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1.
Oncol Rep ; 45(3): 1235-1248, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33650672

RESUMO

Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer amongst women worldwide, and numerous microRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) are involved in the initiation and progression of breast cancer. The aim of the present study was to identify hub miRNAs and determine the underlying mechanisms regulated by these miRNAs in breast cancer. Breast invasive carcinoma transcriptome data (including mRNAs and miRNAs), and clinical data were acquired from The Cancer Genome Atlas database. Differential gene expression analysis, co­expression network analysis, gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) and prognosis analysis were used to screen the hub miRNAs and explore their functions. Functional experiments were used to determine the underlying mechanisms of the hub miRNAs in breast cancer cells. The results revealed that low miR150 expression predicted a more advanced disease stage, and was associated with a less favorable prognosis. Through the combined use of five miRNA­target gene prediction tools, 31 potential miR150 target genes were identified. GSEA revealed that low miR150 expression was associated with the upregulation of several cancer­associated signaling pathways, and the downregulation of several tumor suppressor genes. Furthermore, miR150 independently affected overall survival in patients, and interacted with its target genes to indirectly affect overall and disease­free survival. Functional experiments demonstrated that miR150 positively regulated B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA), and the downregulation of miR150 and BTLA combined promoted cell migration. In conclusion, the present study revealed that low miR150 expression was associated with less favorable clinical features, upregulation of several carcinogenic signaling pathways, and poor patient survival. Additionally, a miR150­BTLA axis was suggested to regulate cell viability and migration.

2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645974

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to determine the neuroprotective effect and mechanism of walnut protein hydrolysates (WPH) against memory deficits induced by scopolamine in mice and further to validate the potent neuroprotective peptides identified by integrated approaches of in silico analysis and peptidomics in scopolamine-induced zebrafish. Results showed that a remarkable amelioration on behavioral performance was observed for oral administration of WPH, and disorders of cholinergic system and oxidative stress were normalized in the brains of mice also. Unfortunately, no obvious inflammatory response and anti-inflammatory effect were observed. Additionally, WPH significantly upregulated the expressions of antioxidant defense-related protein (Nrf2) and neurotrophic-related protein (BDNF and CREB). Furthermore, 20 peptides with relatively higher abundance and PeptideRanker scores were predicted by docking to AchE and Keap1. Among them, FY and SGFDAE with the highest binding affinities, -9.8 and -8.0 kcal/mol, were considered as the promising AchE and Keap1 inhibitors, respectively. They were further validated to have neuroprotective capacity in scopolamine-induced zebrafish, indicating that peptidomics and in silico prediction might be the effective approaches to screen neuroprotective peptides.

3.
Microb Biotechnol ; 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33599402

RESUMO

Intestinal flora provides an important contribution to the development of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). We performed a cross-sectional study in 52 healthy controls (HCs) and 83 patients with untreated active PTB to assess the differences in their microbiomic and metabolic profiles in faeces via V3-V4 16S rRNA gene sequencing and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Patients with PTB had considerable reductions in phylogenetic alpha diversity and the production of short-chain fatty acids, dysbiosis of the intestinal flora and alterations in the faecal metabolomics composition compared with HCs. Significant alterations in faecal metabolites were associated with changes in the relative abundance of specific genera. Our study describes the imbalance of the gut microbiota and altered faecal metabolomics profiles in patients with PTB; the results indicate that the gut microbiota and faecal metabolomic profiles can be used as potential preventive and therapeutic targets for PTB.

