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1.
Pancreas ; 50(3): 330-340, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33835963

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This retrospective cohort study assessed short- and long-term economic, clinical burden, and productivity impacts of acute pancreatitis (AP) in the United States. METHODS: United States claims data from patients hospitalized for AP (January 1, 2011-September-30, 2016) were sourced from MarketScan databases. Patients were categorized by index AP severity: severe intensive care unit (ICU), severe non-ICU, and other hospitalized patients. RESULTS: During index, 41,946 patients were hospitalized or visited an emergency department for AP. For inpatients, median (interquartile range) AP-related total cost was $13,187 ($12,822) and increased with AP severity (P < 0.0001). During the postindex year, median AP-related costs were higher (P < 0.0001) for severe ICU versus severe non-ICU and other hospitalized patients. Hours lost and costs due to absence and short-term disability were similar between categories. Long-term disability costs were higher (P = 0.005) for severe ICU versus other hospitalized patients. Factors associated with higher total all-cause costs in the year after discharge included AP severity, length of hospitalization, readmission, AP reoccurrence, progression to chronic pancreatitis, or new-onset diabetes (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: An AP event exerts substantial burden during hospitalization and involves long-term clinical and economic consequences, including loss of productivity, which increase with index AP event severity.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33877519

RESUMO

Some studies suggested that 24-h temperature change (TC24) was one of the potential risk factors for human health. However, evidence of the short-term effect of TC24 on outpatient and emergency department (O&ED) visits and hospitalizations for cause-specific cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) is still limited. The aim of this study is to explore the short-term effects of TC24 on O&ED visits and hospitalizations for CVDs in northwest China which is an area with large temperature variation. The O&ED visits records for CVDs of 3 general hospitals and the inpatient records for CVDs of 4 general hospitals were collected from January 1, 2013, to December 31, 2016, in Jinchang City, northwest China. Meteorological and air pollution data were also obtained during the same study period from local meteorological monitoring station and environmental monitoring station, respectively. A generalized additive model (GAM) with Poisson regression was employed to analyze the effects of TC24 on O&ED visits and hospitalizations for CVDs. V-shaped relationship were found between TC24 and O&ED visits and hospitalizations for CVDs, including total CVD, hypertension, coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke. Stratified analysis showed that men and patients over 65 years old were more susceptible to temperature changes. The estimates in non-heating months were higher than in full year. TC24 can affect the O&ED visits and hospitalizations for CVDs in this study. This study provides useful data for policy makers to better prepare local responses to the impact of changes in temperature on population health.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33900441

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Diurnal temperature range (DTR) is a meteorological indicator closely associated with global climate change. Thus, we aim to explore the effects of DTR on the outpatient and emergency room (O&ER) admissions for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), and related predictive research. METHODS: The O&ER admissions data for CVDs from three general hospitals in Jinchang of Gansu Province were collected from 2013 to 2016. A generalized additive model (GAM) with Poisson regression was employed to analyze the effect of DTR on the O&ER admissions for all cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, ischemic heart disease (IHD) and stoke. GAM was also used to preform predictive research of the effect of DTR on the O&ER admissions for CVDs. RESULTS: There were similar positive linear relationships between DTR and the O&ER visits with the four cardiovascular diseases. And the cumulative lag effects were higher than the single lag effects. A 1 °C increase in DTR corresponded to a 1.30% (0.99-1.62%) increase in O&ER admissions for all cardiovascular diseases. Males and elderly were more sensitivity to DTR. The estimates in non-heating season were higher than in heating season. The trial prediction accuracy rate of CVDs based on DTR was between 59.32 and 74.40%. CONCLUSIONS: DTR has significantly positive association with O&ER admissions for CVDs, which can be used as a prediction index of the admissions of O&ER with CVDs.

