroacetic acid concentration in bottled water (6.61 ± 9.60 ng/L), which was lower than that in tap water (1712 ± 174 ng/L). The main substances in tap water and bottled water are both ultrashort-chain PFASs (C2-C3), accounting for more than 50%. There are few reports on the simultaneous analysis of ultrashort-chain, short-chain, and long-chain PFASs (C2-C18) and the precursor FHxSA in low-concentration water samples, and the new method can be further developed for different environmental media.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Fluorcarbonetos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Água Potável/análise , Cromatografia Líquida , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos
5.
Adv Mater ; : e2209855, 2023 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36651132

RESUMO

Electroreduction of nitrate into ammonia (NRA) provides a sustainable route to convert the widespread nitrate pollutants into high-value-added products under ambient conditions, which unfortunately suffers from unsatisfactory selectivity due to the competitive hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Previous strategies of modifying the metal sites of catalysts often met a dilemma for simultaneously promoting activity and selectivity toward NRA. Here, a general strategy is reported to enable an efficient and selective NRA process through coordination modulation of single-atom catalysts to tailor the local proton concentration at the catalyst surface. By contrast, two analogous Ni-single-atom enriched conjugated coordination polymers (NiO4 -CCP and NiN4 -CCP) with different coordination motifs are investigated for the proof-of-concept study. The NiO4 -CCP catalyst exhibits an ammonia yield rate as high as 1.83 mmol h-1 mg-1 with a Faradaic efficiency of 94.7% under a current density of 125 mA cm-2 , outperforming the NiN4 -CCP catalyst. These experimental and theoretical studies both suggest that the strategy of coordination modulation can not only accelerate the NRA by adjusting the adsorption energies of NRA intermediates on the metal sites but also inhibit the HER through regulating the proton migration with contributions from the metal-hydrated cations adsorbed at the catalyst surface, thus achieving simultaneous enhancement of NRA selectivity and activity.

6.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 230: 123165, 2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36623623

RESUMO

A long-standing problem in evolutionary biology is why some populations differentiate into many species while the majority do not. Angiosperms is an excellent group for investigating this problem because their diversity is unevenly distributed in space and phylogeny. Plant hormone participates in growth, development and defense. However, jasmonic acid (JA) was the only hormone response to bites. We first searched jasmonate ZIM-domain (JAZ), AUXIN/INDOLE ACETIC ACID (IAA / aux), PYR/PYL/RCAR (PYL), DELLA, and SUPPRESSOR OF MAX2 1-like (SMAX) in 272 plant species. We found the gene number change trends were consistent with origination rates and species numbers of angiosperms. So, 26 representative species were selected as an example for further analysis. The results showed JAZ had experienced two lineage-specific gene expansion events in angiosperms, which coincided with increases in mammalian body size and dental diversity. The proliferation of large herbivores as a results of mammalian prosperity after dinosaur extinction may be related to angiosperm evolution and bursting. The proliferation of large herbivores as the result of mammalian prosperity after the extinction of the dinosaurs was related to angiosperm evolution and bursting. Overall, our study uncovered a previously unknown co-evolution mechanism in terrestrial plants exposed to extreme environmental conditions.

8.
Nat Biotechnol ; 2023 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36646931

RESUMO

Synapses are crucial structures that mediate signal transmission between neurons in complex neural circuits and display considerable morphological and electrophysiological heterogeneity. So far we still lack a high-throughput method to profile the molecular heterogeneity among individual synapses. In the present study, we develop a droplet-based single-cell (sc) total-RNA-sequencing platform, called Multiple-Annealing-and-Tailing-based Quantitative scRNA-seq in Droplets, for transcriptome profiling of individual neurites, primarily composed of synaptosomes. In the synaptosome transcriptome, or 'synaptome', profiling of both mouse and human brain samples, we detect subclusters among synaptosomes that are associated with neuronal subtypes and characterize the landscape of transcript splicing that occurs within synapses. We extend synaptome profiling to synaptopathy in an Alzheimer's disease (AD) mouse model and discover AD-associated synaptic gene expression changes that cannot be detected by single-nucleus transcriptome profiling. Overall, our results show that this platform provides a high-throughput, single-synaptosome transcriptome profiling tool that will facilitate future discoveries in neuroscience.

