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1.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(10): 973-977, 2019 Oct 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607040

RESUMO

Health care workers have higher risk of influenza infection because of their occupational exposure to infected patients. Infection of the health care workers may not only result in the increasing risk of the nosocomial infection and family transmission, but also disrupt the health services due to absence from work. Health care workers were recommended as a priority group of influenza vaccinationin more than 40 countries and regions in the world. In recent years, domestic surveys show that the influenza vaccine coverage among health care workers was low. This paper outlines the current status and related policies of influenza vaccination among health care workers in China and global. Additionally, we analyzed and discussed the proper immunization strategy of influenza vaccine for medical staff in China.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana , China , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Vacinação
2.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(10): 1007-1011, 2019 Oct 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607046

RESUMO

Objective: We planned to evaluate the effectiveness of moving epidemic method (MEM) in calculating influenza epidemic threshold of 7 climatic zones in China mainland. Methods: The positive rate of influenza virus was obtained from the National Influenza Surveillance Network System from 2010/2011 to 2017/2018. We divided the 31 provinces into 7 climatic zones according to previous literatures and applied MEM to calculate the influenza epidemic threshold of 2018/2019 influenza season for these climatic zones. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were calculated to evaluate the effectiveness of MEM. Results: Pre-epidemic threshold (the positive rate of influenza virus) varied from 9.66% (temperate zone) to 16.36% (subtropical zone) for 2018/2019 influenza season. The gap between pre-epidemic and post-epidemic thresholds was less than 5% except for plateau zone. The sensitivity was 86.16% (95CI:66.81%-98.23%), the specificity was 94.92% (95CI: 91.13%-98.41%), the positive predictive value was 89.87% (95%CI: 84.39%-94.38%), the negative predictive value was 92.96% (95%CI: 84.46%-99.17%). Conclusion: Overall, moving epidemic Method performs well in calculating influenza epidemic threshold in China, much better than the previous study.


Assuntos
Epidemias , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Orthomyxoviridae , China/epidemiologia , Clima , Humanos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
3.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(10): 1012-1017, 2019 Oct 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607047

RESUMO

Objective: Using three models too estimate excess mortality associated with influenza of Shanxi Province during 2013-2017. Methods: Mortality data and influenza surveillance data of 11 cities of Shanxi Province from the 2013-2014 through 2016-2017 were used to estimate influenza-associated all cause deaths, circulatory and respiratory deaths and respiratory deaths. Three models were used: (i) Serfling regression, (ii)Poisson regression, (iii)General line model. Results: The total reported death cases of all cause were 157 733, annual death cases of all cause were 39 433, among these cases, male cases 93 831 (59.50%), cases above 65 years old 123 931 (78.57%). Annual influenza-associated excess mortality, for all causes, circulatory and respiratory deaths, respiratory deaths were 8.62 deaths per 100 000, 6.33 deaths per 100 000 and 0.68 deaths per 100 000 estimated by Serfling model, respectively; and 21.30 deaths per 100 000, 16.89 deaths per 100 000 and 2.14 deaths per 100 000 estimated by General line model, respectively; and 21.76 deaths per 100 000, 17.03 deaths per 100 000 and 2.05 deaths per 100 000, estimated by Poisson model, respectively. Influenza-related excess mortality was higher in people over 75 years old; influenza-associated excess mortalityfor all causes, circulatory and respiratory deaths, respiratory deaths were 259.67 deaths per 100 000, 229.90 deaths per 100 000 and 32.63 deaths per 100 000, estimated by GLM model, respectively; and 269.49 deaths per 100 000, 233.69 deaths per 100 000 and 31.27 deaths per 100 000, estimated by Poisson model,respectively. Conclusion: Excess mortality associated with influenza mainly caused by A (H3N2), Influenza caused the most associated death amongold people.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2 , Mortalidade/tendências
4.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(10): 1049-1055, 2019 Oct 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607054

