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1.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(21): 24313-24338, 2021 11 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34762599

RESUMO

Antitumor immunotherapy can enable promising and durable responses following their clinical application. However, heterogeneity in the tumor immune microenvironment leads to differences in the individual response rates. In this study, we identified novel immune-related molecular subclasses of breast cancer using a non-negative matrix factorization analysis. We enrolled 4184 patients with breast cancer, including 1104 patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas as a training cohort and 3080 patients from another four independent datasets as validation cohorts. In the training cohort, 36.9% of patients who exhibited significantly higher immunocyte infiltration and enrichment of immune response-associated signatures were categorized into an immune class, which was confirmed by probing the expression of immunocyte markers (CD3, CD19, and CD163). Within the immune class, 53.3% of patients belonged to an immune-suppressed subclass, characterized by the activation of stroma-related signatures and immune-suppressive cells. The remaining patients in the immune class were allocated to an immune-activated subclass. The interferon-γ and granzyme B levels were higher in the immune-activated subclass, whereas the transforming growth factor-ß1 and programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) levels were higher in the immune-suppressed subclass. The established molecular classification system was recapitulated in validation cohorts. The immune-activated subclass was predicted to have a better response to anti-PD-1 immunotherapy. The immune-related subclasses were associated with differences in copy number alterations, tumor mutation burden, neoantigens, tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte enrichment, PD-1/programmed death-ligand 1 expression, mutation landscape, and various infiltration immunocytes. Overall, we established a novel immune-related molecular classification of breast cancer, which may be used to select candidate patients for immunotherapy.

2.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(11): e1010104, 2021 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34843607

RESUMO

In plants, the apoplast is a critical battlefield for plant-microbe interactions. Plants secrete defense-related proteins into the apoplast to ward off the invasion of pathogens. How microbial pathogens overcome plant apoplastic immunity remains largely unknown. In this study, we reported that an atypical RxLR effector PsAvh181 secreted by Phytophthora sojae, inhibits the secretion of plant defense-related apoplastic proteins. PsAvh181 localizes to plant plasma membrane and essential for P. sojae infection. By co-immunoprecipitation assay followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analyses, we identified the soybean GmSNAP-1 as a candidate host target of PsAvh181. GmSNAP-1 encodes a soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) attachment protein, which associates with GmNSF of the SNARE complex functioning in vesicle trafficking. PsAvh181 binds to GmSNAP-1 in vivo and in vitro. PsAvh181 interferes with the interaction between GmSNAP-1 and GmNSF, and blocks the secretion of apoplastic defense-related proteins, such as pathogenesis-related protein PR-1 and apoplastic proteases. Taken together, these data show that an atypical P. sojae RxLR effector suppresses host apoplastic immunity by manipulating the host SNARE complex to interfere with host vesicle trafficking pathway.

3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19432, 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593914

RESUMO

Immunotherapy involving immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) for enhancing immune system activation is promising for tumor management. However, the patients' responses to ICIs are different. Here, we applied a non-negative matrix factorization algorithm to establish a robust immune molecular classification system for colorectal cancer (CRC). We obtained data of 1503 CRC patients (training cohort: 488 from The Cancer Genome Atlas; validation cohort: 1015 from the Gene Expression Omnibus). In the training cohort, 42.8% of patients who exhibited significantly higher immunocyte infiltration and enrichment of immune response-associated signatures were subdivided into immune classes. Within the immune class, 53.1% of patients were associated with a worse overall prognosis and belonged to the immune-suppressed subclass, characterized by the activation of stroma-related signatures, genes, immune-suppressive cells, and signaling. The remaining immune class patients belonged to the immune-activated subclass, which was associated with a better prognosis and response to anti-PD-1 therapy. Immune-related subtypes were associated with different copy number alterations, tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte enrichment, PD-1/PD-L1 expression, mutation landscape, and cancer stemness. These results were validated in patients with microsatellite instable CRC. We described a novel immune-related class of CRC, which may be used for selecting candidate patients with CRC for immunotherapy and tailoring optimal immunotherapeutic treatment.