9.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0276423, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36662841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a common disease marked by high blood sugars. An earlier clinical trial in type 1 diabetic subjects (T1Ds) found that repeat BCG vaccinations succeeded in lowering HbA1c values over a multi-year course. Here we seek to determine whether BCG therapy for bladder cancer may improve blood sugar levels in patients with comorbid T1D and type 2 diabetes (T2D). We also investigate whether BCG exposure may reduce onset of T1D and T2D by examining country-by-country impact of BCG childhood vaccination policies in relation to disease incidence. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We first analyzed three large US patient datasets (Optum Labs data [N = 45 million], Massachusetts General Brigham [N = 6.5 million], and Quest Diagnostics [N = 263 million adults]), by sorting out subjects with documented T1D (N = 19) or T2D (N = 106) undergoing BCG therapy for bladder cancer, and then by retrospectively assessing BCG's subsequent year-by-year impact on blood sugar trends. Additionally, we performed an ecological analysis of global data to assess the country-by-country associations between mandatory neonatal BCG vaccination programs and T1D and T2D incidence. Multi-dose BCG therapy in adults with comorbid diabetes and bladder cancer was associated with multi-year and stable lowering of HbA1c in T1Ds, but not in T2Ds. The lack of a similar benefit in T2D may be due to concurrent administration of the diabetes drug metformin, which inhibits BCG's beneficial effect on glycolysis pathways. Countries with mandatory neonatal BCG vaccination policies had a lower incidence of T1D in two international databases and a lower incidence of T2D in one of the databases. CONCLUSIONS: The epidemiological evidence analyzed here suggests that BCG may play a role in the prevention of T1D. It does not support prevention of T2D, most likely because of interference by metformin. Our ecological analysis of global data suggests a role for neonatal BCG in the prevention of T1D and, to a lesser extent, T2D. Randomized clinical trials are needed to confirm these findings.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Metformina , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária , Adulto , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/prevenção & controle , Vacina BCG/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Glicemia , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/prevenção & controle
10.
Int J Mol Med ; 51(2)2023 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36524378

RESUMO

Renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis (TIF) is a hallmark in the continuous progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD), in which excessive activation of the renin­angiotensin­-aldosterone system serves a crucial role. Currently, there are no targeted therapies for the progression of TIF. microRNA (miR)­26a may be an ideal anti­fibrosis candidate molecule; however, the effect of miR­26 on aldosterone (ALD)­induced TIF remains unclear. This study aimed to elucidate the role of miR­26a in ALD­induced TIF. In the present study, we hypothesized that delivery of miR­26a by exosomes could attenuate ALD­induced TIF. miR­26a expression was downregulated in the kidney of ALD­induced mice compared with the mice in the sham group. Exosome­encapsulated miR­26a (Exo­miR­26a) was manufactured and injected into ALD­treated mice through the tail vein. In vivo experiments showed that Exo­miR­26a alleviated the downregulated miR­26a expression in the kidney, tubular injury and ALD­induced TIF, which was determined using Masson's trichrome staining and assessment of lipocalin 2, α­smooth muscle actin, collagen I and fibronectin expression. Moreover, in vitro experiments revealed that Exo­miR­26a inhibited epithelial­mesenchymal transition and extracellular matrix deposition in mouse tubular epithelial cells. Mechanistically, overexpressing miR­26a led to decreased expression levels of connective tissue growth factor by directly binding to its 3'­UTR and inhibiting the activation of SMAD3. These findings demonstrated that the exosomal delivery of miR­26a may alleviate ALD­induced TIF, which may provide new insights into the treatment of CKD.


Assuntos
Exossomos , MicroRNAs , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Animais , Camundongos , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Aldosterona/metabolismo , Aldosterona/farmacologia , Fator de Crescimento do Tecido Conjuntivo/genética , Fator de Crescimento do Tecido Conjuntivo/metabolismo , Exossomos/genética , Exossomos/metabolismo , Fibrose , Rim/patologia , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/farmacologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/metabolismo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/patologia , Transdução de Sinais , Proteína Smad3/genética , Proteína Smad3/metabolismo
11.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 195: 298-308, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36586453