4.
AMB Express ; 11(1): 23, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547539

RESUMO

Bacillus velezensis is widely used for agricultural biocontrol, due to its ability to enhance plant growth while suppressing the growth of microbial pathogens. However, there are few reports on its application in fermented feed. Here, a two-stage solid-state fermentation process using Bacillus velezensis followed by Lactobacillus plantarum was developed to degrade antinutritional factors (ANFs) and improve soybean meal (SBM) nutrition for animal feed. The process was evaluated for performance in degrading SBM antinutritional factors, dynamic changes in physicochemical characteristics, microorganisms and metabolites. After two-stage fermentation, degradation rates of glycinin and ß-conglycinin contents reached 78.60% and 72.89%, respectively. The pH of fermented SBM (FSBM) decreased to 4.78 ± 0.04 and lactic acid content reached 183.38 ± 4.86 mmol/kg. NSP-degrading enzymes (Non-starch polysaccharide, NSPases) and protease were detected from the fermented product, which caused the changed microstructure of SBM. Compared to uninoculated SBM, FSBM exhibited increased proportions of crude protein (51.97 ± 0.44% vs. 47.28 ± 0.34%), Ca, total phosphorus (P), and trichloroacetic acid-soluble protein (11.79 ± 0.13% vs. 5.07 ± 0.06%). Additionally, cellulose and hemicellulose proportions declined by 22.10% and 39.15%, respectively. Total amino acid content increased by 5.05%, while the difference of AA content between the 24 h, 48 h and 72 h of fermentation was not significant (P > 0.05). Furthermore, FSBM also showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. These results demonstrated that two-stage SBM fermentation process based on Bacillus velezensis 157 and Lactobacillus plantarum BLCC2-0015 is an effective approach to reduce ANFs content and improve the quality of SBM feed.

5.
Med Image Anal ; 69: 101942, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33418465

RESUMO

Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common birth defect and the leading cause of neonate death in China. Clinical diagnosis can be based on the selected 2D key-frames from five views. Limited by the availability of multi-view data, most methods have to rely on the insufficient single view analysis. This study proposes to automatically analyze the multi-view echocardiograms with a practical end-to-end framework. We collect the five-view echocardiograms video records of 1308 subjects (including normal controls, ventricular septal defect (VSD) patients and atrial septal defect (ASD) patients) with both disease labels and standard-view key-frame labels. Depthwise separable convolution-based multi-channel networks are adopted to largely reduce the network parameters. We also approach the imbalanced class problem by augmenting the positive training samples. Our 2D key-frame model can diagnose CHD or negative samples with an accuracy of 95.4%, and in negative, VSD or ASD classification with an accuracy of 92.3%. To further alleviate the work of key-frame selection in real-world implementation, we propose an adaptive soft attention scheme to directly explore the raw video data. Four kinds of neural aggregation methods are systematically investigated to fuse the information of an arbitrary number of frames in a video. Moreover, with a view detection module, the system can work without the view records. Our video-based model can diagnose with an accuracy of 93.9% (binary classification), and 92.1% (3-class classification) in a collected 2D video testing set, which does not need key-frame selection and view annotation in testing. The detailed ablation study and the interpretability analysis are provided. The presented model has high diagnostic rates for VSD and ASD that can be potentially applied to the clinical practice in the future. The short-term automated machine learning process can partially replace and promote the long-term professional training of primary doctors, improving the primary diagnosis rate of CHD in China, and laying the foundation for early diagnosis and timely treatment of children with CHD.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465732

RESUMO

Mercenaria mercenaria is an economically important clam species and exhibits an outstanding resistance to multiple environmental stressors. However, our understanding of their stress adaptability is limited due to a lack of genomic information, such as transcriptome resources. In this study, single-molecule long-read (SMRT) mRNA sequencing was performed to obtain the full-length gill transcriptome reference sequences of M. mercenaria under air exposure stress. In all, 14.5 G subreads were obtained and assembled into 64,603 unigenes, among which 50,613 were successfully annotated. Additionally, 56,295 SSRs, 1457 transcription factors, and 5924 lncRNAs were identified in M. mercenaria transcriptome. Furthermore, numerous apoptosis-related transcripts were identified according to Swiss-Prot annotation and their numbers were counted. We also found that most apoptosis-related transcripts exhibited typical domains of a certain protein family through conserved domain prediction. Additionally, eight typical sequences related to apoptosis pathway were detected by RT-PCR, with the aim to show the sequential variation of gene expression levels under air exposure. These results implied that the complicated apoptosis system, especially the powerful anti-apoptotic system was critical for M. mercenaria to endure air exposure.