4.
J Neuroinflammation ; 18(1): 85, 2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33810797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal synthetic glucocorticoid (sGC) exposure increases the susceptibility to cognitive and affective disorders in postnatal life. We previously demonstrated that prenatal sGC exposure results in an increase in corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) receptor type 1 (CRHR1) expression in the hippocampus of rats, and CRHR1 is involved in synapse formation via regulation of C-X-C chemokine ligand 5 (CXCL5) in hippocampus. We sought to investigate that the roles of CRHR1 and CXCL5 in learning and memory impairment caused by prenatal sGC exposure. METHODS: Pregnant rats were administered with saline or dexamethasone (DEX) from gestational day (GD) 14 to GD21. DEX offspring at 2-day old were treated with saline and CRHR1 antagonists (antalarmin and CP154526) for 7 days. Some DEX offspring received intra-hippocampal injection of AAV9 carrying CXCL5 gene. Spatial learning and memory was assessed by Morris water maze test. Immunofluorescence analysis was applied to show synapsin I and PSD95 signals in hippocampus. Synapsin I and PSD95 protein level and CXCL5 concentration were determined by western blotting and ELISA, respectively. Organotypic hippocampal slice cultures were used to investigate the effect of DEX on CXCL5 production in vitro. RESULTS: Both male and female DEX offspring displayed impairment of spatial learning and memory in adulthood. Synapsin I and PSD95 signals and CXCL5 levels were decreased in DEX offspring. DEX offspring with antalarmin and CP154526 treatment showed improved spatial learning and memory. Antalarmin and CP154526 treatment increased synapsin I and PSD95 signals and CXCL5 concentration in hippocampus. Bilaterally hippocampal injection of AAV9 carrying CXCL5 gene improved the spatial learning and memory and increased CXCL5 concentration and synapsin I and PSD95 levels in hippocampus. DEX dose-dependently suppressed CXCL5 production in cultured hippocammpal slices, which was prevented by antalarmin treatment. CONCLUSION: CRHR1 and CXCL5 signaling in the hippocampus are involved in spatial learning and memory deficits caused by prenatal DEX exposure. CRHR1 activation contributes to decreased CXCL5 production in hippocampus induced by prenatal DEX treatment. Our study provides a molecular basis of prenatal GC exposure programming spatial learning and memory.

5.
Sci Total Environ ; 776: 145936, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652306

RESUMO

Microplastics (MPs) are a growing threat to marine biota and ecosystems, and zooplankton are at high risk of ingesting MPs. The seasonal changes in MPs in zooplankton and the key environmental factors influencing the retention of MPs in zooplankton are largely unknown. For the first time, the characteristics of MPs in copepods across four seasons in Jiaozhou Bay. The abundance, shape, size, and chemical composition of the MPs in copepods were investigated, and the relationships between the MP/copepod value and key environmental factors were analyzed. The results revealed a significant seasonal difference in MP/copepod values in Jiaozhou Bay. MP/copepod values were 0.26, 0.23, 0.14 and 0.16 in February, May, August and November, respectively. The MP/copepod value was significantly higher in winter and spring than in summer and significantly higher in the estuarine zone than in other zones. Seawater temperature was negatively correlated with the MP/copepod value. No significant seasonal differences were detected in the characteristics of MPs in copepods in Jiaozhou Bay. The size of MPs in copepods ranged from 90 to 2485 µm, with an average of 454 ± 376 µm. Fiber MPs were the most risky to copepods, accounting for 92% of the total ingested MPs. In terms of the chemical composition of the MPs, a total of 11 polymers were detected in copepods in Jiaozhou Bay in the four seasons. The main components were polyester and cellophane (41.9% and 25.7%, respectively). This study provides the key parameters of the MPs in copepods in Jiaozhou Bay and is an important basis for further ecological risk assessments of MPs. The chronic effects of low-level MP retention on copepods, the impact of fibers on copepods, and appropriate assessments of MP risk under different environmental conditions are recommended as research topics for the next step toward developing an environmentally relevant MP risk assessment. THE MAIN FINDING: The seasonal characteristics of microplastics ingested by copepods in Jiaozhou Bay were revealed.


