Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.622
Filtrar
1.
Food Chem ; 334: 127560, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711271

RESUMO

Post-fermented Pu-erh tea (PFPT) is a microbially-fermented tea with distinct sensory qualities and multiple health benefits. Aspergillus are the dominant fungi in the fermentation and the main contributors to the characteristics of PFPT, so their underlying functions warrant detailed study. Here, tea leaves were fermented by Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus tamarii and Aspergillus fumigatus, and resulting samples (designated as Asn, Ast and Asf, respectively) were analyzed by proteomic and metabolomic methods. Changes to the composition of flavonoids, glycerophospholipids, organo-oxygen compounds and fatty acids resulting from Aspergillus fermentation were observed. Carbohydrate-active enzymes, e.g., endoglucanases and cellulases, for degradation of cellulose, starch, lignin, pectin, xylan and xyloglucan were identified. Glycoside hydrolase, glycosyltransferases, tannase, laccases, vanillyl-alcohol oxidases and benzoquinone reductase were identified and hypothesized to catalyze hydrolysis, oxidation, polymerization and degradation of phenolic compounds. Together, functions of Aspergillius were demonstrated as production of enzymes to change concentrations and compositions of metabolites in tea leaves.

2.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 278, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33054810

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood trauma increases the risk for adult obesity through multiple complex pathways, and the neural substrates are yet to be determined. METHODS: Participants from three population-based neuroimaging cohorts, including the IMAGEN cohort, the UK Biobank (UKB), and the Human Connectome Project (HCP), were recruited. Voxel-based morphometry analysis of both childhood trauma and body mass index (BMI) was performed in the longitudinal IMAGEN cohort; validation of the findings was performed in the UKB. White-matter connectivity analysis was conducted to study the structural connectivity between the identified brain region and subdivisions of the hypothalamus in the HCP. RESULTS: In IMAGEN, a smaller frontopolar cortex (FPC) was associated with both childhood abuse (CA) (ß = - .568, 95%CI - .942 to - .194; p = .003) and higher BMI (ß = - .086, 95%CI - .128 to - .043; p < .001) in male participants, and these findings were validated in UKB. Across seven data collection sites, a stronger negative CA-FPC association was correlated with a higher positive CA-BMI association (ß = - 1.033, 95%CI - 1.762 to - .305; p = .015). Using 7-T diffusion tensor imaging data (n = 156), we found that FPC was the third most connected cortical area with the hypothalamus, especially the lateral hypothalamus. A smaller FPC at age 14 contributed to higher BMI at age 19 in those male participants with a history of CA, and the CA-FPC interaction enabled a model at age 14 to account for some future weight gain during a 5-year follow-up (variance explained 5.8%). CONCLUSIONS: The findings highlight that a malfunctioning, top-down cognitive or behavioral control system, independent of genetic predisposition, putatively contributes to excessive weight gain in a particularly vulnerable population, and may inform treatment approaches.

3.
BMC Pediatr ; 20(1): 465, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023519

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction (CNLDO) is one of the main causes of epiphora in infants, and antibiotics are usually used as a conservative therapy in the first year. Yet, little is known about the bacteriology of the occluded lacrimal drainage system in this group of patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiology of lacrimal sac (LS) in Chinese children with CNLDO in their first year of life. METHODS: Patients with CNLDO between May 1, 2017 and August 31, 2018 at a tertiary care children's hospital were enrolled. The study recruited infants who received lacrimal probing under 1 year old, and refluxed discharge from LS was collected. Samples were cultured and susceptibility test was performed for positive culture. RESULTS: Thirty-two patients with CNLDO were included. The ratio of male to female was 23:9. The mean age was 6.7 ± 2.4 (1.7-12) months. Positive cultures was identified in 87.5% of the sample, and presented 38 strains of bacteria. Mixed infection was identified in 10 (31.3%) children. Gram-positive bacteria accounted for 60.5% of all the strains, with Streptococcus (50%) being the most frequent species, whereas Haemophilus (21.1%) and Neisseriae (13.2%) were most common isolates for Gram-negative organisms. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was detected in 2 infants whose symptoms resolved by a routine probing. No difference of bacteriology pattern was detected between patients under 6 months old and those beyond. The pathogens were highly sensitive to chloramphenicol (88%) and levofloxacin (84%), but resistant to erythromycin (40%) and sulfamethoxazole (32%). CONCLUSIONS: Infants with CNLDO under 1 year of age presented predominance of Streptococcus as Gram-positive organism, and Haemophilus as Gram-negative organism. Levofloxacin was an active topical antibiotic agent with few chance of resistance especially for Chinese children. These findings could help clinicians choose optimal medicine for CNLDO as the conservative treatments.