RESUMO

Objective: To systematically review the mortality burden study of influenza in mainland China. Method: "influenza", "flu", "H1N1", "pandemic", "mortality", "death", "fatality", "burden", "China" and "Chinese" were used as keywords, and a systematic literature search was conducted to identify articles in three English databases (PubMed, Web of Science and Embase) and three Chinese database (CNKI, WanFang and VIP) during 1990-2018 (excluding Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan). The language of literature was restricted to Chinese and English. The inclusion criteria were human-oriented researches with method based on population, and research indexes included mortality and excess mortality. The exclusion criteria were non-primary research materials, predictive research and research on the burden of avian influenza related deaths. A total of 17 literatures were included, and the basic information to descriptive characteristics, methodology of modeling and the corresponding results were extracted. Results: All the 17 studies adopted indirect statistical models, with 14 of which adopted the regression model, and all the research index was excess mortality. All causes (16 studies), respiratory and circulatory diseases (14 studies) and pneumonia and influenza (10 studies) were the main causes of death associated with influenza. Influenza associated mortality burden in the elderly was higher, with the lowest excess mortality rates of all causes, respiratory and circulatory diseases, pneumonia and influenza being 49.57, 30.80 and 0.69 per 100 000 people, and the highest rates being 228.16, 170.20 and 30.35 per 100 000 people, respectively. In the non-elderly, the corresponding lowest rates were -0.27, -0.08 and 0.04 per 100 000 people respectively, and the highest rates were 3.63, 2.6 and 0.91 per 100 000 people, respectively. The influenza-related excess mortality was higher in the north, with a minimum of 7.8 per 100 000 and a maximum of 18.0 per 100 000, and slightly lower in the south, with a minimum of 6.11 per 100 000 and a maximum of 18.7 per 100 000. There were also differences in deaths caused by different influenza virus subtypes, with influenza A(H3N2) and influenza B virus possibly posing a heavier mortality burden. Conclusions: Studies on influenza mortality burden is mainly based on indirect model and urban level in China. The mortality burden of influenza in the elderly, the northern and subtype A(H3N2) and B were more severe.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana , Idoso , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2 , Vírus da Influenza B
5.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 52(11): 1101-1114, 2018 Nov 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30419692

RESUMO

Seasonal influenza vaccination is the most effective way to prevent influenza virus infection and complications from infection. Currently, China has licensed trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3) and quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV4), including split-virus influenza vaccine and subunit vaccine. Except for a few major cities, influenza vaccine is a category Ⅱ vaccine, which means influenza vaccination is voluntary, and recipients must pay for it. To strengthen the technical guidance for prevention and control of influenza and operational research on influenza vaccination in China, the National Immunization Advisory Committee (NIAC) Influenza Vaccine Technical Working Group (TWG), updated the 2014 technical guidelines and compiled the "Technical guidelines for seasonal influenza vaccination in China (2018-2019)" . The main updates in this version include: epidemiology, disease burden, types of influenza vaccines, northern hemisphere influenza vaccination composition for the 2018-2019 season, IIV3 and IIV4 immune response, durability of immunity, immunogenicity, vaccine efficacy, effectiveness, safety, cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit. The influenza vaccine TWG provided the recommendations for influenza vaccination for the 2018-2019 influenza season based on existing scientific evidence. The recommendations described in this report include the following: Points of Vaccination clinics (PoVs) should provide influenza vaccination to all persons aged 6 months and above who are willing to be vaccinated and do not have contraindications. No preferential recommendation is made for one influenza vaccine product over another for persons for whom more than one licensed, recommended, and appropriate product is available. To decrease the risk of severe infections and complications due to influenza virus infection among high risk groups, the recommendations prioritize seasonal influenza vaccination for children aged 6-59 months, adults ≥60 years of age, persons with specific chronic diseases, healthcare workers, the family members and caregivers of infants <6 months of age, and pregnant women or women who plan to become pregnant during the influenza season. Children aged 6 months through 8 years require 2 doses of influenza vaccine administered a minimum of 4 weeks apart during their first season of vaccination for optimal protection. If they were vaccinated in 2017-2018 influenza season or a prior season, 1 dose is recommended. People more than 8 years old require 1 dose of influenza vaccine. It is recommended that people receive their influenza vaccination by the end of October. Influenza vaccination should be offered as soon as the vaccination is available. For the people unable to be vaccinated before the end of October, influenza vaccination will continue to be offered for the whole season. Influenza vaccine is also recommended for use in pregnant women during any trimester. These guidelines are intended for use by staff members of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention at all levels who work on influenza control and prevention, PoVs staff members, healthcare workers from the departments of pediatrics, internal medicine, and infectious diseases, and staff members of maternity and child care institutions at all levels.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Estações do Ano
6.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 39(11): 1413-1425, 2018 Nov 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30462947