7.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 54, 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33478390

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Forest trees have important economic and ecological value. As a model tree, poplar has played a significant role in elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying tree biology. However, a lack of mutant libraries and time-consuming stable genetic transformation processes severely limit progress into the functional characterization of poplar genes. A convenient and fast transient transformation method is therefore needed to enhance progress on functional genomics in poplar. METHODS: A total of 11 poplar clones were screened for amenability to syringe infiltration. Syringe infiltration was performed on the lower side of the leaves of young soil-grown plants. Transient expression was evaluated by visualizing the reporters ß-glucuronidase (GUS) and green fluorescent protein (GFP). The experimental parameters of the syringe agroinfiltration were optimized based on the expression levels of the reporter luciferase (LUC). Stably transformed plants were regenerated from transiently transformed leaf explants through callus-induced organogenesis. The functions of Populus genes in secondary cell wall-thickening were characterized by visualizing lignin deposition therein after staining with basic fuchsin. RESULTS: We greatly improved the transient transformation efficiency of syringe Agrobacterium infiltration in poplar through screening for a suitable poplar clone from a variety of clones and optimizing the syringe infiltration procedure. The selected poplar clone, Populus davidiana × P. bolleana, is amenable to Agrobacterium syringe infiltration, as indicated by the easy diffusion of the bacterial suspension inside the leaf tissues. Using this technique, we localized a variety of poplar proteins in specific intracellular organelles and illustrated the protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions. The transiently transformed leaves could be used to generate stably transformed plants with high efficiency through callus induction and differentiation processes. Furthermore, transdifferentiation of the protoxylem-like vessel element and ectopic secondary wall thickening were induced in the agroinfiltrated leaves via the transient overexpression of genes associated with secondary wall formation. CONCLUSIONS: The application of P. davidiana × P. bolleana in Agrobacterium syringe infiltration provides a foundation for the rapid and high-throughput functional characterization of Populus genes in intact poplar plants, including those involved in wood formation, and provides an effective alternative to Populus stable genetic transformation.

8.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 195: 113832, 2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33349475

RESUMO

Polygonum capitatum is a traditional medicinal plant of the Miao people and has been used to treat a variety of urological disorders in China for many years. Preparations made from water-soluble P. capitatum extracts, Relinqing® granules, are often used in combination with levofloxacin to treat urinary tract infections, and have demonstrated better clinical efficacy than either drug alone. As there is no information on the pharmacokinetics of both drugs after co-administration, a sensitive and reliable ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated to study the potential herb-drug interactions between P. capitatum and levofloxacin. This analytical method delivered high levels of specificity, recovery, accuracy, precision and preserved sample stability. When applied to study pharmacokinetic interactions after oral co-administration of P. capitatum extract (1.86 g kg-1) and levofloxacin (42 mg kg-1) in rats, the results indicated significant reductions in Cmax and AUC0-24h of levofloxacin, and significant increases in MRT, Tmax, CLz/F and Vz/F. Moreover, pretreatment with P. capitatum extract orally did not alter the intravenous pharmacokinetics of levofloxacin. Combined and compared oral pharmacokinetic parameters, suggesting that the interacting targets might localized in the intestine during absorption. Overall, the results revealed a potential herb-drug interaction between P. capitatum and levofloxacin.

9.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 122020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33290254

RESUMO

Carnitine is required for transporting fatty acids into the mitochondria for ß-oxidation. Carnitine has been used as an energy supplement but the roles in improving health and delaying aging remain unclear. Here we show in C. elegans that L-carnitine improves recovery from oxidative stress and extends lifespan. L-carnitine promotes recovery from oxidative stress induced by paraquat or juglone and improves mobility and survival in response to H2O2 and human amyloid (Aß) toxicity. L-carnitine also alleviates the oxidative stress during aging, resulting in moderate but significant lifespan extension, which was dependent on SKN-1 and DAF-16. Long-lived worms with germline loss (glp-1) or reduced insulin receptor activity (daf-2) recover from aging-associated oxidative stress faster than wild-type controls and their long lifespans were not further increased by L-carnitine. A new gene, T08B1.1, aligned to a known carnitine transporter OCTN1 in humans, is required for L-carnitine uptake in C. elegans. T08B1.1 expression is elevated in daf-2 and glp-1 mutants and its knockdown prevents L-carnitine from improving oxidative stress recovery and prolonging lifespan. Together, our study suggests an important role of L-carnitine in oxidative stress recovery that might be important for healthy aging in humans.