4.
Oncogene ; 2021 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34718347

RESUMO

Targeting the KRAS pathway is a promising but challenging approach for colorectal cancer therapy. Despite showing potent efficacy in BRAF-mutated melanoma, MEK inhibitors appeared to be tolerated by colorectal cancer cells due to their intrinsic compensatory signaling. Here, we performed genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9 screening in the presence of MEK inhibitor to identify genes that are synthetically lethal with MEK inhibition in CRC models harboring KRAS mutations. Several genes were identified as potential functional drivers, which were significantly enriched in the GRB7-mediated RTK pathway. Loss-of-function and gain-of-function assays validated that GRB7 potently rendered CRC cells primary resistance to MEK inhibitors through the RTK pathway. Mass spectrum analysis of GRB7 immunoprecipitates revealed that PLK1 was the predominant interacting kinase of GRB7. Inhibition of PLK1 suppressed downstream signaling of RTK, including FAK, STAT3, AKT, and 4EBP1. The combination of PLK1 and MEK inhibitors synergistically inhibited CRC cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, we identified GRB7-PLK1 as a pivotal axis mediating RTKs, resulting in MEK inhibitor tolerance. PLK1 is therefore a promising target for synergizing MEK inhibitors in the clinical treatment of CRC patients harboring KRAS mutations.

5.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(10): e1010001, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648596

RESUMO

Sexual reproduction is an essential stage of the oomycete life cycle. However, the functions of critical regulators in this biological process remain unclear due to a lack of genome editing technologies and functional genomic studies in oomycetes. The notorious oomycete pathogen Pythium ultimum is responsible for a variety of diseases in a broad range of plant species. In this study, we revealed the mechanism through which PuM90, a stage-specific Puf family RNA-binding protein, regulates oospore formation in P. ultimum. We developed the first CRISPR/Cas9 system-mediated gene knockout and in situ complementation methods for Pythium. PuM90-knockout mutants were significantly defective in oospore formation, with empty oogonia or oospores larger in size with thinner oospore walls compared with the wild type. A tripartite recognition motif (TRM) in the Puf domain of PuM90 could specifically bind to a UGUACAUA motif in the mRNA 3' untranslated region (UTR) of PuFLP, which encodes a flavodoxin-like protein, and thereby repress PuFLP mRNA level to facilitate oospore formation. Phenotypes similar to PuM90-knockout mutants were observed with overexpression of PuFLP, mutation of key amino acids in the TRM of PuM90, or mutation of the 3'-UTR binding site in PuFLP. The results demonstrated that a specific interaction of the RNA-binding protein PuM90 with the 3'-UTR of PuFLP mRNA at the post-transcriptional regulation level is critical for the sexual reproduction of P. ultimum.


Assuntos
Pythium/fisiologia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Reprodução
6.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(19): 23149-23168, 2021 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628367

RESUMO

As a key mechanism, alternative splicing (AS) plays a role in the cancer initiation and development. However, in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), data for the comprehensive AS event profile and its clinical implications are lacking. Herein, a genome-wide AS event profiling using RNA-Seq data and its correlation with matched clinical information was performed using a 389 PTC patient cohort from the project of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We identified 1,925 cancer-associated AS events (CASEs) by comparing paired tumors and neighboring healthy tissues. Parent genes with CASEs remarkably enriched in the pathways were linked with carcinogenesis, such as P53, KRAS, IL6-JAK-STAT3, apoptosis, and MYC signaling. The regulatory networks of AS implied an obvious correlation between the expression of splicing factor and CASE. We identified eight CASEs as predictors for overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). The established risk score model based on DFS-associated CASEs successfully predicted the prognosis of PTC patients. From the unsupervised clustering analysis results, it is found that different clusters based on AS correlated with prognosis, molecular features, and immune characteristics. Taken together, the comprehensive genome-wide AS landscape analysis in PTC showed new AS events linked with tumorigenesis and prognosis, which provide new insights for clinical monitoring and therapy for PTC.

