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2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33908180

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The presence of significant liver fibrosis is a key determinant of long-term prognosis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We aimed to develop a novel machine learning algorithm (MLA) to predict fibrosis severity in NAFLD and compared it with the most widely used non-invasive fibrosis biomarkers. METHODS: We used a cohort of 553 adults with biopsy-proven NAFLD, who were randomly divided into a training cohort (n=278) for the development of both logistic regression model (LRM) and MLA, and a validation cohort (n=275). Significant fibrosis was defined as fibrosis stage F≥2. MLA and LRM were derived from variables that were selected using a least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) logistic regression algorithm. RESULTS: In the training cohort, the variables selected by LASSO algorithm were body mass index, pro-collagen type III, collagen type IV, aspartate aminotransferase and albumin-to-globulin ratio. The diagnostic accuracy of MLA showed the highest values of area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUROC: 0.902, 95%CI 0.869-0.904) for identifying fibrosis F≥2. The LRM AUROC was 0.764, 95%CI 0.710-0.816) and significantly better than the AST-to-Platelet ratio (AUROC 0.684, 95%CI 0.605-0.762), FIB-4 score (AUROC 0.594, 95%CI 0.503-0.685) and NAFLD Fibrosis Score (AUROC 0.557, 95%CI 0.470-0.644). In the validation cohort, MLA also showed the highest AUROC (0.893, 95%CI 0.864-0.901). The diagnostic accuracy of MLA outperformed that of LRM in all subgroups considered. CONCLUSIONS: Our newly developed MLA algorithm has excellent diagnostic performance for predicting fibrosis F≥2 in patients with biopsy-confirmed NAFLD.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33853719

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Several susceptibility gene variants predisposing to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) have been identified in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Evidence supports that 17-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 13 (HSD17B13) rs72613567 plays a role in NAFLD development by affecting lipid homeostasis. Since lipid droplets may accumulate in the kidneys and contribute to renal injury, we investigated the association between the HSD17B13 rs72613567 variant and markers of renal function/injury in NAFLD. METHODS AND RESULTS: We measured estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), urinary/serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (u-ACR) in individuals with biopsy-proven NAFLD. Multivariable regression analyses were undertaken to examine the associations between the HSD17B13 rs72613567 variant and markers of renal function/injury. Individuals were stratified by HSD17B13 rs72613567 genotypes into -/-, A/- and A/A groups. HSD17B13 rs72613567 genotypes were not significantly associated with eGFR and urinary/serum NGAL levels. Conversely, the prevalence of abnormal albuminuria in the A/- + A/A group was lower than in the -/- group (4.92% vs. 19.35%, p = 0.001). Additionally, the mean u-ACR levels were lower among carriers of the A/- or A/A genotypes with coexisting hypertension or diabetes, than among those with the -/- genotype. The risk of abnormal albuminuria (adjusted-odds ratio 0.16, p = 0.001) remained significantly lower in the A/- + A/A group after adjustment for established renal risk factors and histologic severity of NAFLD. CONCLUSION: HSD17B13 rs72613567: A allele is associated with a lower risk of having abnormal albuminuria, but not with lower eGFR or urinary/serum NGAL levels, in patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33709875

RESUMO

Introduction: Telomerase is a basic nuclear protein reverse transcriptase, which plays a key role in maintaining telomere stability, genome integrity, long-term cell activity, and potential continued proliferation.Area covered: This narrative review discusses key research advances involving telomerase in the development and progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The review evaluates 9a) whether the assessment of telomerase can be used as a noninvasive diagnostic tool; and (b) whether modification of telomerase function might be a useful potential therapeutic target for treatment of NAFLD. Furthermore, the relationship between telomerase and other chronic metabolic diseases is evaluated.Expert opinion: Several experimental and preclinical studies have suggested that telomerase plays an important role in the development of NAFLD. However, further mechanistic studies are needed to prove a causal relationship and to better elucidate whether the measurement of telomerase has utility as a diagnostic tool or whether pharmacological manipulation of telomerase has therapeutic potential in NAFLD treatment.