Assuntos
Copépodes , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Baías , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Estações do Ano , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
6.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 34(2): 89-100, 2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33685567

RESUMO

Objective: The relationship between outdoor temperature and blood pressure (BP) has been inconclusive. We analyzed data from a prospective cohort study in northwestern China to investigate the effect of outdoor temperature on BP and effect modification by season. Methods: A total of 32,710 individuals who participated in both the baseline survey and the first follow-up in 2011-2015 were included in the study. A linear mixed-effect model and generalized additive mixed model (GAMM) were applied to estimate the association between outdoor temperature and BP after adjusting for confounding variables. Results: The mean differences in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) between summer and winter were 3.5 mmHg and 2.75 mmHg, respectively. After adjusting for individual characteristics, meteorological factors and air pollutants, a significant increase in SBP and DBP was observed for lag 06 day and lag 04 day, a 0.28 mmHg (95% CI: 0.27-0.30) per 1 °C decrease in average temperature for SBP and a 0.16 mmHg (95% CI: 0.15-0.17) per 1 °C decrease in average temperature for DBP, respectively. The effects of the average temperature on both SBP and DBP were stronger in summer than in other seasons. The effects of the average temperature on BP were also greater if individuals were older, male, overweight or obese, a smoker or drinker, or had cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), hypertension, and diabetes. Conclusions: This study demonstrated a significant negative association between outdoor temperature and BP in a high-altitude environment of northwest China. Moreover, BP showed a significant seasonal variation. The association between BP and temperature differed by season and individuals' demographic characteristics (age, gender, BMI), unhealthy behaviors (smoking and alcohol consumption), and chronic disease status (CVDs, hypertension, and diabetes).


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estações do Ano , Temperatura
7.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(4): 1939-1945, 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742829

RESUMO

In order to study the effects of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) disinfection on the super antibiotic resistance genes (SARGs), the final effluents before and after chlorine dioxide were sampled throughout one year in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The bacteria and extracellular nucleic acid were collected using microporous membrane filtration and nucleic acid adsorption particles, respectively. A total of 9 SARGs was detected through a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The results revealed that both intracellular and extracellular NDM-1, MCR-1, and MEC-A could be positively detected in the samples. Overall, ClO2 disinfection enhanced the relative abundance of the iSARGs (P<0.05), exhibiting a seasonal pattern, and increasing in the spring, summer, and autumn. In spring, it improved the most, up to twice the abundance. No SARGs were detected positive in the winter, either intracellularly or extracellularly. There was no significant variation in the concentrations of eSARGs before and after ClO2 disinfection. Therefore, ClO2 disinfection cannot effectively remove iSARGs and eSARGs in the final effluent from the WWTP.


Assuntos
Compostos Clorados , Desinfetantes , Purificação da Água , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cloro , Compostos Clorados/farmacologia , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Desinfecção , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Óxidos/farmacologia
8.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 103: 106337, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33662589

RESUMO

Preterm infants constitute an important proportion of neonatal deaths and various complications, and very preterm infants (VPI) are more likely to develop severe complications, such as intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), anemia, and sepsis. It has been confirmed that placental transfusion can supplement blood volume in infants and reduce preterm-associated complications, which is further conducive to the development of the nervous system and a better long-term prognosis. Based on these advantages, placental transfusion has been widely used in VPI. There are three main types of placental transfusion: delayed cord clamping (DCC), intact umbilical cord milking (I-UCM), and cut umbilical cord milking (C-UCM). However, the optimal method for PT-VPI remains controversial, and it is urgent to identify the best method of placental transfusion. We plan to fully evaluate the safety and effectiveness of these three placental transfusion methods in VPI in a 3-arm multicenter randomized controlled trial: Placental Transfusion in Very Preterm Infants (PT-VPI). Trial registration: chictr.org.cn, number ChiCTR2000030953.

9.
Cancer Res Treat ; 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33592141

RESUMO

Purpose: Reduced quality of life after cystectomy has made bladder preservation a popular research topic for muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). Previous research has indicated significant tumor downstaging after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). However, maximal transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) was performed before NAC to define the pathology, impacting the real evaluation of NAC. This research aimed to assess real NAC efficacy without interference from TURBT and apply combined modality therapies guided by NAC efficacy. Materials and Methods: Patients with cT2-4aN0M0 MIBC were confirmed by cystoscopic biopsy and imaging. NAC efficacy was assessed by imaging, urine cytology, and cystoscopy with multidisciplinary team discussion. Definite responders (≤T1) underwent TURBT plus concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Incomplete responders underwent radical cystectomy or partial cystectomy if feasible. The primary endpoint was the bladder preservation rate. Results: Fifty-nine patients were enrolled, and the median age was 63 years. Patients with cT3-4 accounted for 75%. The median number of NAC cycles was three. Definite responders were 52.5%. The complete response (CR) was 10.2%, and 59.3% of patients received bladder-sparing treatments. With a median follow-up of 44.6 months, the 3-year overall survival (OS) was 72.8%. Three-year OS and relapse-free survival were 88.4% and 60.0% in the bladder-sparing group but only 74.3% and 37.5% in the cystectomy group. The evaluations of preserved bladder function were satisfactory. Conclusion: After stratifying MIBC patients by NAC efficacy, definite responders achieved a satisfactory bladder-sparing rate, prognosis, and bladder function. The CR rate reflected the real NAC efficacy for MIBC. This therapy is worth verifying through multicenter research.