7.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 678670, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34504839

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common malignancy worldwide, and the high ratio of recurrence and metastasis remains the main cause of its poor prognosis. Vascular invasion of HCC includes microvascular invasion (MVI) and portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT) and is regarded as a common roadmap of intrahepatic metastasis in HCC. However, the molecular mechanism underlying vascular invasion of HCC is largely unknown. Here, we analyzed the transcriptomes of primary tumors, PVTT tissues, and tumor tissues with or without MVI. We found that extracellular matrix-related pathways were involved in vascular invasion of HCC and that decorin secreted by cancer-associated fibroblasts was gradually downregulated from normal to tumor tissues and more so in PVTT tissues. We also established that low-level decorin expression is an independent risk factor for MVI and it is associated with a poor prognosis. Decorin downregulated integrin ß1 and consequently inhibited HCC cell invasion and migration in vitro. Co-staining DCN and integrin ß1 revealed that DCN dynamically regulated integrin ß1 protein expression. Integrin ß1 knockdown significantly inhibited HCC invasion and migration, and decorin combined with such knockdown synergistically augmented the anti-metastatic effects. Co-IP assay confirmed the direct interaction of decorin with integrin ß1. Our findings showed that targeting cancer-associated fibroblast-related decorin is not only a promising strategy for inhibiting HCC vascular invasion and metastasis but also provides insight into the clinical treatment of patients with PVTT.

8.
Nanoscale ; 13(36): 15220-15230, 2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34553723

RESUMO

Bacterial sepsis is a lethal disease triggered by microbial pathogens. The blood pathogen load is a major contributor to both disease severity and mortality in patients with sepsis blood. Therefore, it is crucial to reduce the load of pathogens, in particular the drug-resistant pathogens. In this work, inspired by the crossflow filtration mechanism in suspension-feeding fish, we developed a biomimetic microcavity interface to mimic a porous gill-raker surface as a blood-cleansing dialyzer for sepsis therapy, which can rapidly, safely and efficiently clear bacteria from the fluidic blood. The microcavity interface consists of microcavity arrays, the innerface of which contains nanowire forests. By precisely controlling the pore size of the microcavity and directing the axial travel of the fluid, the bacteria can be isolated from the whole blood without disturbing any blood components or blocking the blood cell transportation. In addition, the three-dimensional nanowire forests assist in the formation of vortices with reduced blood flow velocity and increased resistance to bacterial deposition in situ. Functional modification is not required to recognize the bacteria specifically in our designed dialyzer. Moreover, the microcavity interface clears over 95% bacteria from a fluid blood sample without inducing protein adsorption or complement and platelet activation when contacting the fluid blood. The study supports this biomimetic microcavity interface to be a promising extracorporeal blood-cleansing device in clinical settings.


Assuntos
Biomimética , Comportamento Alimentar , Animais , Filtração , Peixes , Brânquias , Humanos
9.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 223: 112541, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352580

RESUMO

Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were investigated in muscle samples from common kestrels (Falco tinnunculus), eagle owls (Bubo bubo), and little owls (Athene noctua) collected in Beijing, China. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs were in the ranges of 22.7-5280, 67.5-1610, and 68.4-3180 pg/g lipid weight (lw), while levels of dioxin-like PCBs ranged from 4.91 to 1560, 8.08-294, and 28.2-3540 ng/g lw, in common kestrel, eagle owl, and little owl, respectively. The main PCDD/Fs congener was 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, and CB-153 dominated the seven indicator PCBs. PCB levels have shown a decreasing trend in the last decade for the common kestrel, but not for little owl in Beijing, which exhibited higher levels of pollutants and toxic equivalency (TEQ) values than the other two species. Concentrations of PCDD/Fs, dioxin-like PCBs, and indicator PCBs differed between fledgling and adult raptors for certain species. Raptors in this study generally had a higher TEQ than the no-observed-effect level in the literature, indicating significant exposure risks to PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in raptors, especially in adult little owls.


