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1.
Molecules ; 25(7)2020 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32252312

RESUMO

Neuropeptides are released by neurons that are involved in a wide range of brain functions, such as food intake, metabolism, reproduction, and learning and memory. A full-length cDNA sequence of an FMRFamide gene isolated from the cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis (designated as SpFMRFamide) was cloned. The predicted precursor protein contains one putative signal peptide and four FMRFamide-related peptides. Multiple amino acid and nucleotide sequence alignments showed that it shares 97% similarity with the precursor FMRFamides of Sepiella japonica and Sepia officinalis and shares 93% and 92% similarity with the SpFMRFamide gene of the two cuttlefish species, respectively. Moreover, the phylogenetic analysis also suggested that SpFMRFamide and FMRFamides from S. japonica and S. officinalis belong to the same sub-branch. Tissue expression analysis confirmed that SpFMRFamide was widely distributed among tissues and predominantly expressed in the brain at the three development stages. The combined effects of SpFMRFamide+SpGnRH and SpFLRFamide+SpGnRH showed a marked decrease in the level of the total proteins released in the CHO-K1 cells. This is the first report of SpFMRFamide in S. pharaonis and the results may contribute to future studies of neuropeptide evolution or may prove useful for the development of aquaculture methods for this cuttlefish species.

2.
Molecules ; 25(6)2020 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32204524

RESUMO

Five 8,17-epoxybriaranes, including three new compounds-briarenols I-K (1-3), along with two known analogues, briaexcavatolide P (4) and briaexcavatin P (5), were isolated from the octocoral Briareum excavatum. The structures of briaranes 1-3 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, including 1D and 2D NMR studies and (+)-HRESIMS. Briarane 4 exerted inhibition effects on inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) release from RAW 264.7.

3.
J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 49(1): 11, 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32131901

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The known risk factors of childhood OSAS include tonsillar and adenoidhypertrophy, obesity, craniofacial anomalies, neuromuscular disorders and African-American (AA) ancestry. Whether other factors such as allergic rhinitis (AR), premature, environmental tobacco smoking (ETS) are associated with OSAS are inconsistent in different studies. Our study enrolled children of a broad age range and included potential risk factors of OSAS derived from previous studies and our own experience. Our objective is to identify risk factors of OSAS in children in a clinical setting. METHODS: Children between 2 and 15 years of age exhibiting snoring symptoms who visited the sleep center for polysomnography (PSG) were enrolled. All children completed a questionnaire, physical examination and PSG. The questionnaire included demographic data and information related to potential risk factors for sleep disorders. A physical examination included measurements of height, weight, neck circumference, waist and hip ratio, visual evaluation of the tonsils and the degree of adenoid obstruction. Children with obstructive apnea-hypopnea index (OAHI) ≥ 1 were defined as OSAS. RESULTS: A total of 1578 children were enrolled and1009 children exhibited OSAS. Univariate analyses showed that snoring occurring for ≥ 3 months, male gender, preterm birth, breastfeeding, obesity, neck circumference ≥ 30 cm, waist/hip ratio ≥ 0.95, tonsillar hypertrophy, and adenoid hypertrophy were associated with OSAS. The proportion of low educational level was higher in parents who breastfed their babies than those who didn't. Multivariate analysis showed that snoring for ≥ 3 months, male gender, obesity, breastfeeding, tonsillar hypertrophy, and adenoid hypertrophy were associated with OSAS. Confounders such as socioeconomic status, parental occupation, and health-related behaviors should be explored further to investigate the relationship between breastfeeding and OSAS. CONCLUSION: The independent risk factors for OSAS in children included snoring ≥ 3 months, male gender, obesity, breastfeeding, tonsillar and adenoid hypertrophy. The study was registered on Clinical Trials government (NCT02447614). The name of the trial is "Follow-up Studies of Primary Snoring (PS) and Obstructive Sleep Apnea Hypopnea Syndrome (OSAHS) in Chinese Children" and the URL is https://clinicaltrials.gov/.