10.
Sci Total Environ ; 772: 145046, 2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33581536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have found that exposed to low and high outdoor temperature was associated with cardiovascular diseases morbidity and mortality. The risk factors for cardiovascular disease include high blood lipid, high uric acid (UA) and high fasting plasma glucose (FPG). However, few studies have explored the effects of low and high temperature on these metabolic indicators. OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of low and high temperature on metabolic indicators in adults from northwest of China. METHODS: Based on a prospective cohort study, a total of 30,759 individuals who participated in both baseline and first follow-up from 2011 to 2015 were selected in this study. The meteorological observation data and environmental monitoring data were collected in the same period. Associations between cold and hot temperature and blood lipid (total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C)), UA and FPG were conducted with mixed effect models after adjusting for confounding factors. RESULTS: A nonlinear relationship between outdoor temperature and metabolic indicators was found. For the cold effects, each 5 °C decrease of mean temperature was associated with an increase of 5.07% (95% CI: 3.52%, 6.63%) in TG and 2.85% (95% CI: 2.18%, 3.53%) in UA, While a decrease of 3.38% (95% CI: 2.67%, 4.09%) in HDL-C and 1.26% (95% CI: 0.48%, 2.04%) in LDL-C. For the heat effects, each 5 °C increase in mean temperature was associated with 1.82% (95% CI: 0.89%, 2.76%), 0.56% (95% CI: 0.11%, 1.00%), 5.82% (95% CI: 4.58%, 7.06%), 9.02% (95% CI: 7.17%, 10.87%), 0.20% (95% CI: 0.01%, 0.40%), and 1.22% (95% CI: 0.19%, 2.24%) decrease in TC, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C, UA and FPG. Age, smoking, drinking, high-oil diet and hyperlipidemia might modify the association between mean temperature and metabolic indicators. CONCLUSION: There was a significant effect of cold and hot temperature on metabolic indicators in a high altitude area of northwestern China. These results provide a basis for understanding the underlying mechanism of the influence of temperature on metabolic diseases.


Assuntos
Temperatura Alta , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , HDL-Colesterol , LDL-Colesterol , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
11.
J Dermatol ; 48(5): 576-584, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33608936

RESUMO

Kaposiform haemangioendothelioma (KHE) and tufted angioma (TA) are rare vascular tumors that can cause life-threatening Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon. No evidence-based treatment strategies have yet been established, and its management is still a challenge. The purpose of this multicenter prospective randomized controlled study was to evaluate and compare the efficacy of corticosteroid and vincristine (VCR) in the treatment of KHE and TA. All patients with KHE/TA who met the diagnostic criteria were consecutively recruited. The patients were randomized into a methylprednisolone (MP) group and a VCR group. The primary outcome was the single main parameter effective rate and overall effective rate of corticosteroid and VCR over 1 month after treatment. The single main parameters included platelets, fibrinogen, tumor size, texture, and appearance. From May 2016 to April 2018, a total of 59 patients completed the clinical trial, including 29 in the MP group and 30 in the VCR group. The results showed that VCR was superior to corticosteroid in the improvement of platelet (80.0% vs 44.0%, P = 0.019) and tumor texture (68.9% vs 30.8%, P = 0.007). Although the efficacy of VCR on fibrinogen (23.3% vs 20.7%, P = 1.000), tumor size (23.3% vs 13.8%, P = 0.273), and appearance (65.5% vs 46.2%, P = 0.120) was higher than that of corticosteroid, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05). Meanwhile, the overall effective rate of VCR was higher than that of corticosteroid (56.7% vs 31.0%), but the difference was also not statistically significant (P = 0.067). In conclusion, the therapeutic effect of VCR was significantly better than that of corticosteroid with regard to treating thrombocytopenia and tumor texture. We recommend that VCR could be an option for first-line treatment in KHE/TA patients.