RESUMO

The impact of anesthetic management on the prognosis of patients with cancer undergoing surgery is controversial. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) play critical roles during cancer metastasis and can be released in large quantities during surgery. The ferroptosis of CTCs is related to metastasis. Whether anesthetics affect distant metastasis by increasing the survival of CTCs is unknown. To test this hypothesis, mice were inoculated with cancer cells via tail vein injection before treatment with propofol or sevoflurane for 2 h. After 2 weeks, more metastases were observed in the propofol group compared with the sevoflurane and vehicle groups. Then, we used the ferroptosis inhibitor ferrostatin-1 to explore the effect of ferroptosis on metastasis. Similar to propofol, pretreatment with ferrostatin-1 significantly increased CTC survival in mouse lungs at 24 h and the tumor burden at 10 weeks post-inoculation. Moreover, propofol protected cancer cells from RSL3-induced ferroptosis in vitro, as evidenced by decreases in intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxide, and ferroptosis markers. Further studies showed that propofol treatment upregulated the expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its downstream target genes, including HO-1, NQO1, and SLC7A11. Finally, the targeted knockdown of Nrf2 abolished the anti-ferroptosis effect of propofol. Collectively, we demonstrated the risk of a specific type of anesthetic, propofol, in promoting cancer cell metastasis through Nrf2-mediated ferroptosis inhibition. These findings may guide the choice of anesthetic for surgical removal of tumors.


Assuntos
Anestésicos , Neoplasias , Propofol , Animais , Camundongos , Propofol/farmacologia , Regulação para Cima , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Sevoflurano
12.
Exp Ther Med ; 25(1): 26, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36561608

RESUMO

Transfer RNA-derived fragments (tRFs), a novel class of small non-coding RNA produced by the cleavage of pre- and mature tRNAs, are involved in various diseases. Renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis is a common final pathway in diabetic nephropathy (DN) in which hyperglycemia-induced tubular extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation serves a vital role. The present study aimed to detect and investigate the role of tRFs in the accumulation of tubular ECM. Differentially expressed tRFs were analysed with high-throughput sequencing in primary mouse tubular epithelial cells treated with high glucose (HG). The Gene Ontology (GO) was used to analyze the potential molecular functions of these differentially expressed tRFs, and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) were used to analyze the associated signaling pathways involved in these differentially expressed tRFs. tRF-1:30-Gln-CTG-4 was overexpressed using tRF-1:30-Gln-CTG-4 mimic, followed by HG treatment. A total of 554 distinct tRFs were detected and 64 differentially expressed tRFs (fold change >2; P<0.05) were identified in tubular epithelial cells following high glucose (HG) treatment, among which 27 were upregulated and 37 were downregulated. Ten selected tRFs with the greatest difference (fold change >2; P<0.05) were verified to be consistent with small RNA-sequencing data, of which tRF-1:30-Gln-CTG-4 showed the most pronounced difference in expression and was significantly decreased in response to HG. GO analysis indicated that the differentially expressed tRFs were associated with 'cellular process', 'biological regulation' and 'metabolic process'. An analysis of the KEGG database suggested that these differentially expressed tRFs were involved in 'autophagy' and signaling pathways for 'forkhead box O', 'the mammalian target of rapamycin' and 'mitogen-activated protein kinase'. Finally, the overexpression of tRF-1:30-Gln-CTG-4 ameliorated HG-induced ECM accumulation in tubular epithelial cells. Therefore, the present study demonstrated that there may be a significant association between tRFs and HG-induced ECM accumulation in tubular epithelial cells; these differentially expressed tRFs warrant further study to explore the pathogenesis of DN.

13.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 249: 114356, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36508799

RESUMO

Lead (Pb2+) pollution in the soil sub-ecosystem has been a continuously growing problem due to economic development and ever-increasing anthropogenic activities across the world. In this study, the photosynthetic performance and antioxidant capacity of Triticeae cereals (rye, wheat and triticale) were compared to assess the activities of antioxidants, the degree of oxidative damage, photochemical efficiency and the levels of photosynthetic proteins under Pb stress (0.5 mM, 1 mM and 2 mM Pb (NO3)2). Compared with triticale, Pb treatments imposed severe oxidative damage in rye and wheat. In addition, the highest activity of major antioxidant enzymes (SOD, POD, CAT, and GPX) was also found to be elevated. Triticale accumulated the highest Pb contents in roots. The concentration of mineral ions (Mg, Ca, and K) was also high in its leaves, compared with rye and wheat. Consistently, triticale showed higher photosynthetic activity under Pb stress. Immunoblotting of proteins revealed that rye and wheat have significantly lower levels of D1 (photosystem II subunit A, PsbA) and D2 (photosystem II subunit D, PsbD) proteins, while no obvious decrease was noticed in triticale. The amount of light-harvesting complex II b6 (Lhcb6; CP24) and light-harvesting complex II b5 (Lhcb5; CP26) was significantly increased in rye and wheat. However, the increase in PsbS (photosystem II subunit S) protein only occurred in wheat and triticale exposed to Pb treatment. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that triticale shows higher antioxidant capacity and photosynthetic efficiency than wheat and rye under Pb stress, suggesting that triticale has high tolerance to Pb and could be used as a heavy metal-tolerant plant.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Triticale , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo , Triticale/metabolismo , Secale/metabolismo , Chumbo/toxicidade , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II , Ecossistema , Grão Comestível/metabolismo
14.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 633: 703-711, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36481425