4.
Pest Manag Sci ; 2020 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32128980

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), is a widespread agricultural pest that has evolved resistance to many commonly used insecticides including malathion. Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are multifunctional enzymes that metabolize insecticides directly or indirectly. The specific mechanism used by GSTs to confer malathion resistance in B. dorsalis is unclear. RESULTS: BdGSTd9 was identified from B. dorsalis and was expressed at twice the level in a malathion-resistant strain (MR) than in a susceptible strain (MS). By using RNAi of BdGSTd9, the toxicity of malathion against MR was increased. Protein modelling and docking of BdGSTd9 with malathion and malaoxon indicated key amino acid residues for direct binding in the active site. In vitro assays with engineered Sf9 cells overexpressing BdGSTd9 demonstrated lower cytotoxicity of malathion. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis indicated that malathion could be broken down significantly by BdGSTd9, and it also could deplete the malathion metabolite malaoxon, which possesses a higher toxicity to B. dorsalis. Taken together, the BdGSTd9 of B. dorsalis could not only deplete malathion, but also react with malaoxon and therefore enhance malathion resistance. CONCLUSION: BdGSTd9 is a component of malathion resistance in B. dorsalis. It acts by depleting both malathion and malaoxon. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.

5.
ACS Chem Biol ; 2020 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32195573

RESUMO

Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, the essential enzyme family for protein translation, are attractive targets for developing antibacterial, antifungal, and antiparasitic agents and for treating other human diseases. The antimalarial natural product cladosporin was discovered recently as a novel lysyl-tRNA synthetase (LysRS) specific inhibitor. Here, we report a thorough analysis of cladosporin derivatives using chemical synthesis, biophysical, and biochemical experiments. A series of isocoumarin derivatives with only one nonhydrogen atom/bond change per compound was synthesized. These changes include replacements of methyltetrahydropyran moiety by methylcyclohexane or cyclohexane, lactone by lactam, hydroxyl groups by methoxyl groups, and dismission of the chiral center at C3 with a Δ3,4 double bond. We evaluated these compounds by thermal shift assays and enzymatic experiments and further studied their molecular recognition by the Plasmodium falciparum LysRS through total five high-resolution crystal structures. Our results showed that the methyltetrahydropyran moiety of cladosporin could be replaced by a more stable methylcyclohexane without reducing binding ability. Removing the methyl group from the methylcyclohexane moiety slightly decreased the interaction with LysRS. Besides, the replacement with a lactam group or a conjugated Δ3,4 double bond within the scaffold could be two more options to optimize the compound. Lastly, the two phenolic hydroxyl groups were critical for the compounds to bind LysRS. The detailed analyses at atomic resolution in this study provide a foundation for the further development of new antibiotics from cladosporin derivatives.

7.
Arch Virol ; 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32144543

RESUMO

The article A novel narnavirus isolated from the wheat stripe rust fungus Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, written by Yanhui Zhang, Jing Zhao, Xiaofei Liang, Li Zheng, Zhensheng Kang was originally published electronically on the publisher's internet portal (currently SpringerLink) on 10 February 2020 with open access. With the author(s)' decision to step back from Open Choice, the copyright of the article changed on 06 March 2020 to © Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2020 and the article is forthwith distributed under the terms of copyright.The original article has been corrected.

9.
Neurochem Res ; 2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32170675

RESUMO

The growing number of evidences suggest that neuroinflammation and synaptic damage are closely related to the onset of depression. Bexarotene (Bex), a retinoid X receptor agonist, is an U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved drug for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma that has recently been reported to have anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects in several models of neurological disease including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and so forth. However, the effect of Bex on depression remains unclear. In this study, we investigated effect of Bex on depression-like behaviour in mice induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or corticosterone (CORT). Our results showed that treatment with Bex for 15 days significantly improved LPS-induced depression-like behaviour in social interaction test and CORT-induced depression-like behaviour in forced swimming test and tail suspension test in mice. We found that the Bex treatment depressed the increase in the number of activated microglia and astrocytes in the frontal cortex, and the increase in the levels of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1ß and IL-6 in LPS-injected mice. Furthermore, Bex treatment also rescued the decrease in the expression of BDNF, and inhibition of CREB/BDNF/ERK pathway, and improved the expression of synaptic related protein in CORT-induced mice. Based on these results, it is possible that Bex reversed depression-like behaviour in mice by reducing neuroinflammation and protecting against synaptic damage induced by LPS or CORT.