Assuntos
Dioxinas , Bifenilos Policlorados , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas , Aves Predatórias , Animais , China , Dibenzofuranos , Dibenzofuranos Policlorados , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise
10.
Front Oncol ; 11: 678333, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34262865

RESUMO

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a minority subset of cancer cells that can drive tumor initiation, promote tumor progression, and induce drug resistance. CSCs are difficult to eliminate by conventional therapies and eventually mediate tumor relapse and metastasis. Moreover, recent studies have shown that CSCs display plasticity that renders them to alter their phenotype and function. Consequently, the varied phenotypes result in varied tumorigenesis, dissemination, and drug-resistance potential, thereby adding to the complexity of tumor heterogeneity and further challenging clinical management of cancers. In recent years, tumor microenvironment (TME) has become a hotspot in cancer research owing to its successful application in clinical tumor immunotherapy. Notably, emerging evidence shows that the TME is involved in regulating CSC plasticity. TME can activate stemness pathways and promote immune escape through cytokines and exosomes secreted by immune cells or stromal cells, thereby inducing non-CSCs to acquire CSC properties and increasing CSC plasticity. However, the relationship between TME and plasticity of CSCs remains poorly understood. In this review, we discuss the emerging investigations on TME and CSC plasticity to illustrate the underlying mechanisms and potential implications in suppressing cancer progression and drug resistance. We consider that this review can help develop novel therapeutic strategies by taking into account the interlink between TME and CSC plasticity.

11.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(6): e1009657, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34133468

RESUMO

GTP-binding protein (G-protein) and regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) mediated signal transduction are critical in the growth and virulence of the rice blast pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. We have previously reported that there are eight RGS and RGS-like proteins named MoRgs1 to MoRgs8 playing distinct and shared regulatory functions in M. oryzae and that MoRgs1 has a more prominent role compared to others in the fungus. To further explore the unique regulatory mechanism of MoRgs1, we screened a M. oryzae cDNA library for genes encoding MoRgs1-interacting proteins and identified MoCkb2, one of the two regulatory subunits of the casein kinase (CK) 2 MoCk2. We found that MoCkb2 and the sole catalytic subunit MoCka1 are required for the phosphorylation of MoRgs1 at the plasma membrane (PM) and late endosome (LE). We further found that an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane protein complex (EMC) subunit, MoEmc2, modulates the phosphorylation of MoRgs1 by MoCk2. Interestingly, this phosphorylation is also essential for the GTPase-activating protein (GAP) function of MoRgs1. The balance among MoRgs1, MoCk2, and MoEmc2 ensures normal operation of the G-protein MoMagA-cAMP signaling required for appressorium formation and pathogenicity of the fungus. This has been the first report that an EMC subunit is directly linked to G-protein signaling through modulation of an RGS-casein kinase interaction.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/metabolismo , Ascomicetos/patogenicidade , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/fisiologia , Virulência/fisiologia , Caseína Quinases/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
12.
Biodivers Data J ; 9: e65227, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33935560

RESUMO

Background: Soybean (Glycine max) is a major source of edible oil and protein. A novel species of the genus Pythium, Pythium huanghuaiense, isolated from soybean seedlings in China, is described and illustrated on the basis of morphological characters and molecular evidence. New information: Pythium huanghuaiense sp. nov. is closely related to species of the genus Pythium in clade F, as evidenced by the presence of hyphal swellings and its relatively rapid morphological growth. However, it differs by having relatively small sporangia and plerotic or nearly plerotic and thin-walled oospores. A pathogenicity test confirmed the newly-identified species as a pathogen of soybean.