RESUMO

Photocatalytic nitrogen fixation opens new opportunities for sustainable and healthier futures, and developing effective and inexpensive photocatalysts is the key. We use the ligand 3,3',5,5'-azomellitic acid (H4abtc) to connect with Fe clusters and Zr clusters to form stable metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) Fe-abtc and Zr-abtc, both of which are responsive to visible lights for nitrogen fixation. It is worth noting that the presence of NN in the ligand makes it respond to visible lights. The tetracarboxyl group is connected to the metal cluster to form a stable structure. The field-only surface integral method verified that the ligands were successfully applied into the synthesized MOF particles, which expanded the photoresponse range and enhanced the photonic interactions of the synthesized photocatalysts compared with pure MOF particles. The best photocatalytic nitrogen fixation performance of Fe-abtc and Zr-abtc is 49.8 µmol·g(cat.)-1·h-1 and 35.7 µmol·g(cat.)-1·h-1, respectively, the apparent quantum efficiency (AQY) of the sample Fe-abtc is 0.56 %, and the reliability of the source of N element is proved by the isotope 15N2. This work provides a new idea for the design of cheap and effective MOFs for photocatalytic nitrogen fixation.


Assuntos
Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Luz Solar , Ligantes , Fixação de Nitrogênio , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
15.
Food Funct ; 14(1): 399-412, 2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36512065

RESUMO

In this study, we investigated the preventive effect of Lycium barbarum L. berry extract on age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and the main components responsible for its antioxidant activity. An AMD mouse model was developed by feeding 18-month-old mice with a 1% hydroquinone diet. Meanwhile, the model mice were treated with water extract (LBW) and alcohol extract (LBE) of L. barbarum berries respectively for 3 months. It was found that the retinal structural abnormalities were improved and the oxidation stress and inflammatory imbalance were both attenuated in model mice treated with the extracts of L. barbarum berries. According to the metabolomics analysis of the serum of model mice, LBW regulated the metabolism of unsaturated fatty acids and sphingolipids, while LBE extracts tended to regulate taurine metabolism. On sodium iodate induced oxidative injury of ARPE-19 cells, water extracts of L. barbarum berries eluted with 95% ethanol (LBW-95E) on AB-8 macroporous resin significantly improved the cell viability and attenuated oxidative stress by increasing the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glutathione (GSH) content, decreasing the reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, promoting the entry of nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2) into the nucleus and up-regulating the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression. Scopoletin, N-trans-feruloyltyramine and perlolyrine were identified as the main components of LBW-95E. These results demonstrated that L. barbarum berry extracts protected the retina of aging AMD model mice from degeneration and LBW-95E was the vital antioxidant activity fraction of LBW. These findings suggest that L. barbarum berry extracts might be an excellent natural source for the development of retinal protection-related drugs or dietary supplements.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Lycium , Camundongos , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Lycium/química , Frutas , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Retina , Estresse Oxidativo , Glutationa , Água/farmacologia
16.
Food Chem ; 408: 135220, 2023 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36535185

RESUMO

Microwave was employed to enhance the degradation of polymeric proanthocyanidins from black chokeberry using the nucleophilic technique of sulfite/catechin. Based on the degradation effect and kinetics, it was found that increasing the microwave time, microwave power, microwave temperature, sulfite concentration, and mass ratio of raw material to catechins was favourable for the degradation reaction. The degradation kinetics conformed to a random first-order degradation model. The antioxidant activity of the degraded products was analysed using DPPH and O2- assay, which suggested that the scavenging effect of the products was improved. FT-IR and 1H NMR analyses showed that the main functional groups were not destroyed. Using MALDI-TOF/MS to study the components of the degradation products, it was found that the molecular weight distribution became narrower, and the compositions were more single. Polyproanthocyanidins were reduced to oligomers. This study suggested that microwave-assisted nucleophilic techniques could produce oligomeric proanthocyanidins with remarkably improved functionalities.