RESUMO

Seasonal influenza vaccination is the most effective way to prevent influenza virus infection and its complications. Currently, China has licensed trivalent (IIV3) and quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV4), including split-virus influenza vaccine and subunit vaccine. In most parts of China, influenza vaccine is a category Ⅱ vaccine, which means influenza vaccination is voluntary, and recipients need to pay for it. To strengthen the technical guidance for prevention and control of influenza and the operational research on influenza vaccination in China, the National Immunization Advisory Committee (NIAC), Influenza Vaccine Technical Working Group (TWG), updated the 2014 technical guidelines and compiled the "Technical guidelines for seasonal influenza vaccination in China (2018-2019)" , based on most recent existing scientific evidences. The main updates include: epidemiology and disease burden of influenza, types of influenza vaccines, northern hemisphere influenza vaccination composition for the 2018-2019 season, and, IIV3 and IIV4 vaccines'major immune responses, durability of immunity, immunogenicity, vaccine efficacy, effectiveness, safety, cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit. The recommendations include: Points of Vaccination clinics (PoVs) should provide influenza vaccination to all persons aged 6 months and above who are willing to be vaccinated and do not have contraindications. No preferential recommendation is made for any influenza vaccine product for persons who can accept ≥1 licensed, recommended, and appropriate products. To decrease the risk of severe infections and complications due to influenza virus infection among high risk groups, the recommendations prioritize seasonal influenza vaccination for children aged 6-60 months, adults ≥60 years of age, persons with specific chronic diseases, healthcare workers, the family members and caregivers of infants <6 months of age, and pregnant women or women who plan to pregnant during the influenza season. Children aged 6 months to 8 years old require 2 doses of influenza vaccine administered a minimum of 4 weeks apart during their first season of vaccination for optimal protection. If they were vaccinated in previous influenza season, 1 dose is recommended. People ≥ 9 years old require 1 dose of influenza vaccine. It is recommended that people receive their influenza vaccination by the end of October. Influenza vaccination should be offered as soon as the vaccination is available. Influenza vaccination should continue to be available for those unable to be vaccinated before the end of October during the whole season. Influenza vaccine is also recommended for use in pregnant women during any trimester. These guidelines are intended for CDC members who are working on influenza control and prevention, PoVs members, healthcare workers from the departments of pediatrics, internal medicine, and infectious diseases, and members of maternity and child care institutions at all levels.


Assuntos
Guias como Assunto , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Estações do Ano , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Gravidez , Vacinação
7.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 39(8): 1028-1031, 2018 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30180422

RESUMO

Five influenza pandemics had occurred during the past century (1918 "Spanish flu" , 1957 "Asian flu" , 1968 "Hong Kong flu" , 1977 "Russian flu" and 2009 H1N1 Pandemic), accounting for hundreds of millions of people infected and tens of millions dead. China was influenced by all the five pandemics, and three of them (1957 "Asian flu" , 1968 "Hong Kong flu" and 1977 "Russian flu" ) were originated from China. The pandemics triggered the establishment of public health agencies and influenza surveillance capacities. In addition, more resources were allocated to influenza-related research, prevention and control. As a leader in the field of influenza, China should further strengthen its pandemic preparedness and response to contribute to global health.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/história , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Pandemias/história , Saúde Pública , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , China/epidemiologia , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Hong Kong , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Influenza Humana/história
8.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 39(8): 1041-1044, 2018 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30180425