4.
Carbohydr Polym ; 250: 116842, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33049811

RESUMO

The chitosan/okra powder/nano-silicon aerogel composite films were prepared by casting method and their physicochemical properties and structural characterization were studied. The results showed that the composite film had good mechanical properties, barrier properties and optical properties. The composite film has strong flexibility. The surface glossiness of C/D/S1.5:1:0.1 film was 14.4Gu. As for the antibacterial activity, all the composite films had strong antibacterial activity against Gram-negative (E. coli) and Gram-positive (S. aureus), and the inhibition zone of C/D/S1.5:1:0.10 against E. coli reached 551.96 mm2, the inhibition zone for S. aureus was 350.29 mm2. The composite film had uniform, non-porous, continuous and dense surface characteristics. The structural characterization confirmed that there was good compatibility between chitosan, okara powder and nano-silicon aerogel. In summary, the composite films had excellent performance and structure, which promoted the research of functional packaging films.

5.
Anal Chem ; 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052657

RESUMO

Given that a split aptamer provides a chance for the development of a sandwich assay for targets with only one aptamer, it has received extensive attention in biosensing. However, due to the lack of binding mechanisms and reliable methods, there were still a few split aptamers that bind to proteins. In this work, cardiac biomarker myoglobin (Myo) was selected as a model, a new strategy of engineering split aptamers was explored with atomic force spectroscopy (AFM), and split aptamers against target protein could be achieved by choosing the optimal binding probability between split aptamers and target. Then, the obtained split aptamers were designed for Myo detection based on dynamic light scattering (DLS). The results demonstrated that the obtained split aptamers could be used to detect targets in human serum. The strategy of engineering split aptamers has the advantages of being intuitive and reliable and could be a general strategy for obtaining split aptamers.

6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052678

RESUMO

Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) is a rate-limiting enzyme that mainly catalyzes the saturated fatty acids (SFAs) into the monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs). The expression level of SCD1 is positively correlated with the marbling score. However, the functional mechanism of SCD1 in adipogenesis is still unclear. In this study, we identified SCD1 as highly expressed in subcutaneous and visceral fat, peaking at 2 days after differentiation in bovine stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells. When the SCD1 was overexpressed in bovine SVF cells, lipid droplets accumulation was increased from 142.46 ± 21.77 to 254.89 ± 11.75 µg/mg (P < 0.01). Further, the expression levels of FABP4, FASN, and ACCα were increased (P < 0.01), while the expression of PPARγ or C/EBPα was not changed at mRNA or protein level (P > 0.05). Dual-luciferase reporter assay showed that the activity of the PPARγ receptor was enhanced by 3.69 times (P < 0.01). Moreover, the contents of palmitoleate (C16:1) and oleate (C18:1) were significantly increased (P < 0.05). Furthermore, 100 µM exogenous oleate increased the lipid accumulation by 22.28 times (P < 0.01). These results suggest that oleate is probably a strong ligand of the PPARγ receptor to enhance adipogenesis.

7.
Phytomedicine ; 80: 153339, 2020 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As dysregulation of immunometabolism plays a key role in the immunological diseases, dyslipidemia frequently observed in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients (60%) is associated with the disease activity and has been considered as the potential target of anti-inflammatory strategy. However, targeting of metabolic events to develop novel anti-inflammatory therapeutics are far from clear as well as the mechanism of dyslipidemia in RA. PURPOSE: To explore the therapeutic potential and mechanisms of silybin again RA through the regulation of lipid metabolism. METHODS: Adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) rat model was used to examine the effects of silybin on modulating dysregulated lipid metabolism and arthritis. Metabolomics, docking technology, and biochemical methods such as western blots, qRT-PCR, immunofluorescence staining were performed to understanding the underlying mechanisms. Moreover, knock-down of LXRα and LXRα agonist were used on LO2 cell lines to understand the action of silybin. RESULTS: We are the first to demonstrate that silybin can ameliorate dyslipidemia and arthritis in AIA rats. Overexpression of LXRα and several key lipogenic enzymes regulated by LXRα, including lipoprotein lipase (LPL), cholesterol 7α and 27α hydroxylase (CYP7A, CYP27A), adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (aP2/FABP4) and fatty acid translocase (CD36/FAT), were observed in AIA rats, which mostly accounted for dyslipidemia during arthritis development. Metabolomics, docking technology, and biochemical results indicated that anti-arthritis effects of silybin related to suppressing the up-regulated LXRα and abnormal lipid metabolism. Notably, activation of LXRα could potentiate cell inflammatory process induced by LPS through the regulation of NF-κB pathway, however, suppression of LXRα agonism by siRNA or silybin reduced the nuclear translocation of NF-κB as well as the induction of downstream cytokines, indicating LXRα agonism is the important factor for the arthritis development and could be a potential target. CONCLUSION: The up-regulation of LXRα can activate lipogenesis enzymes to worsen the inflammatory process in AIA rats as well as the development of dyslipidemia, therefore, rectifying lipid disorder via suppression of LXRα agonism pertains the capacity of drug target, which enables to discover and develop new drugs to treat rheumatoid arthritis with dyslipidaemia.