12.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 165: 112091, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549999

RESUMO

Microeukaryotes have been recognized as highly abundant and diverse both in form and function, however, data on their diversity and distribution along marine currents remain scarce. Herein, the distribution of microeukaryotes in surface seawaters was analyzed along a 9000 km stretch of the North Equatorial Current (NEC) and its bifurcation using high throughput DNA sequencing. Significant distance-decay patterns were detected, and the microeukaryote communities were further divided into Central Pacific Ocean (CPO), Western Pacific Ocean (WPO), and South China Sea (SCS) groups. Statistical analyses suggested that the microeukaryotic assembly in the WPO is maintained by the CPO community transported via the NEC. Environmental selection contributed more to community variations than spatial processes did. Temperature and salinity were the two most important environmental factors to shape the examined communities. Altogether, characterizing the microeukaryotic diversity and distribution along the NEC provided an insight into the drivers of their distribution in open oceans.


Assuntos
Salinidade , Água do Mar , China , Oceanos e Mares , Oceano Pacífico
13.
J Med Chem ; 64(3): 1670-1684, 2021 02 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33512163

RESUMO

New drugs to treat tuberculosis (TB) are urgently needed to combat the increase in resistance observed among the current first-line and second-line treatments. Here, we propose ketol-acid reductoisomerase (KARI) as a target for anti-TB drug discovery. Twenty-two analogues of IpOHA, an inhibitor of plant KARI, were evaluated as antimycobacterial agents. The strongest inhibitor of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mt) KARI has a Ki value of 19.7 nM, fivefold more potent than IpOHA (Ki = 97.7 nM). This and four other potent analogues are slow- and tight-binding inhibitors of MtKARI. Three compounds were cocrystallized with Staphylococcus aureus KARI and yielded crystals that diffracted to 1.6-2.0 Å resolution. Prodrugs of these compounds possess antimycobacterial activity against H37Rv, a virulent strain of human TB, with the most active compound having an MIC90 of 2.32 ± 0.04 µM. This compound demonstrates a very favorable selectivity window and represents a highly promising lead as an anti-TB agent.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Herbicidas/farmacologia , Cetol-Ácido Redutoisomerase/antagonistas & inibidores , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/enzimologia , Animais , Antituberculosos/química , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Descoberta de Drogas , Inibidores Enzimáticos/síntese química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Modelos Moleculares , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Pró-Fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/enzimologia
14.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 256-265, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33512306

RESUMO

CRF55_01B is a relatively "young" HIV strain. At present, we do not know much about its transmission characteristics in China. So, to describe the transmission characteristics of CRF55_01B strain among provinces and HIV infected people, and to analyze the reasons for its rapid epidemic in China, a total of 1237 subjects infected with CRF55_01B from 31 provinces spanning a period of 12 years from 2007 to 2018 were enrolled in this study. By constructing a molecular network and Bayesian correlation analysis, we found that CRF55_01B increased exponentially from 2005 to 2009 after its origin in Shenzhen, and increased rapidly after 2010. CRF55_01B began to spread to other provinces in 2007. After 2010, the strain showed a trend of rapid spread and epidemic from Guangdong-Shenzhen to other provinces in China. Guangdong, Shenzhen, Hunan, Beijing, Guangxi, Hubei, Jiangxi, Guizhou, Hebei, Anhui, Shanghai, Shandong, Henan, and Yunnan were the key provinces of CRF55_01B transmission. CRF55_01B, although originating from men who sex with men (MSM), was transmitted among heterosexuals in 2010. Males in heterosexuals played a crucial role in the transmission and diffusion of this strain. We also revealed that CRF55_01B might spread rapidly along with the rapid development of the Beijing-Guangzhou and Beijing-Kowloon railways. This study suggests that if we detect the spread of MSMs in time through molecular monitoring in the early stage of the epidemic, it can help us control the epidemic early and prevent its spread, which is of great significance to China's national prevention and control of HIV-1.