5.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 604100, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33763027

RESUMO

Background and Aim: Circulating levels of interleukin (IL)-6, a well-known inflammatory cytokine, are often elevated in coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Elevated IL-6 levels are also observed in patients with metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD). Our study aimed to describe the association between circulating IL-6 levels and MAFLD at hospital admission with risk of severe COVID-19. Methods: A total of 167 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from three Chinese hospitals were enrolled. Circulating levels of IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interferon (IFN)-γ were measured at admission. All patients were screened for fatty liver by computed tomography. Forty-six patients were diagnosed as MAFLD. Results: Patients with MAFLD (n = 46) had higher serum IL-6 levels (median 7.1 [interquartile range, 4.3-20.0] vs. 4.8 [2.6-11.6] pg/mL, p = 0.030) compared to their counterparts without MAFLD (n = 121). After adjustment for age and sex, patients with MAFLD had a ~2.6-fold higher risk of having severe COVID-19 than those without MAFLD. After adjustment for age, sex and metabolic co-morbidities, increased serum IL-6 levels remained associated with higher risk of severe COVID-19, especially among infected patients with MAFLD (adjusted-odds ratio 1.14, 95% CI 1.05-1.23; p = 0.002). There was a significant interaction effect between serum IL-6 levels and MAFLD for risk of severe COVID-19 (p for interaction = 0.008). Conclusions: Patients with MAFLD and elevated serum IL-6 levels at admission are at higher risk for severe illness from COVID-19.


Assuntos
/complicações , Fígado Gorduroso/epidemiologia , Interleucina-6/sangue , Doenças Metabólicas/fisiopatologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , /virologia , China/epidemiologia , Fígado Gorduroso/sangue , Fígado Gorduroso/patologia , Fígado Gorduroso/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
6.
Clin Transl Gastroenterol ; 12(3): e00321, 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33704100

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Strong evidence indicates that multiple genetic and environmental risk factors play a role in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). We aimed to develop and validate a novel nomogram, incorporating both genetic and clinical factors, for predicting NASH. METHODS: A total of 1,070 Asian individuals with biopsy-confirmed nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) from 2 countries (China and South Korea) were recruited. The histological spectrum of NAFLD was classified according to the NASH clinical research network scoring system. The nomogram was developed in the Chinese training set (n = 402), and then, it was validated in both the Chinese internal validation set (n = 136) and the external Korean validation cohort (n = 532), respectively. RESULTS: Sex, metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, serum aspartate aminotransferase levels, and PNPLA3 (rs738409) and HSD17B13 (rs72613567) genetic variants were strongly associated with NASH. Based on their regression coefficients, we developed a nomogram with good discriminatory ability (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve: 0.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.77-0.85) and good calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow test, P = 0.794) for identifying NASH. In the 2 validation cohorts, the nomogram showed high area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (internal validation set: 0.80, 95% CI 0.72-0.88; external validation cohort: 0.76, 95% CI 0.72-0.80) and good calibration. DISCUSSION: Our newly developed and externally validated nomogram, incorporating both genetic and clinical risk factors, may be conveniently used to predict NASH. Further validation studies in other ethnic groups are warranted to confirm its diagnostic utility to identify NASH, among patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605666