13.
Plant Dis ; 2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33970031

RESUMO

In September 2020, a disease resembling stem blight on soybean was found in Chengdu city, Sichuan province, southwestern of China. Symptoms began as a brown lesion on the stems, usually at the nodes, then lesions expanded, darkened, and even girdled the stems, causing wilt of the above stems (Figure 1A). In three 0.33-ha fields, a total of 300 soybean plants (20 plants/site × 5 sites/filed × 3 fields) were investigated, and 3% of the plants showed the disease symptoms. The symptoms were consistent with those previously reported for stem canker and stem blight on soybean caused by Diaporthe complex (Cui et al. 2009; Mena et al. 2019; Santos et al. 2011). The tissues of symptomatic soybean stems were rinsed by water, disinfected by submerging them in 75% ethanol for 30 s and in 2% sodium hypochlorite solution for 2 min, then followed by washing with sterile distilled water. Small diseased tissue fragments were placed on selective potato dextrose agar (PDA) containing rifampicin and ampicillin (both 50 mg/µl). Plates were sealed and incubated at 26°C for two days. Developing mycelia of isolates were transferred to fresh PDA and purified by single hyphal tip. For the five obtained isolates (Figure 1B), five markers, including the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA, parts of the translation elongation factor 1-α (TEF1), part of the histone H3 (HIS) gene, the calmodulin gene (CAL), and the beta-tubulin gene (TUB), were amplified using the established primers ITS4/ITS5 (White et al. 1990), EF1-728F/EF1-986R (Carbone and Kohn 1999), CYLH3F (Crous et al. 2006) and H3-1b (Glass and Donaldson 1995), CAL228F/CAL737R (Carbone and Kohn 1999), and Bt-2a/Bt-2b (Glass and Donaldson 1995), respectively, and sequenced (GenBank IDs: MW595761-MW595780 and MW624472-MW624476). Phylogenetic trees were constructed based on concatenated sequences of the five markers using the maximum-likelihood (ML) method in MEGA-5.2.2. Based the results of morphological (Figure 1C-E) and phylogenetic analysis (Figure 2), the five isolates were all identified as D. phaseolorum. Pathogenicity tests for the isolates were conducted on 7-day-old soybean seedlings (cv. Shangdou 1310) using a hypocotyl slit inoculation method. At the stem 2-cm below cotyledon, a 6-mm long slit was cut with a sterile scalpel, and placed inside with a 3 mm × 3 mm PDA plug with or without mycelia of pathogen. Ten plants were assayed for each treatment, and the plants were maintained in greenhouse at 26°C, with humidity higher than 90% for the first two days. The assay was repeated at least three times. Typical brown lesions on the stems were observed four days after inoculation (Figure 1F), even 20% treated plants died. The D. phaseolorum was reisolated from these stem lesions. No disease symptom was observed on control plants (Figure 1G). Thus D. phaseolorum was the pathogen causing the soybean stem blight in field. To our knowledge, this is the first report of D. phaseolorum causing this disease in Sichuan province, China. The result may provide useful information for soybean disease control in this region of China. The authors declare no conflict of interest. Funding: China Agriculture Research System (CARS-004-PS14).

14.
Front Oncol ; 11: 617597, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33968721

RESUMO

The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is closely associated with the acquisition of aggressive traits by carcinoma cells and is considered responsible for metastasis, relapse, and chemoresistance. Molecular links between the EMT and cancer stem cells (CSCs) have indicated that EMT processes play important roles in the expression of CSC-like properties. It is generally thought that EMT-related transcription factors (EMT-TFs) need to be downregulated to confer an epithelial phenotype to mesenchymal cells and increase cell proliferation, thereby promoting metastasis formation. However, the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms that regulate EMT and CSC activation are contradictory. Emerging evidence suggests that EMT need not be a binary model and instead a hybrid epithelial/mesenchymal state. This dynamic process correlates with epithelial-mesenchymal plasticity, which indicates a contradictory role of EMT during cancer progression. Recent studies have linked the epithelial-mesenchymal plasticity and stem cell-like traits, providing new insights into the conflicting relationship between EMT and CSCs. In this review, we examine the current knowledge about the interplay between epithelial-mesenchymal plasticity and CSCs in cancer biology and evaluate the controversies and future perspectives. Understanding the biology of epithelial-mesenchymal plasticity and CSCs and their implications in therapeutic treatment may provide new opportunities for targeted intervention.