10.
Mol Cancer Res ; 2020 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33380466

RESUMO

Ubiquitin specific peptidase 18 (USP18), previously known as UBP43, is the IFN-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) deconjugase. USP18 removes ISG15 from substrate proteins. This study reports that USP18-null mice (vs. wild-type mice) exhibited lower lipolysis rates, altered fat to body weight ratios, and cold sensitivity. USP18 is a regulator of lipid and fatty acid metabolism. Prior work established that USP18 promotes lung tumorigenesis. We sought to learn whether this occurs through altered lipid and fatty acid metabolism. Loss of USP18 repressed adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) expression; gain of USP18 expression upregulated ATGL in lung cancer cells. The E1-like ubiquitin activating enzyme promoted ISG15 conjugation of ATGL and destabilization. Immunoprecipitation assays confirmed that ISG15 covalently conjugates to ATGL. Protein expression of thermogenic regulators was examined in brown fat of USP18-null versus wild-type mice. Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) was repressed in USP18-null fat. Gain of USP18 expression augmented UCP1 protein via reduced ubiquitination. Gain of UCP1 expression in lung cancer cell lines enhanced cellular proliferation. UCP1 knockdown inhibited proliferation. Beta-hydroxybutyrate colorimetric assays performed after gain of UCP1 expression revealed increased cellular fatty acid beta-oxidation, augmenting fatty acid beta-oxidation in Seahorse assays. Combined USP18, ATGL, and UCP1 profiles were interrogated in The Cancer Genome Atlas. Intriguingly, lung cancers with increased USP18, ATGL, and UCP1 expression had an unfavorable survival. These findings reveal that USP18 is a pharmacologic target that controls fatty acid metabolism. IMPLICATIONS: USP18 is an antineoplastic target that affects lung cancer fatty acid metabolism.

12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(22)2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33212764

RESUMO

Ionomics is a novel multidisciplinary field that uses advanced techniques to investigate the composition and distribution of all minerals and trace elements in a living organism and their variations under diverse physiological and pathological conditions. It involves both high-throughput elemental profiling technologies and bioinformatic methods, providing opportunities to study the molecular mechanism underlying the metabolism, homeostasis, and cross-talk of these elements. While much effort has been made in exploring the ionomic traits relating to plant physiology and nutrition, the use of ionomics in the research of serious diseases is still in progress. In recent years, a number of ionomic studies have been carried out for a variety of complex diseases, which offer theoretical and practical insights into the etiology, early diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy of them. This review aims to give an overview of recent applications of ionomics in the study of complex diseases and discuss the latest advances and future trends in this area. Overall, disease ionomics may provide substantial information for systematic understanding of the properties of the elements and the dynamic network of elements involved in the onset and development of diseases.

13.
J Mol Diagn ; 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33217553

RESUMO

The 2016 International Myeloma Working Group consensus recommendations emphasize the importance of high sensitivity methods for minimal residual disease (MRD) detection, treatment response assessment and prognostication. Next generation sequencing (NGS) of IGH gene rearrangements is highly specific and sensitive, but its description in routine clinical practice and performance comparison with high sensitivity flow cytometry (hsFC) remain limited. In this large single institution study including 438 samples from 251 patients, we describe our use of NGS targeting the IGH and IGK genes for clonal characterization and monitoring, with comparison to hsFC. The index clone characterization success rate was 93.6% (235/251), which depended on plasma cell (PC) cellularity, reaching 98% when PC≥10% and below 80% when PC<5%. 85% of cases were successfully characterized using leader and FR1 primer sets, and most clones showed high somatic hypermutation rate (median 8.1%). Among monitoring samples from 124 patients, 78.6% (147/187) had detectable disease by NGS. Concordance with hsFC was 92.9% (170/183). Discordant cases encompassed 8/124 hsFC MRD+/NGS MRD- (6.5%) patients and 4/124 hsFC MRD-/NGS MRD+ (3.2%) patients, all with low-level disease near detection limits for both assays. Among concordant hsFC MRD-/NGS MRD- cases, only 5/24 patients (20.8%) showed subsequent overt relapse with 3-year follow-up. HsFC and NGS showed similar operational sensitivity, and the choice of test may depend on practical, rather than test performance, considerations.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33178327

