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1.
Gastroenterol Rep (Oxf) ; 8(5): 343-348, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33163188

RESUMO

The Denonvilliers' fascia (DVF) plays an important role in rectal surgery because of its anatomic position and its relationship to the surrounding organs. It affects the surgical plane anterior to the rectum in the procedure of total mesorectal excision (TME). Anatomical and embryological studies have helped us to understand this structure to some extent, but many controversies remain. In terms of its embryonical origin, there are three mainstream hypotheses: peritoneal fusion of the embryonic cul-de-sac, condensation of embryonic mesenchyme, and mechanical pressure. Regarding its architecture, the DVF may be a single, two, or multiple layers, or a composite single-layer structure. In women, most authors deem that this structure does exist but they are willing to call it the rectovaginal septum rather than the DVF. Operating behind the DVF is supported by most surgeons. This article will review those mainstream studies and opinions on the DVF and combine them with what we have observed during surgery to discuss those controversies and consensuses mentioned above. We hope this review may help young colorectal surgeons to have a better understanding of the DVF and provide a platform from which to guide future scientific research.

2.
Virulence ; 6(4): 347-61, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25714264

RESUMO

Candida albicans is both a commensal microorganism in healthy individuals and a major fungal pathogen causing high mortality in immunocompromised patients. Yeast-hypha morphological transition is a well known virulence trait of C. albicans. Host innate immunity to C. albicans critically requires pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). In this review, we summarize the PRRs involved in the recognition of C. albicans in epithelial cells, endothelial cells, and phagocytic cells separately. We figure out the differential recognition of yeasts and hyphae, the findings on PRR-deficient mice, and the discoveries on human PRR-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs).


Assuntos
Candida albicans/imunologia , Candida albicans/patogenicidade , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Receptores de Reconhecimento de Padrão/imunologia , Animais , Candida albicans/fisiologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/microbiologia , Células Endoteliais/imunologia , Células Endoteliais/microbiologia , Células Epiteliais/imunologia , Células Epiteliais/microbiologia , Humanos , Hifas/imunologia , Hifas/patogenicidade , Hifas/fisiologia , Imunidade Inata , Camundongos , Fagócitos/imunologia , Fagócitos/microbiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptores de Reconhecimento de Padrão/genética
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