15.
Plant Dis ; : PDIS01210068RE, 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823611

RESUMO

Pythium terrestris, Pythium spinosum, and 'Candidatus Pythium huanghuaiense' are closely related species and important pathogens of soybean that cause root rot. However, the sequences of commonly used molecular markers, such as rDNA internal transcribed spacer 2 and cytochrome oxidase 1 gene, are similar among these species, making it difficult to design species-specific primers for loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays. The genome sequences of these species are also currently unavailable. Based on a comparative genomic analysis and de novo RNA-sequencing transcript assemblies, we identified and cloned the sequences of the M90 gene, a conserved but highly polymorphic single-copy gene encoding a Puf family RNA-binding protein among oomycetes. After primer design and screening, three LAMP assays were developed that specifically amplified the targeted DNA sequences in P. terrestris and P. spinosum at 62°C for 70 min and in 'Ca. Pythium huanghuaiense' at 62°C for 60 min. After adding SYBR Green I, a positive yellow-green color (under natural light) or intense green fluorescence (under ultraviolet light) was observed by the naked eye only in the presence of the target species. The minimum concentration of target DNA detected in all three LAMP assays was 100 pg·µl-1. The assays also successfully detected the target Pythium spp. with high accuracy and sensitivity from inoculated soybean seedlings and soils collected from soybean fields. This study provides a method for identification and cloning of candidate detection targets without a reference genome sequence and identified M90 as a novel specific target for molecular detection of three Pythium species causing soybean root rot.

16.
Eye Vis (Lond) ; 8(1): 9, 2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33741072

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Corneal refractive surgery has become reliable for correcting refractive errors, but it can induce unintended ocular changes that alter refractive outcomes. This study is to evaluate the unintended changes in ocular biometric parameters over a 6-month follow-up period after femtosecond laser-assisted laser in situ keratomileusis (FS-LASIK) and small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE). METHODS: 156 consecutive myopic patients scheduled for FS-LASIK and SMILE were included in this study. Central corneal thickness (CCT), mean curvature of the corneal posterior surface (Kpm), internal anterior chamber depth (IACD) and the length from corneal endothelium to retina (ER) were evaluated before and after surgery over a 6-month period. RESULTS: Both the FS-LASIK and SMILE groups (closely matched at the pre-surgery stage) experienced flatter Kpm, shallower IACD and decreased ER 1 week post-surgery (P < 0.01), and these changes were larger in FS-LASIK than in SMILE group. During the 1 week to 6 months follow up period, Kpm, IACD and ER remained stable unlike CCT which increased significantly (P < 0.05), more in the FS-LASIK group. CONCLUSIONS: During the follow up, the posterior corneal surface became flatter and shifted posteriorly, the anterior chamber depth and the length from the corneal endothelium to retina decreased significantly compared with the pre-surgery stage. These unintended changes in ocular biometric parameters were greater in patients undergoing FS-LASIK than SMILE. The changes present clear challenges for IOL power calculations and should be considered to avoid affecting the outcome of cataract surgery.

17.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 164: 112036, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33529878

RESUMO

This study investigated 12 trace elements in paired green turtle (Chelonia mydas) eggshell composites and coral sand samples to examine within-habitat heavy metal pollution from 40 nesting sites in the Xisha Islands. The concentrations of the elements (µg·g-1) found in the eggshells ranged as follows: Sr (41.3) > Zn (20.3) > Cu (12.8) > Fe (4.92) > Al (4.37) > Se (2.44) > Mn (0.91) > Cr (0.81) > Ba (0.44) > Pb (0.14) > As (0.08) > Cd (0.02). Significant correlations were observed between the levels of Cd and Se and the levels of Zn, Cu, and Pb in eggshells. The concentrations of Mn, Zn, Se, As, Cd, and Pb in C. mydas eggshells were significantly correlated with those in coral sand sediments. Cu concentrations in the eggshells exceeded the toxic reference value for bird eggs and Se concentrations were between the worst- and best-case scenario hazard quotients.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Metais Pesados , Oligoelementos , Tartarugas , Animais , China , Casca de Ovo/química , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ilhas , Metais Pesados/análise , Areia , Oligoelementos/análise
18.
Mol Plant Microbe Interact ; 34(7): 842-844, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33630650