15.
FEBS J ; 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33283457

RESUMO

Embarking on a PhD provides many opportunities for personal and professional development beyond scientific research. This instalment of the Words of Advice series aims to provide guidance and tips on harnessing these resources to build a well-rounded CV and increase your chances of getting hired after your PhD. We provide two perspectives on developing your CV to optimise career opportunities in academia and beyond. The first perspective is by Dr Zheng-Shan Chong, a post-doctoral researcher in Singapore, and focuses on the acquisition of a wide range of skills and experience that could open doors to a career outside of academia. Beyond her day job, Shan manages an article series on bioentrepreneurship and career development for Biotech Connection Singapore, which has allowed her to speak to several researchers who have successfully transitioned to non-research roles. Here, she summarises the insights gained from these conversations. This is followed by advice and tips from Dr Sara Clohisey, a post-doctoral researcher in Edinburgh who changed fields after her PhD, from Drosophila cell biology to human genetics and virology. Although not quite as dramatic as leaving academia completely, this shift prompted her to rethink her approach to writing an academic CV so that it would appeal to an employer from a different field. Sara's perspective is particularly geared towards careers in research. We hope that these unique perspectives from experienced individuals who have successfully navigated the path from graduate student to working scientist will prove useful to those who are planning their next moves after completing a PhD.

16.
Micromachines (Basel) ; 11(11)2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33238604

RESUMO

In this paper, we establish a dynamic model of a six-degrees-of-freedom (6-DOF) compliant positioning platform based on bridge-type amplifiers. Based on the elastic beam theory and energy relationship, we derived the bridge-type amplifier's dynamic model using the Lagrange equation. Then, we established a dynamic model of the compliant platform based on the equivalent mass and equivalent stiffness of the bridge-type amplifier, and the analysis formula of the natural frequency was derived. Finally, the analytical models of natural frequencies of the bridge-type amplifier and the compliant platforms were verified using the finite element analysis (FEA) method. Through modal experiments, the damping ratio and natural frequency were identified. Step response experiments in the X/Y direction and Z direction were performed. The phenomenon that the experimental results appeared to match the theoretical calculations indicates that the dynamic model was accurate.

17.
Cancer Manag Res ; 12: 8965-8973, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33061592

RESUMO

Purpose: To avoid misdiagnosis, clinicopathological features were analyzed in cases of cervical mucinous adenocarcinoma with solitary ovarian metastatic masses. Patients and Methods: Three cases misdiagnosed as primary ovarian adenocarcinoma before surgery were filtered from the database of the Cancer Hospital/Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences from January 1998 to December 2016. The clinical data were thoroughly collected and compared, and both frozen and paraffin-embedded pathological sections were reviewed by two expert pathologists. Results: None of the patients experienced cervical contact bleeding, and no typical cervical neoplasms were found. The cervical canals were slightly thickened in two patients, as detected by either palpation or imaging. The high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) test results were all negative, and the thin-prep cytologic test (TCT) screened only one case of atypical glandular epithelial cells. All cases were indicative of higher serum CA19-9 levels (79.49-6124 U/mL). The ovarian masses showed no regular laterality, while they were all cystic or solid-cystic. Their pathological sections indicated a benign appearance of the capsule tissue with well-differentiated mucinous glands infiltrating the ovarian cortex with focal necrosis. Conclusion: Attention should be paid to cervical examinations before and during surgery for cervical mucinous adenocarcinoma with a metastatic ovarian mass as the first manifestation. Such patients may gain a better prognosis after active treatment.

18.
Cancer Manag Res ; 12: 10023-10033, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33116859

RESUMO

Purpose: This study aimed to construct a predictive model for recurrence and metastasis in patients with localized clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) based on multiple preoperative blood indexes and oncological characteristics. Patients and Methods: Overall, 442 patients with localized ccRCC between 2013 and 2015 were included. Using least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) Cox regression analysis, the top three risk factors from the peripheral blood indicators were screened to construct a risk score, and a prognostic model was established. Harrell's concordance index (C-index) was applied to evaluate the predictive accuracy of the model for predicting disease-free survival (DFS) in ccRCC. Results: Out of 38 blood indexes, the top three predictors were fibrinogen (FIB), C-reactive protein (CRP) and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR). The FIB-CRP-NLR (FCN) score (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.86, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.21-2.9, P = 0.005) was an independent prognostic factor in multivariate analysis. Furthermore, the FIB-CRP-NLR-T-Grade (FCNTG) risk model combining FCN score, T stage and Furhman grade achieved a higher prognostic accuracy (mean C-index, 0.728) than both the FCN score alone (mean C-index, 0.675) and the stage, size, grade, and necrosis (SSIGN) score (mean C-index, 0.686) in the validation cohort. Conclusion: The FCN score combining peripheral blood indicators of inflammation and coagulation is an independent prognostic marker of ccRCC. The FCNTG model, which systemically incorporates preoperative blood indexes to oncological characteristics, shows its advantages of convenience and high prediction efficiency.