10.
Curr Med Sci ; 40(1): 95-103, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32166670

RESUMO

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) was reported to be associated with gastric carcinogenesis. Resistin-like molecule beta (RELMß), a recently described goblet cell-specific protein, was demonstrated to aberrantly express in gastric cancer and correlated with its clinicopathological features. This study aimed to examine the association between H. pylori and RELMß expression in gastric carcinoma and precursor lesions. H. pylori infection and RELMß expression were immunohistochemically evaluated in gastric biopsies from 230 patients. The biopsies consisted of normal gastric mucosa (n=20), mucosa with chronic gastritis (n=41), intestinal metaplasia (n=42), dysplasia (n=31), intestinal-type adenocarcinoma (n=56), and diffuse-type adenocarcinoma (n=40). RELMß expression was measured in gastric biopsies after H. pylori eradication therapy in a subgroup of 32 patients. Cultured gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901 was infected with H. pylori strains, and RELMß expression was detected by reverse transcription PCR, real-time PCR and Western blotting. Higher RELMß immunoreactivity was observed in H. pylori-positive intestinal metaplasia (P=0.003), dysplasia (P=0.032), intestinal-type (P=0.037) and diffuse-type adenocarcinomas (P=0.001) than in H. pylori-negative specimens. Expression rates of RELMß in dysplasia (P=0.005), intestinal-type adenocarcinoma (P<0.001), and diffuse-type adenocarcinoma (P=0.001) were significantly correlated with the grade of H. pylori density. In addition, H. pylori eradication reduced the RELMß intensity in intestinal metaplasia (P=0.001). Infection of gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells with cag pathogenicity island (PAI)-positive H. pylori TN2, but not with its PAI totally deleted mutant (TN2-ΔPAI) for 4-8 h, resulted in enhanced protein and transcript levels of RELMß (P<0.05). In summary, our study suggested that H. pylori infection facilitated the expression of RELMß in gastric garcinoma and precursor lesions.

11.
Mol Cancer Res ; 2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32169891

RESUMO

The underlying molecular mechanism driving clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) progression is not fully understood. The significant downregulation of protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 3 (PTPN3) expression in the tumor tissues suggested its protective role in ccRCC progression. Immunohistochemical analysis of PTPN3 protein in 172 ccRCC tissue revealed that PTPN3 expression was an independent, favorable prognostic factor for overall survival (P = 0.0343) and distant metastasis-free survival (P = 0.0166) of patients. The ccRCC cell lines SN12C, 1932, ACHN and Caki-1 were used to evaluate, both in vitro and in vivo, the biological roles of PTPN3. We observed that overexpression of PTPN3 significantly inhibited the proliferation, migration, and invasion of ccRCC cells. In contrast, the knocking down of PTPN3 elicited opposite effects. PTPN3 overexpression suppressed xenograft tumor growth and lung metastasis in vivo mice models. PTN3 inhibited tumor cell motility by suppressing the phosphorylation of AKT, and subsequently inactivating the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway of ccRCC cells. Further, the inhibition of phospho-AKTThr308 and phospho-AKTSer473 reversed PTPN3 induced-silencing in tumor cell migration. Our work revealed that the overexpression of PTPN3 could suppress kidney cancer progression by negatively regulating the AKT signaling pathway, and served as a favorable prognostic factor in ccRCC patients. Our findings provided insight that PTPN3 could be a potential target for therapy aiming to inhibit the malignant behaviors of ccRCC. Implications: PTPN3 is an independent favorable prognostic factor for ccRCC patients and could be a potential target for therapy aiming to inhibit the malignant behaviors of ccRCC.