RESUMO

Diaporthe-Phomopsis disease complex causes considerable yield losses in soybean production worldwide. As one of the major pathogens, Phomopsis longicolla T. W. Hobbs (syn. Diaporthe longicolla) is not only the primary agent of Phomopsis seed decay but is also one of the agents of Phomopsis pod and stem blight and Phomopsis stem canker. We performed both PacBio long-read sequencing and Illumina short-read sequencing and obtained a genome assembly for the strain P. longicolla YC2-1, which was isolated from soybean stem with Phomopsis stem blight disease. The 63.1 Mb genome assembly contains 87 scaffolds, with a minimum, maximum, and N50 scaffold length of 20 kb, 4.6 Mb, and 1.5 Mb respectively, and a total of 17,407 protein-coding genes. The high-quality data expand the genomic resource of P. longicolla species and will provide a solid foundation for a better understanding of their genetic diversity and pathogenic mechanisms.[Formula: see text] Copyright © 2021 The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 International license.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Soja , Ascomicetos/genética , Phomopsis , Sementes
19.
New Phytol ; 230(2): 720-736, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33423301

RESUMO

Plant pathogens exploit the extracellular matrix (ECM) to inhibit host immunity during their interactions with the host. The formation of ECM involves a series of continuous steps of vesicular transport events. To understand how such vesicle trafficking impacts ECM and virulence in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, we characterised MoSwa2, a previously identified actin-regulating kinase MoArk1 interacting protein, as an orthologue of the auxilin-like clathrin uncoating factor Swa2 of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found that MoSwa2 functions as an uncoating factor of the coat protein complex II (COPII) via an interaction with the COPII subunit MoSec24-2. Loss of MoSwa2 led to a deficiency in the secretion of extracellular proteins, resulting in both restricted growth of invasive hyphae and reduced inhibition of host immunity. Additionally, extracellular fluid (ECF) proteome analysis revealed that MoSwa2-regulated extracellular proteins include many redox proteins such as the berberine bridge enzyme-like (BBE-like) protein MoSef1. We further found that MoSef1 functions as an apoplastic virulent factor that inhibits the host immune response. Our studies revealed a novel function of a COPII uncoating factor in vesicular transport that is critical in the suppression of host immunity and pathogenicity of M. oryzae.


Assuntos
Magnaporthe , Oryza , Ascomicetos , Auxilinas , Clatrina , Proteínas Fúngicas , Doenças das Plantas , Virulência
20.
Mol Plant Pathol ; 22(3): 373-381, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33484494

RESUMO

Phytophthora sojae is an important model species for oomycete functional genomics research. Recently, a CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome-editing technology has been successfully established in P. sojae, which has been rapidly and widely applied in oomycete research. However, there is an emerging consensus in the biological community that a complete functional gene research system is needed such as developed in the investigations in functional complementation carried out in this study. We report the development of an in situ complementation method for accurate restoration of the mutated gene. We targeted a regulatory B-subunit of protein phosphatase 2A (PsPP2Ab1) to verify this knockout and subsequent complementation system. We found that the deletion of PsPP2Ab1 in P. sojae leads to severe defects in vegetative hyphal growth, soybean infection, and loss of the ability to produce sporangia. Subsequently, the reintroduction of PsPP2Ab1 into the knockout mutant remedied all of the deficiencies. This study demonstrates the successful implementation of an in situ complementation system by CRISPR/Cas9, which will greatly accelerate functional genomics research of oomycetes in the post-genomic era.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Edição de Genes , Phytophthora/genética , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Soja/parasitologia , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Mutação
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