19.
Front Pediatr ; 8: 460, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33014917

RESUMO

Purpose: To analyze the influence of perioperative complications in the management of biliary atresia (BA). Methods: A retrospective study was performed using a total of 422 BA patients who underwent Kasai portoenterostomy (KPE) in a single institution between February 2016 and May 2017. Data on patients' clinical characteristics, laboratory examinations, perioperative complications, and outcomes were collected. Unpaired two-tailed t-test and χ2 test were employed for the comparison between BA patients with and without perioperative complications. Cox regression analysis was used to screen the risk factors for 2-years NLS in BA, and their influence on the 2-years NLS was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis as well as the log-rank test. Results: The incidence of perioperative complications, 6-months jaundice clearance (JC) and 2-years native liver survival (NLS) rate were 60.4, 59.5, and 56.6%, respectively. Patients with perioperative complications had lower serum albumin (ALB) level, but higher aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) and international normalized ratio (INR) levels when compared with those without perioperative complications (ALB, P < 0.05; APRI, P < 0.01; INR, P < 0.05). Moreover, perioperative complications were correlated with glucocorticoid administration (P = 0.002). Univariate Cox regression analysis showed no relationship between perioperative complications and 2-years NLS (P > 0.05). However, multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated 6-months JC was an independent protective factor for 2-years NLS [P < 0.0001, hazard ratio (HR) = 0.074, 95% confidence interval = 0.05-0.11], and concordance index of this prediction model including age, weight, APRI, glucocorticoid, and 6-months JC was 0.811. Conclusion: Although perioperative complication is common during and after KPE, it had no influence on the prognosis of BA. However, assessment of the serum level of total bilirubin after KPE may serve as an important predictor for the outcome in BA.

20.
Urol Oncol ; 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988712

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Few studies have independently investigated the population of patients with synchronous metastatic renal cell carcinoma (smRCC). In this study, we evaluated programmed death protein-ligand 1 (PD-L1) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) expression in primary tumor tissue of smRCC. METHODS: A total of 96 patients with smRCC who were treated with cytoreductive nephrectomy followed by targeted therapy from January 2006 to January 2013 were identified. PD-L1 and VEGFR-2 expression were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier and Cox methods were used for analysis. RESULTS: PD-L1 and VEGFR-2 protein immunopositivity were observed in 39.6% (38 of 96) and 58.3% (56 of 96) of patients, respectively. A significant correlation was detected between VEGFR-2 and PD-L1 expression (P = 0.030). Based on PD-L1 and VEGFR-2 expression, patients with intermediate-risk disease (n = 63) were divided into 4 subgroups including patients who were PD-L1 (+) VEGFR-2 (+) (n = 21), PD-L1 (+) VEGFR-2 (-) (n = 11), PD-L1 (-) VEGFR-2 (+) (n = 15) and PD-L1 (-) VEGFR-2 (-) (n = 16). Compared to the PD-L1 (-) VEGFR-2 (+), PD-L1 (+) VEGFR-2 (+) and PD-L1 (-) VEGFR-2 (-) groups, patients in the PD-L1 (+) VEGFR-2 (-) group had shorter progression-free survival (median, 9.0 vs. 20.0, 16.0 and 15.5 months, P < 0.05) and overall survival (median, 14.0 vs. 33.0, 24.0 and 26.5 months, P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Intermediate-risk smRCC patients with PD-L1-positive and VEGFR-2-negative expression who were treated with targeted therapy following cytoreductive nephrectomy had poor prognoses. We suggest that other treatments beyond sunitinib or sorafenib may be explored in this subgroup.

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