12.
Curr Alzheimer Res ; 2020 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32183673

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Approximately 40 independent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) or cognitive decline in genome-wide association studies. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the joint effect of genetic polymorphisms and environmental factors on the progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to AD (MCI-AD progression) in a Chinese community cohort. METHODS: Demographic, DNA and incident AD diagnosis data were derived from the follow-up of 316 participants with MCI at baseline of the Shanghai Aging Study. The associations of 40 SNPs and environmental predictors with MCI-AD progression were assessed using the Kaplan-Meier method with the log-rank test and Cox regression model. RESULTS: Rs4147929 at ATP-binding cassette family A member 7 (ABCA7) (AG/AA vs. GG, hazard ratio [HR] = 2.43, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.24-4.76) and body mass index (BMI) (overweight vs. non-overweight, HR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.22-0.78) were independent predictors of MCI-AD progression. In the combined analyses, MCI participants with the copresence of non-overweight BMI and the ABCA7 rs4147929 (AG/AA) risk genotype had an approximately 6-fold higher risk of MCI-AD progression than those with an overweight BMI and a non-risk genotype (HR = 6.77, 95% CI 2.60-17.63). However, a nonsignificant result was found when participants carried only one of these two risk factors (non-overweight BMI and AG/AA of ABCA7 rs4147929). CONCLUSION: ABCA7 rs4147929 and BMI jointly affect MCI-AD progression. MCI participants with the rs4147929 risk genotype may benefit from maintaining an overweight BMI level with regard to their risk for incident AD.

13.
Br J Pharmacol ; 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32154577

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Dopamine (DA) can protect the duodenal mucosa. The aim of the present study was to investigate the source of DA in gastric juice and the mechanism underlying the effects of luminal DA on duodenal bicarbonate secretion (DBS) in rodents. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Immunofluorescence, UPLC-MS/MS, gastric incubation and perfusion were used to detect gastric-derived DA. Immunofluorescence and RT-PCR were used to examine the expression of DA receptors (DARs) in the duodenal mucosa. Real-time pH titration and pHi measurement were performed to investigate DBS. KEY RESULTS: H+ -K+ -ATPase was co-localized with tyrosine hydroxylase and DA transporters in gastric parietal cells. DA was increased in in vivo gastric perfusate after intravenous infusion of histamine and in in vitro gastric mucosa incubated with bethanechol chloride or tyrosine. D2 R was the most abundant DAR in rat duodenum and mainly distributed on the apical membrane of epithelial cells. Luminal DA increased DBS in a concentration-dependent manner, which was mimicked by D2 R agonist quinpirole and inhibited by D2 R antagonist L741,626, in vivo D2 R siRNA and in D2 R-/- mice. DA and quinpirole enhanced the duodenal enterocyte pHi . Quinpirole-evoked DBS and PI3K/Akt activity were significantly inhibited by calcium chelator BAPTA-AM or in D2 R-/- mice. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: DA in the gastric juice is derived from parietal cells and is secreted along with gastric acid. When it arrives at the duodenal lumen, DA increases DBS via an apical D2 R- and calcium-dependent pathway. The present study provides novel insight into the protective effects of DA on the duodenal mucosa.

14.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 193: 110349, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114241

RESUMO

In this study, ultrasonic as a pretreatment coupled with bioleaching was used to enhance sludge dewaterability. Changes in microbial diversity and antibiotic resistant genes (ARGs) were studied during the combined treatment process. The results show that under optimal conditions, combined ultrasonic and bioleaching treatment led to decreases in the specific resistance of filtration and bioleaching time by 7.59% and 12.5%, respectively, compared with single bioleaching process. Using high pressure filtration system, the water content of sludge cake treated by the combined treatment was decreased to 58.04%, which was 10.04% lower than bioleaching sludge. After combined treatment, the microbial diversity and the total number of bacteria in the sludge decreased significantly, which caused the decreases in the absolute abundance of sulfonamide and tetracycline ARGs by 1.56-1.58 and 0.34-1.23 log units, respectively. However, the decrease in the total bacterial biomass was greater than the decrease in the number of potential hosts carrying the tetracycline ARG, resulting in an increase in the relative abundance of tetracycline gene. Furthermore, this study proposed a mechanism of the dewatering and ARGs, involving the combined ultrasonic and bioleaching treatment: Firstly, ultrasonic cavitation causes extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) to fall off the surface of sludge; Secondly, this faster and directly makes bacteria cells affected by bio-acidification and bio-oxidation. In this case, the cells could be more easily destroyed by the combined ultrasonic and bioleaching treatment, compared with individual bioleaching treatment; As a result, stronger dewaterability and more removal rates of ARGs were achieved under the combined treatment. The economic analyses showed that the combined ultrasonic and bioleaching treatment is a more practical and economical technique for achieving deep dewatering of sludge.