8.
Bioorg Chem ; 105: 104341, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068815

RESUMO

Caffeic acid ester derivatives have been widely found in propolis extract and plants. In this work, the effect of ester groups with different aromatic and alkyl chains on the antioxidant activity of caffeic acid was performed on the double H+/e- process using DFT calculations. We found that 1) O3-H3⋯O4 intramolecular hydrogen-bonds exist in the catechol moiety of the investigated compounds, which have the same strength and are closed shell interactions, weak-strength and electrostatic in nature, making the 4-OH more favourable than 3-OH to trap free radicals. 2) In weak polarity phases, caffeic acid and its derivatives prefer to perform the double H+/e- processes via the dHAT mechanism. In the polar phases, the SdPLdET mechanism is more favoured. The first step of these mechanisms is more possible in 4-OH groups. 3) The ester group with different aromatic and alkyl chains would enhance the antioxidant capacities of caffeic acid.

9.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039534

RESUMO

Active edible films based on okara soluble dietary fiber (SDF), pectin, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMCNa) and thyme essential oil (TEO) were successfully prepared. We aimed to exploit biodegradable edible films and realize the full utilization of waste resources. The effects of different amounts of pectin on the properties and structural characterization of the composite film with or without TEO were studied using a solution casting evaporation method. In general, the addition of TEO can improve the properties of the composite membrane. Pectin was homogeneously distributed within the films and exhibited good interaction with the polymer matrix. The addition of pectin led to significantly higher mechanical and optical properties of the composite film, compared with SDF/CMC-Na composite film. The tensile strength reached 21.419 ±â€¯2.22 MPa, and the minimum transparency reduced to 88.9% ±â€¯0.42%, with increasing pectin. Notably, that the water resistance and oil resistance have been enhanced. The composite films also possessed satisfactory antioxidant activity, with a DPPH-free radical scavenging rate of 46.33% ±â€¯0.72%, while antibacterial activity against E. coli and S. aureus bacteria was not obvious. Antioxidant and antibacterial SDF/pectin/CMC-Na composite films with enhanced mechanical, optical and barrier properties are excellent candidates for active edible packaging.

10.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(10): 1378-1386, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002439

