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J Virol ; 93(10)2019 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30842328


SUMOylation is a posttranslational modification that has crucial roles in diverse cellular biological pathways and in various viral life cycles. In this study, we found that the VP1 protein, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of avibirnavirus infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), regulates virus replication by SUMOylation during infection. Our data demonstrated that the polymerase VP1 is efficiently modified by small ubiquitin-like modifier 1 (SUMO1) in avibirnavirus-infected cell lines. Mutation analysis showed that residues 404I and 406I within SUMO interaction motif 3 of VP1 constitute the critical site for SUMO1 modification. Protein stability assays showed that SUMO1 modification enhanced significantly the stability of polymerase VP1 by inhibiting K48-linked ubiquitination. A reverse genetic approach showed that only IBDV with I404C/T and I406C/F mutations of VP1 could be rescued successfully with decreased replication ability. Our data demonstrated that SUMO1 modification is essential to sustain the stability of polymerase VP1 during IBDV replication and provides a potential target for designing antiviral drugs targeting IBDV.IMPORTANCE SUMOylation is an extensively discussed posttranslational modification in diverse cellular biological pathways. However, there is limited understanding about SUMOylation of viral proteins of IBDV during infection. In the present study, we revealed a SUMO1 modification of VP1 protein, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of avibirnavirus infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). The required site of VP1 SUMOylation comprised residues 404I and 406I of SUMO interaction motif 3, which was essential for maintaining its stability by inhibiting K48-linked ubiquitination. We also showed that IBDV with SUMOylation-deficient VP1 had decreased replication ability. These data demonstrated that the SUMOylation of IBDV VP1 played an important role in maintaining IBDV replication.

Vírus da Doença Infecciosa da Bursa/metabolismo , Proteína SUMO-1/metabolismo , Proteínas Estruturais Virais/metabolismo , Avibirnavirus/metabolismo , Avibirnavirus/patogenicidade , Células HEK293 , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Vírus da Doença Infecciosa da Bursa/patogenicidade , Vírus da Doença Infecciosa da Bursa/fisiologia , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , RNA Replicase/genética , Proteína SUMO-1/fisiologia , Sumoilação , Ubiquitinação , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Proteínas Estruturais Virais/genética , Replicação Viral/fisiologia
J Virol ; 93(3)2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30429342


Ubiquitination is critical for several cellular physical processes. However, ubiquitin modification in virus replication is poorly understood. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the presence and effect of ubiquitination on polymerase activity of viral protein 1 (VP1) of avibirnavirus. We report that the replication of avibirnavirus is regulated by ubiquitination of its VP1 protein, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). In vivo detection revealed the ubiquitination of VP1 protein in IBDV-infected target organs and different cells but not in purified IBDV particles. Further analysis of ubiquitination confirms that VP1 is modified by K63-linked ubiquitin chain. Point mutation screening showed that the ubiquitination site of VP1 was at the K751 residue in the C terminus. The K751 ubiquitination is independent of VP1's interaction with VP3 and eukaryotic initiation factor 4A II. Polymerase activity assays indicated that the K751 ubiquitination at the C terminus of VP1 enhanced its polymerase activity. The K751-to-R mutation of VP1 protein did not block the rescue of IBDV but decreased the replication ability of IBDV. Our data demonstrate that the ubiquitination of VP1 is crucial to regulate its polymerase activity and IBDV replication.IMPORTANCE Avibirnavirus protein VP1, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, is responsible for IBDV genome replication, gene expression, and assembly. However, little is known about its chemical modification relating to its polymerase activity. In this study, we revealed the molecular mechanism of ubiquitin modification of VP1 via a K63-linked ubiquitin chain during infection. Lysine (K) residue 751 at the C terminus of VP1 is the target site for ubiquitin, and its ubiquitination is independent of VP1's interaction with VP3 and eukaryotic initiation factor 4A II. The K751 ubiquitination promotes the polymerase activity of VP1 and unubiquitinated VP1 mutant IBDV significantly impairs virus replication. We conclude that VP1 is the ubiquitin-modified protein and reveal the mechanism by which VP1 promotes avibirnavirus replication.

Avibirnavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Birnaviridae/virologia , Vírus da Doença Infecciosa da Bursa/fisiologia , RNA Replicase/metabolismo , Ubiquitinação , Proteínas Estruturais Virais/metabolismo , Replicação Viral , Animais , Avibirnavirus/classificação , Infecções por Birnaviridae/enzimologia , Células Cultivadas , Galinhas/virologia , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/virologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , RNA Replicase/química , Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Proteínas Estruturais Virais/química