15.
J Biomed Sci ; 27(1): 40, 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32138732

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to verify whether long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) MALAT1 is involved in brain tissue damage induced by ischemia-reperfusion injury, and to explore the mechanism by which MALAT1 regulates aquaporin 4 (AQP4). METHODS: In this study, we established glucose deprivation (OGD)/reoxygenation (RX) astrocyte cell model and middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)/reperfusion mouse model in vitro and in vivo. Then cell counting kit-8 assay, flow cytometry analysis, Triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining, and western blotting were used to determine cell viability, cell apoptosis, cerebral infarction volume, and the abundance of AQP4, respectively. RESULTS: We found that the level of MALAT1 was significantly upregulated in both the MCAO/reperfusion model and OGD/RX model. Knockdown of MALAT1 increased cell viability and reduced cell apoptosis in MA-C cells, while an AQP4 siRNA combined with a siRNA targeting MALAT1 could not enhance this effect. Further experiments showed that MALAT1 positively regulated AQP4 expression via miR-145. The MALAT1 siRNA did not alleviate the exacerbation of damage after miR-145 inhibitor action. However, an miR-145 inhibitor reversed the protection effects of MALAT1, indicating that MALAT1 silencing protects against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury through miR-145. TTC staining showed that the infracted area of whole brain was significantly attenuated in treated with sh-MALAT1 group in vivo. CONCLUSION: Taken together, our study confirmed that MALAT1 promotes cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury by affecting AQP4 expression through competitively binding miR-145, indicating that MALAT1 might be a new therapeutic target for treatment cerebral ischemic stroke.

16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 4155, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139705

RESUMO

Malignant gliomas are the most common tumor in central nervous system with poor prognosis. Due to the limitation of histological classification in earlier diagnosis and individualized medicine, it is necessary to combine the molecular signatures and the pathological characteristics of gliomas. Lots of microRNAs presented abnormal expression in gliomas and modulated gliomas development. Exploration the miRNAs profile is helpful for the diagnosis, therapy and prognosis of gliomas. It has been demonstrated that miR-144 plays important roles in solid tumors. However, the detail mechanisms remained unrevealed. In this study, we have demonstrated the level of miR-144 decreased in glioma tissues from patients, especially in gliomas with higher grades. MiR-144 was also validated have lower expression in glioma cell lines compared with cortical neuron cell by using qRT-PCR. The in vitro functional experiment indicated miR-144 improved gliomas progression through repressing proliferation, sensitizing to chemotherapeutics and inhibiting metastasis. We further identified fibroblast growth factor 7 (FGF7) and Caveolin 2 (CAV2) were target genes of miR-144 by luciferase reporter assay and western blotting. The mechanisms study suggested forced FGF7 expression elevated Akt activation and decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. The MTT and cell cycle assay indicated miR-144 suppressed glioma cells proliferation through modulating FGF mediated Akt signaling pathway. Meanwhile, miR-144 promoted Temozolomide (TMZ) induced apoptosis in glioma cells via increasing ROS production by using FACS. On the other hand, CAV2, as another target of miR-144, accelerated glioma cells migration and invasion via promoting glioma cells EMT progress. Retrieved expression of FGF7 or CAV2 rescued the proliferation and migration function mediated by miR-144. Furthermore, the in vivo experiments in PDX models displayed the anti-tumor function of miR-144, which could be retrieved by overexpression of FGF7 and CAV2. Taken together, these findings indicated miR-144 acted as a potential target against gliomas progression and uncovered a novel regulatory mechanism, which may provide a new therapeutic strategy and prognostic indicator for gliomas.