Assuntos
Catequina , Proantocianidinas , Antioxidantes , Proantocianidinas/análise , Catequina/química , Micro-Ondas , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
17.
Am J Surg ; 223(4): 617-623, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600740

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have compared the features of thyroid cancer among races and ethnicities. We hypothesized that race and ethnicity may influence the frequency and features of thyroid malignancy in thyroid nodules. METHOD: This was a retrospective chart review of patients between 2013 and 2020 who underwent thyroidectomy. RESULTS: In the analysis of 2737 patients, thyroid cancer was less prevalent among Blacks (24.0% vs Whites 52.1%, Hispanics 58.7%, Asians 71.7%, and Others 57.9%, p < 0.001). Thyroid cancer in Blacks was less likely to have extrathyroidal extension (9.7% vs Whites 18.6%, Hispanics 25.8%, Asians 18.2%, and Others 17.8%, p = 0.01), overall nodal involvement (12.4% vs Whites 31.1%, Hispanics 37.5%, Asians 36.3%, and Others 30.1%, p < 0.01), and lateral neck metastasis (4.4% vs Whites 10.8%, Hispanics 6.3%, Asians 13.2%, and Others 9.6%, p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Race and ethnicity may play important roles in the risk of malignancy as well as in the extent of thyroid cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide , Nódulo da Glândula Tireoide , Etnicidade , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/cirurgia , Nódulo da Glândula Tireoide/cirurgia , Tireoidectomia
18.
Int J Neurosci ; : 1-7, 2022 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36458565

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cyanidin has a protective effect on the nervous system and has been reported to treat tumor effectively. However, its impact on glioma stem cells (GSC) is unknown. METHODS: Using seven GSC lines, the anti-tumor effect of cyanidin is tested. The effect of cyanidin on the cell viability in each cell line is evaluated. Wnt signaling pathway-related genes are checked after treatment of cyanidin. Cytoplasmic/nuclear ß-catenin protein levels post cyanidin treatment is detected. Protein levels of c-Myc after cyanidin treatment are determined. Twist1 and Snail1 protein levels after cyanidin treatment are checked as well. RESULTS: Cyanidin significantly reduces the cell viability of all GSCs, and exhibited the most substantial effect in GBM2 but no apparent effect in 293T cells. It can regulate the Wnt signaling pathway of all GSC lines. In the GBM2, GBM7, G166, and G179 cell lines, there is upregulation of WNT1 and MYC genes, while in the G144 and GliNS2 cell line, these two genes are down-regulated after cyanidin treatment. Cytoplasmic and nuclear protein levels of ß-catenin in all cell lines are down-regulated. Cyanidin treatment significantly decreases the protein level for c-Myc in the GBM2 cell line compared with untreated cells, not in G144 or GliNS2 cells. Furthermore, cyanidin strongly reduces the expression of Twist1 and Snail1 in GBM2, G179, and G144 cell lines, while the GliNS2 cells show an opposite change in the cytoplasm and no change in nuclear. CONCLUSION: Cyanidin exerts an anti-tumor effect in glioma stem cell lines, probably through the Wnt signaling pathway.

20.
Am J Surg ; 2022 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36464545

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We employed Machine Learning (ML) to evaluate potential additional clinical factors influencing replacement dosage requirements of levothyroxine. METHOD: This was a retrospective study of patients who underwent total or completion thyroidectomy with benign pathology. Patients who achieved an euthyroid state were included in three different ML models. RESULTS: Of the 487 patients included, mean age was 54.1 ± 14.1 years, 86.0% were females, 39.0% were White, 53.0% Black, 2.7% Hispanic, 1.4% Asian, and 3.9% Other. The Extreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost) model achieved the highest accuracy at 61.0% in predicting adequate dosage compared to 47.0% based on 1.6 mcg/kg/day (p < 0.05). The Poisson regression indicated non-Caucasian race (p < 0.05), routine alcohol use (estimate = 0.03, p = 0.02), and osteoarthritis (estimate = -0.10, p < 0.001) in addition to known factors such as age (estimate = -0.003, p < 0.001), sex (female, estimate = -0.06, p < 0.001), and weight (estimate = 0.01, p < 0.001) were associated with the dosing of levothyroxine. CONCLUSIONS: Along with weight, sex, age, and BMI, ML algorithms indicated that race, ethnicity, lifestyle and comorbidity factors also may impact levothyroxine dosing in post-thyroidectomy patients with benign conditions.

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