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Increased mortality risk due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV2) infection in adults with native liver disease (LD) and liver transplant (LT) is associated with advanced age and comorbid conditions. We aim to report outcomes for children with LD and LT enrolled in the NASPGHAN/SPLIT SARS-CoV2 registry. METHODS: In this multicenter observational cohort study, we collected data from 91 patients <21 years (LD 44, LT 47) with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV2 infection between April 21 and September 17, 2020. RESULTS: Patients with LD were more likely to require admission (70% vs 43% LT, p = 0.007) and pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) management (32% vs 4% LT, p = 0.001). Seven LD patients required mechanical ventilation (MV) and 2 patients died; no patients in the LT cohort died or required MV. Four LD patients presented in pediatric acute liver failure (PALF), 2 with concurrent multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C); all recovered without LT. Two LD patients had MIS-C alone and one patient died. Bivariable logistic-regression analysis found that patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) (OR 5.6, p = 0.02) and LD (OR 6.1, p = 0.01, vs LT) had higher odds of severe disease (PICU, vasopressor support, MV, renal replacement therapy or death). CONCLUSIONS: Although not directly comparable, LT recipients had lower odds of severe SARS-CoV2 infection (vs LD), despite immunosuppression burden. NAFLD patients reported to the registry had higher odds of severe SARS-CoV2 disease. Future controlled studies are needed to evaluate effective treatments and further stratify LD and LT patients with SARS-CoV2 infection.

8.
Clin Mol Hepatol ; 27(2): 329-345, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465844

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a progressive form of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) characterized by hepatic steatosis, inflammation, hepatocellular injury, and fibrosis. We aimed to investigate the usefulness of a key biomarker, lipocalin-2 (LCN2), for the detection of NASH progression. METHODS: A mouse NASH model was established using a high-fat diet and a high-sugar drinking water. Gene expression profile of the NASH model was analyzed using RNA sequencing. Moreover, 360 NAFLD patients (steatosis, 83; NASH, 277), 40 healthy individuals, and 87 patients with alcoholic fatty liver disease were recruited. RESULTS: Inflammatory infiltration, focal necrosis in the leaflets, steatosis, and fibrosis were documented in the mouse liver. In total, 504 genes were differentially expressed in the livers of NASH mice, and showed significant functional enrichment in the inflammation-related category. Upregulated liver LCN2 was found to be significantly interactive with various interleukins and toll-like receptors. Serum LCN2 levels were significantly increased in NAFLD patients. Serum LCN2 levels were correlated with steatosis, intralobular inflammation, semiquantitative fibrosis score, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease activity score. The area under the curve of serum LCN2 was 0.987 with a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 93.5% for NASH diagnosis, and 0.977 with almost the same specificity and sensitivity for steatosis. CONCLUSION: LCN2 might be involved in the transition from NAFL to NASH by mediating inflammation. Serum LCN2 levels might be a novel biomarker for the diagnosis of NASH.

9.
J Hepatol ; 74(4): 989-991, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33347953
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33250371

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Some previous studies reported serum autoantibody positivity in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The clinical significance of these findings remains uncertain. We aimed to investigate the association between the presence of serum autoantibodies and liver disease severity in NAFLD. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 388 consecutive patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD were included in the study. Various serum autoantibodies (including also anti-nuclear antibodies [ANA]) were detected by indirect immunofluorescent or immunoblotting assays. Overall, 84 (21.6%) patients with biopsy-confirmed NAFLD had positivity for at least one of the measured serum autoantibodies. ANA positivity was present in 50 (12.9%) patients, whereas anti-U1RNP or pANCA antibodies were detectable in 9 (2.3%) and 6 (1.5%) patients, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that ANA positivity (adjusted-odds ratio: 4.51, 95%CI: 1.77-11.5; P = 0.002) or positivity of any serum autoantibodies (adjusted-odds ratio: 3.14, 95%CI: 1.30-7.62; P = 0.01) were independently associated with advanced liver fibrosis (stages F3-F4). In serum autoantibody/ANA-positive patients, the proportion of those with advanced fibrosis was also greater among carriers of PNPLA3 rs738409 GG or CG than among those carrying PNPLA3 rs738409 CC genotype. CONCLUSIONS: Serum autoantibody positivity was independently associated with advanced liver fibrosis in patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD. The presence of serum autoantibodies in patients with advanced fibrosis occurred more frequently amongst those carrying PNPLA3 rs738409 GG or CG genotypes.