RESUMO

Jian-Pi-Yi-Shen (JPYS), the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) decoction, has been commonly used to treat chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its complications such as anemia. JPYS has been previously found to induce erythropoietin (EPO) production in HEK293T cells and CKD rats. However, the mechanism of JPYS in treating anemia of CKD rats has remained largely unknown. Here, we further extend our effort to investigate the translational control of hypoxia inducible factor- (HIF-) α protein via ERK signaling and the effect on iron recycling-related protein expression by JPYS, thus revealing the mechanism of JPYS in correcting anemia in CKD. Experimental CKD rats with anemia were induced by 5/6 nephrectomy. Rats were administrated orally with high dose (6.0 g/kg/d) and low dose (1.5 g/kg/d) of JPYS for 90 days. Serum hepcidin level was determined to evaluate iron homeostasis. The protein expressions of HIF-2α, erythropoietin (EPO), ferritin, and ferroportin (FPN) and the phosphorylation level of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) were detected by Western blot. The results showed that JPYS treatment significantly ameliorated kidney function by reducing increased levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (Scr), and urine protein (UPRO). Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) and Masson staining observation showed that the renal pathological damage was restored in JPYS-treated CKD rats. In parallel, JPYS markedly improved CKD anemia through upregulation of red blood cell (RBC), hemoglobin (HGB), and hematocrit (HCT). JPYS stimulated EPO and HIF-2α protein expressions in both the kidney and liver of CKD rats. Furthermore, JPYS induced the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 protein. In addition, JPYS regulated protein expression of ferritin and FPN in both the liver and spleen of CKD rats and the serum level of hepcidin. In conclusion, JPYS induces the expression of EPO through ERK-mediated HIF-2α protein accumulation and regulates systemic iron recycling, supporting its role in promoting erythropoiesis and improvement of anemia in CKD.

15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(47): 13730-13741, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33180478

RESUMO

Endothelial dysfunction is a common disorder of vascular homeostasis in hypertension characterized by oxidative stress, malignant migration, inflammatory response, and active adhesion response of endothelial cells. The extracellular vesicles (EVs), a vital participant in vascular cell communication, have been considered responsible for vascular disease progression. However, the potential mechanism of antihypertensive peptides against the EVs-induced endothelial dysfunction is still unclear. In this study, we investigated whether the antihypertensive peptides Val-Pro-Pro (VPP) and Ile-Pro-Pro (IPP) ameliorate the effects of EVs from Ang II-induced vascular smooth muscles (VSMCs) on the endothelial dysfunction. The dihydroethidium staining, wound healing assay, 3D cell culture, and co-culture with U937 monocyte were used to investigate the oxidant/antioxidant balance, migration, tube formation, and cell adhesion in EV-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells. VPP and IPP treatment reduced the level of reactive oxygen species and EV-induced expression of adhesion molecules and restored the ability of tube formation by upregulating endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression. VPP and IPP reduced the protein levels of IL-6 to 227.34 ± 10.56 and 273.84 ± 22.28 pg/mL, of IL-1ß protein to 131.56 ± 23.18 and 221.14 ± 13.8 pg/mL, and of MCP-1 to 301.48 ± 19.75 and 428.68 ± 9.59 pg/mL. These results suggested that the VPP and IPP are potential agents that can improve the endothelial dysfunction caused by EVs from Ang II-induced VSMCs.

16.
Onco Targets Ther ; 13: 10851-10866, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33149603

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third-commonest malignant cancer, and its metastasis is the major reason for cancer-related death. The process of metastasis is highly coordinated and involves a complex cascade of multiple steps. In recent years, miRNAs, as highly conserved, endogenous, noncoding, single-stranded RNA, has been confirmed to be involved in the development of various cancers. Considering that miRNA is also involved in a series of biological behaviors, regulating CRC occurrence and development, we review and summarize the role of miRNAs and related signaling pathways in several CRC-metastasis stages, including invasion and migration, mobility, metabolism, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, tumor-microenvironment communication, angiogenesis, anoikis, premetastatic-niche formation, and cancer stemness. In addition, we review the application of miRNAs as diagnostic CRC markers and in clinical treatment resistance. This review can contribute to understanding of the mechanism of miRNAs in CRC progression and provide a theoretical basis for clinical CRC treatment.