RESUMO

In China, the control and prevention programs on any disease has always been based on comprehensive strategies. Take influenza as an example, related contents would include: strengthening the surveillance, recommendation and promotion of vaccination, rational use of antiviral drugs, conducting outbreak investigation and control, and publicizing individual protective measures, etc. In terms of the response to challenges, specific proposals would include: adjustment of case reports, optimization of surveillance systems, reinforcement of vaccination recommendation by health care workers, improvement of access to vaccination, development of rapid diagnostic reagents, and rational use of antiviral drugs, etc.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Vacinação , China/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Prevenção Primária/organização & administração , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Estações do Ano
9.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 39(8): 1045-1050, 2018 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30180426

RESUMO

Influenza can be prevented through annual appropriate vaccination against the virus concerned. In China, influenza vaccine is categorized as "Class Ⅱ" infectious diseases which the cost is paid out of the user's pockets. The annual coverage of influenza vaccination had been 2%-3%. The main reasons for the low coverage would include the following factors: lacking awareness on both the disease and vaccine, poor accessibility of vaccination service, and the cost of vaccination. To reduce the health and economic burden associated with influenza, comprehensive policies should be improved, targeting the coverage of seasonal influenza vaccination. These items would include: ① Different financing reimbursement schemes and mechanisms to improve the aspiration on vaccination and on the vaccine coverage in high-risk groups, as young children, elderly, people with underlying medical conditions; ② to ameliorate equality of vaccination services; ③ to improve knowledge of the health care workers (HCWs) and the public on influenza and related vaccines; ④ to improve clinical and preventive medical practice and vaccination among HCWs through revising clinical guidelines, pathway and consensus of experts; ⑤ to provide more convenient, accessible and normative vaccination service system; ⑥ to strengthen research and development as well as marketing on novel influenza vaccines; ⑦ to revise items regarding the contraindication for influenza vaccine on pregnancy women, stated in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Vacinação , Idoso , Conscientização , Criança , China , Custos e Análise de Custo , Feminino , Humanos , Vacinas contra Influenza/economia , Masculino , Gravidez
10.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 52(6): 661-667, 2018 Jun 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29886690

RESUMO

Objective: To understand characteristics of demographic, seasonal and spatial distribution of H5N1 cases in major countries of Asia (Indonesia, Cambodia, Vietnam, China) and Africa (Egypt). Methods: Through searching public data resource and published papers, we collected cases information in five countries from May 1st, 1997 to November 6th, 2017, including general characteristics, diagnosis, onset and exposure history, etc. Different characteristics of survived and death cases in different countries were described and χ(2) test was used to compare the differences among death cases and odds ratio (OR) and 95%CI value was used to compare death risk in different countries. Results: A total of 856 cases were reported in five countries with Egypt had the most cases (44.3%). The highest number of cases were reported in 2015 (18.3%). 53% cases were reported from January to March, and 96.1% of cases had the history of poultry exposure. 64.2% (43 cases) cases in China had live poultry market exposure, but the sick/dead poultry exposure was the major exposure for cases in other four countries. 452 death cases were reported in five countries, and the fatality rate was 52.8%. With Egypt as the reference group, the highest death risk was seen in Indonesia (OR (95%CI): 11.52 (7.46-17.77)), followed by Cambodia (OR (95%CI): 4.27(2.37-7.69)) and China (OR (95%CI): 2.87 (1.73-4.74)). The age distribution of death cases among 5 countries was statistically significant, and the highest fatality rate was in 15-54 years group in Egypt (83.6%, 102 cases), while in Cambodia the highest fatality rate was in 0-14 years group (76.9%, 30 cases). The highest number of deaths were reported in 2006, and 48.3% were reported from January to March. There was difference in exposure routes among 5 countries (χ(2)=43.85, P=0.001), 63.2% (24 cases) of the death cases in China had live poultry market exposure. 92.9% (79 cases), 83.3% (40 cases) and 100.0% (38 cases) death cases in Indonesia, Vietnam and Camodia had sick/dead poultry exposure, respectively;and 81.6% (31 cases) of the death cases in Egypt had backyard poultry exposure. Conclusion: The geographical distribution, seasonal age, gender, exposure matter and outcome of H5N1 cases in five countries were different.


Assuntos
Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1 , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , África/epidemiologia , Animais , Ásia/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Influenza Aviária/transmissão , Influenza Humana/mortalidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aves Domésticas , Adulto Jovem
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