14.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-39, 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33198849

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The FNDC5 gene encodes the fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 that is a membrane protein mainly expressed in skeletal muscle and the FNDC5 rs3480 polymorphism may be associated with liver disease severity in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We investigated the influence of the FNDC5 rs3480 polymorphism on the relationship between sarcopenia and the histological severity of NAFLD. METHODS: 370 adult individuals with biopsy-proven NAFLD were studied. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass was measured by bioelectrical impedance. The association between the key exposure sarcopenia, and the outcome liver histological severity, was investigated by binary logistic regression. Stratified analyses were undertaken to examine the impact of FNDC5 rs3480 polymorphism on the association between sarcopenia and the severity of NAFLD histology. RESULTS: Patients with sarcopenia had more severe histological grades of steatosis and a higher prevalence of significant fibrosis and definite NASH than those without sarcopenia. There was a significant association between sarcopenia and significant fibrosis (adjusted odds ratio 2.79, 95%CI 1.31-5.95, p=0.008), independent of established risk factors and potential confounders. Among patients with sarcopenia, significant fibrosis occurred more frequently in the rs3480 AA genotype carriers than in those carrying the FNDC5 rs3480 G genotype (43.8% vs. 17.2%, p=0.031). In the association between sarcopenia and liver fibrosis, there was a significant interaction between the FNDC5 genotype and sarcopenia status (p-value for interaction=0.006). CONCLUSION: Sarcopenia is independently associated with significant liver fibrosis, and the FNDC5 rs3480 G variant influences the association between sarcopenia and liver fibrosis in patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD.

15.
Metabolism ; 115: 154433, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33212070

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Whereas nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a multisystem disease, the association between metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) and extra-hepatic diseases is not known. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to compare the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in patients with either MAFLD or NAFLD, and then to examine the association between the presence and severity of MAFLD and CKD and abnormal albuminuria. METHODS: A total of 12,571 individuals with complete biochemical and liver ultrasonography data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994) were included in the analysis. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to test the independence of associations between MAFLD or MAFLD severity as the key exposures and CKD (defined as either CKD stage ≥1 or stage ≥3) or abnormal albuminuria (urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio ≥ 3 mg/mmol) as the outcomes. RESULTS: The prevalence of MAFLD and NAFLD was 30.2% (n = 3794) and 36.2% (n = 4552), respectively. MAFLD individuals had a lower eGFR (74.96 ±â€¯18.21 vs. 76.46 ±â€¯18.24 ml/min/1.73 m2, P < 0.001) and a greater prevalence of CKD (29.60% vs. 26.56%, P < 0.05) than NAFLD individuals. Similarly, there was a higher prevalence CKD in MAFLD than in non-metabolic dysfunction-associated NAFLD (P < 0.05). Notably, after adjustment for sex, age, ethnicity, alcohol intake and diabetes, the severity of MAFLD (i.e. NAFLD fibrosis score ≥ 0.676) was associated with 1.34-fold higher risk of prevalent CKD (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: MAFLD identifies patients with CKD better than NAFLD. MAFLD and MAFLD with increased liver fibrosis score are strongly and independently associated with CKD and abnormal albuminuria.