17.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(11)2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33139625

RESUMO

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a genetically heterogeneous malignancy comprised of various cytogenetic and molecular abnormalities that has notoriously been difficult to treat with an overall poor prognosis. For decades, treatment options were limited to either intensive chemotherapy with anthracycline and cytarabine-based regimens (7 + 3) or lower intensity regimens including hypomethylating agents or low dose cytarabine, followed by either allogeneic stem cell transplant or consolidation chemotherapy. Fortunately, with the influx of rapidly evolving molecular technologies and new genetic understanding, the treatment landscape for AML has dramatically changed. Advances in the formulation and delivery of 7 + 3 with liposomal cytarabine and daunorubicin (Vyxeos) have improved overall survival in secondary AML. Increased understanding of the genetic underpinnings of AML has led to targeting actionable mutations such as FLT3, IDH1/2 and TP53, and BCL2 or hedgehog pathways in more frail populations. Antibody drug conjugates have resurfaced in the AML landscape and there have been numerous advances utilizing immunotherapies including immune checkpoint inhibitors, antibody-drug conjugates, bispecific T cell engager antibodies, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T therapy and the development of AML vaccines. While there are dozens of ongoing studies and new drugs in the pipeline, this paper serves as a review of the advances achieved in the treatment of AML in the last several years and the most promising future avenues of advancement.

18.
Food Chem ; : 128555, 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33243558

RESUMO

Sodium dodecyl sulfonate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), circular dichroism spectroscopy (CD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) were used to analyze the structural properties and gastrointestinal digestive characteristics of natural insoluble undenatured type II collagen (IC II) and pepsin soluble undenatured type II collagen (SC II). Results showed that, after gastric digestion, especially under low pH conditions, some thick and short collagen fibers were dissolved from IC II, which was accompanied by the release of soluble protein with triple helix structure. As to SC II, when gastric digestion was performed under higher pH conditions, collagen fibers were mildly thinned and curved, and the triple helix structure was slightly destroyed. However, those changes hardly occurred during the intestinal digestion. Moreover, the undenatured type II collagen existing in SC II digestive supernatant was 1.2-12.4 times higher than that of IC II depending on the pH conditions. These results suggested that, it is more likely for SC II to exert its activity of relieving arthritis, and it should be taken when the pH of gastric environment is high.

19.
Curr Drug Targets ; 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33050859

RESUMO

Since its discovery more than 100 years ago, aspirin has been widely used for its antipyretic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-rheumatic activities. In addition to these applications, it is increasingly becoming clear that the drug also has great potential in the field of cancer. Here, we briefly review current insights of aspirin's anti-tumor effects. These are multiple and vary from inhibiting the major cellular mTOR pathways, acting as a calorie-restricted mimetic by inhibition of energy production, suppressing platelet aggregation and granule release, inhibiting immune escape of tumor cells, to decreasing inflammatory responses. We consider these five mechanisms of action the most significant of aspirin's anti-tumor effects, whereby the anti-tumor effect may ultimately stem from its inhibition of energy metabolism, platelet function, and inflammatory response. As such, aspirin can play an important role to reduce the occurrence, proliferation, and metastasis of various types of tumors. However, most of the collected data are still based on epidemiological investi-gations. More direct and effective evidence is needed, and the side effects of aspirin intake need to be solved before this drug can be widely applied in cancer treatment.

20.
Echocardiography ; 2020 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070402

RESUMO

Shone's syndrome is a rare congenital heart disease that includes 4 cardiovascular anomalies: supravalvular mitral ring, parachute mitral valve, subaortic stenosis, and coarctation of the aorta. Early diagnosis and treatment result in better outcomes. Echocardiography plays an important role in the diagnosis and is the optimal examination for detecting this disease. Pressure gradients are often unreliable and inaccurate; thus, careful anatomical observation of the left ventricular inflow and outflow tracts, particularly the mitral valve, is vital for accurate diagnosis and planning appropriate management. Herein, we describe 9 cases of Shone's syndrome, diagnosed with echocardiography and treated surgically.

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