17.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 7(6): 2000588, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32195106

RESUMO

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1002/advs.201900099.].

18.
Dalton Trans ; 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134093

RESUMO

Photochemical reactions of (PPh4)[OsVI(N)(L)(CN)3] (NO2-OsN) with piperidine and pyrrolidine afforded two osmium(v) hydrazido compounds, (PPh4)[OsV(L)(CN)3(NNC5H10)] ([PPh4]1) and (PPh4)[OsV(L)(CN)3(NNC4H8)] ([PPh4]2), respectively. Their structures consist of isolated, mononuclear distorted octahedral osmium anions that are well-separated from each other by PPh4+. Their low spin S = 1/2 and L = 1 ground state was confirmed by magnetometry and DFT calculations. Interestingly, both compounds exhibit slow magnetic relaxation under a bias dc-field. These osmium(v) complexes are potentially useful building-blocks for the construction of molecule-based architectures with interesting magnetic properties. In contrast, the structurally related (PPh4)[OsIII(L)(CN)3(NH3)] ([PPh4]3), which also has a low-spin S = 1/2 ground state but with a different electronic configuration (5d5), does not exhibit slow magnetic relaxation, due to the absence of any orbital moment (L = 0). Furthermore, the structurally different osmium(v) hydrazido compound reported by Meyer, [OsV(tpy)(Cl)2(NNC5H10)](PF6) (4[PF6]), also does not exhibit slow magnetic relaxation due possibly to a change in magnetic anisotropy from axial for [PPh4]1 and [PPh4]2 to planar.

19.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 63(3): 774-792, 2020 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163319

RESUMO

Purpose We compared the narrative production in Mandarin-speaking children at risk (AR) for developmental language disorder (DLD) and typically developing (TD) controls to address two goals: (a) further our understanding of the Mandarin DLD phenotype and (b) examine the role of elicitation method in differentiating AR from TD. Method Twenty-one AR children and 21 age- and nonverbal IQ-matched peers produced two stories from the Multilingual Assessment Instrument of Narrative, first following an adult model (i.e., story-retell) and then without a model (i.e., story-tell). Group and task effects were analyzed on macrostructure and microstructure measures. Results For general macrostructure score and sentence complexity, children in the AR group performed more poorly than TD children on the more challenging story-tell task and showed decreased scores from retell to tell tasks. In addition, children in the AR group showed poorer performance on number of different words. Productivity and grammaticality measures did not show group differences. Discussion Consistent with previous findings, grammaticality and productivity were relatively preserved but story macrostructure, lexical diversity, and sentence complexity were vulnerable in Mandarin-speaking children with or AR for DLD. Having an adult model benefited both groups in sentence complexity and story macrostructure and potentially helped maintain the performance in TD children as they engaged in the more challenging story-telling task.

20.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 110: 110691, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32204116

RESUMO

Calcium phosphates (CaPs) in the form of blocks are typically not satisfied for administration to osteoporotic patients because of their rapid resorption rate in vivo. However, injectable CaP powders have not been investigated for their potential in osteoporotic hosts. Herein, CaPs in the form of nanoparticles was reported can inhibit RANKL-stimulated osteoclastic differentiation (OC) and bone resorption, as evidenced by suppressed TRAP-positive cells, disintegrated F-actin rings and downregulated expression of markers for OC. CaP powders also significantly inhibited nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1) activation. Furthermore, injectable CaPs reversed bone loss in a mouse model induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and promoted osteoblastic formation in the absent of pro-osteogenic agents. Therefore, injectable CaPs, especially biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP), could be developed as novel agents for the therapy of osteolysis-related diseases caused by inflammation.

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