16.
Hepatology ; 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33236445

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with elevation of many cytokines particularly IL-6; however, the role of IL-6 in NAFLD remains obscure. The aim of this study was to examine how myeloid-specific IL-6 signaling affects NAFLD via the regulation of anti-fibrotic microRNA-223 in myeloid cells. APPROACH & RESULTS: Patients with NAFLD or nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and healthy controls were recruited, and serum IL-6 and soluble IL-6 receptor α (sIL-6Rα) were measured. Compared to controls, serum IL-6 and sIL-6Rα levels were elevated in NAFLD/NASH patients. IL-6 levels correlated positively with the number of circulating leukocytes and monocytes. The role of IL-6 in NAFLD was investigated in Il6 knockout (KO) and Il6 receptor A (Il6ra) conditional KO mice after high-fat diet (HFD) feeding. HFD-fed Il6 KO mice had worse liver injury and fibrosis, but less inflammation compared to WT mice. Hepatocyte-specific Il6ra KO mice had more steatosis and liver injury, whereas myeloid-specific Il6ra KO mice had lower number of hepatic infiltrating macrophages and neutrophils with increased cell death of these cells but greater liver fibrosis than WT mice. Mechanistically, the increased liver fibrosis in HFD-fed myeloid-specific Il6ra KO mice was due to the reduction of anti-fibrotic miR-223 and subsequent upregulation of the miR-223 target gene transcriptional activator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ), a well-known factor to promote NASH-fibrosis. In vitro, IL-6 treatment upregulated exosome biogenesis-related genes and subsequently promoted macrophages to release miR-223-enriched exosomes that were able to reduce pro-fibrotic TAZ expression in hepatocytes via exosomal transfer. Finally, serum IL-6 and miR-223 levels were elevated and correlated with each other in NAFLD patients. CONCLUSIONS: Myeloid-specific IL-6 signaling inhibits liver fibrosis via exosomal transfer of anti-fibrotic miR-223 into hepatocytes, providing novel therapeutic targets for NAFLD therapy.

17.
Hepatol Int ; 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006093

RESUMO

Metabolic associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) is the principal worldwide cause of liver disease and affects nearly a quarter of the global population. The objective of this work was to present the clinical practice guidelines of the Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver (APASL) on MAFLD. The guidelines cover various aspects of MAFLD including its epidemiology, diagnosis, screening, assessment, and treatment. The document is intended for practical use and for setting the stage for advancing clinical practice, knowledge, and research of MAFLD in adults, with specific reference to special groups as necessary. The guidelines also seek to improve patient care and awareness of the disease and assist stakeholders in the decision-making process by providing evidence-based data. The guidelines take into consideration the burden of clinical management for the healthcare sector.

18.
J Hepatol ; 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035628

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic liver disease (CLD) and cirrhosis are associated with immune dysregulation leading to concerns that these patients may be at risk of adverse outcomes following SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, the impact of COVID-19 among patients with pre-existing liver disease remains ill-defined. METHODS: Data for CLD patients with SARS-CoV-2 were collected by two international registries. Comparisons were made with non-CLD patients with SARS-CoV-2 from a UK hospital network. RESULTS: Between 25th March and 8th July 2020, 745 CLD patients were reported from 29 countries including 386 with cirrhosis and 359 without. Mortality was 32% in patients with cirrhosis compared with 8% in those without (p<0.001). Mortality in cirrhosis patients increased according to Child-Turcotte-Pugh class (CTP-A (19%), CTP-B (35%), CTP-C (51%)) and the main cause of death was respiratory failure (71%). After adjusting for baseline characteristics, factors associated with death in the total CLD cohort were age (OR 1.02; 1.01-1.04), CTP-A (OR 1.90; 1.03-3.52), CTP-B (OR 4.14; 2.4-7.65), CTP-C cirrhosis (OR 9.32; 4.80-18.08) and alcohol related liver disease (ALD) (OR 1.79; 1.03-3.13). When comparing CLD versus non-CLD (n=620) in propensity-score-matched analysis there were significant increases in mortality with CTP-B +20.0% (8.8%-31.3%) and CTP-C cirrhosis +38.1% (27.1%-49.2%). Acute hepatic decompensation occurred in 46% of patients with cirrhosis, of which 21% had no respiratory symptoms. 50% of those with hepatic decompensation had acute-on-chronic liver failure. CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest reported cohort of CLD and cirrhosis patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection to date. We demonstrate that baseline liver disease stage and ALD are independent risk factor for death from COVID-19. These data have important implications for the risk stratification of patients with CLD across the globe during the COVID-19 pandemic.

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