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic variants and lifestyle factors have been associated with gastric cancer risk, but the extent to which an increased genetic risk can be offset by a healthy lifestyle remains unknown. We aimed to establish a genetic risk model for gastric cancer and assess the benefits of adhering to a healthy lifestyle in individuals with a high genetic risk. METHODS: In this meta-analysis and prospective cohort study, we first did a fixed-effects meta-analysis of the association between genetic variants and gastric cancer in six independent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) with a case-control study design. These GWAS comprised 21 168 Han Chinese individuals, of whom 10 254 had gastric cancer and 10 914 geographically matched controls did not. Using summary statistics from the meta-analysis, we constructed five polygenic risk scores in a range of thresholds (p=5 × 10-4 p=5 × 10-5 p=5 × 10-6 p=5 × 10-7, and p=5 × 10-8) for gastric cancer. We then applied these scores to an independent, prospective, nationwide cohort of 100 220 individuals from the China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB), with more than 10 years of follow-up. The relative and absolute risk of incident gastric cancer associated with healthy lifestyle factors (defined as not smoking, never consuming alcohol, the low consumption of preserved foods, and the frequent intake of fresh fruits and vegetables), was assessed and stratified by genetic risk (low [quintile 1 of the polygenic risk score], intermediate [quintile 2-4 of the polygenic risk score], and high [quintile 5 of the polygenic risk score]). Individuals with a favourable lifestyle were considered as those who adopted all four healthy lifestyle factors, those with an intermediate lifestyle adopted two or three factors, and those with an unfavourable lifestyle adopted none or one factor. FINDINGS: The polygenic risk score derived from 112 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (p<5 × 10-5) showed the strongest association with gastric cancer risk (p=7·56 × 10-10). When this polygenic risk score was applied to the CKB cohort, we found that there was a significant increase in the relative risk of incident gastric cancer across the quintiles of the polygenic risk score (ptrend<0·0001). Compared with individuals who had a low genetic risk, those with an intermediate genetic risk (hazard ratio [HR] 1·54 [95% CI 1·22-1·94], p=2·67 × 10-4) and a high genetic risk (2·08 [1·61-2·69], p<0·0001) had a greater risk of gastric cancer. A similar increase in the relative risk of incident gastric cancer was observed across the lifestyle categories (ptrend<0·0001), with a higher risk of gastric cancer in those with an unfavourable lifestyle than those with a favourable lifestyle (2·03 [1·46-2·83], p<0·0001). Participants with a high genetic risk and a favourable lifestyle had a lower risk of gastric cancer than those with a high genetic risk and an unfavourable lifestyle (0·53 [0·29-0·99], p=0·048), with an absolute risk reduction of 1·12% (95% CI 0·62-1·56). INTERPRETATION: Chinese individuals at an increased risk of incident gastric cancer could be identified by use of our newly developed polygenic risk score. Compared with individuals at a high genetic risk who adopt an unhealthy lifestyle, those who adopt a healthy lifestyle could substantially reduce their risk of incident gastric cancer. FUNDING: National Key R&D Program of China, National Natural Science Foundation of China, 333 High-Level Talents Cultivation Project of Jiangsu Province, and China Postdoctoral Science Foundation.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/psicologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Herança Multifatorial , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/psicologia
11.
J Neurochem ; 2020 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891068

RESUMO

Neuroinflammation is believed to play a primary role in the pathogenesis of most neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia. Currently, suitable in vitro neuroinflammation models for studying cellular interactions and inflammatory mechanisms at the neurovascular unit are still scarce. In this study, we established an experimentally flexible tri-culture neuroinflammation model combining murine microglial cells (N11), mouse neuroblastoma Nuro2A cell lines and brain microvascular endothelial MVEC(B3) cells in a transwell co-culture system stimulated with lipopolysaccharides. Neuroinflammation was induced in this tri-culture model as manifested by activated N11 cells via toll-like receptor 4, resulting in increased release of proinflammatory mediators (nitric oxide, interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-α) through the activation of nuclear factor-κB signalling pathway. The released inflammatory cytokines from N11 in turn, damaged the tight junction in microvascular endothelial MVEC(B3) cells, increased permeability of endothelial barrier, and induced tau phosphorylation and up-regulated caspase-3 expression in mouse neuroblastoma Nuro2A cell lines, leading to neuroinflammation injury. In summary, this tri-culture inflammation model mimics the microenvironment, the cellular crosstalk and the molecular events that take place during neuroinflammation. It provides a robust in vitro model for studying neuroinflammation mechanisms and screening for potential therapeutics to treat various neurodegenerative diseases.

12.
J Biol Chem ; 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913122

RESUMO

Metaflammation is a primary inflammatory complication of metabolic disorders characterized by altered production of many inflammatory cytokines, adipokines and lipid mediators. While multiple inflammation networks have been identified, the mechanisms by which metaflammation is initiated have long been controversial. As mevalonate pathway (MVA) produces abundant bioactive isoprenoids and abnormal MVA has a phenotypic association with inflammation/immunity, we speculate that isoprenoids from the MVA may provide a causal link between metaflammation and metabolic disorders. Using a line with the MVA isoprenoids producer geranygeranyldiphosphate synthase (GGPPS) deleted, we find that GGPP depletion causes an apparent metaflammation as evidenced by abnormal accumulation of fatty acids, eicosanoid intermediates and proinflammatory cytokines. We also find that GGPP prenylate cytochrome b5 reductase 3 (CYB5R3) and the prenylated CYB5R3 then translocate from the mitochondrial to ER pool. As CYB5R3 is a critical NADH-dependent reductase necessary for eicosanoids metabolism in ER, we thus suggests that GGPP-mediated CYB5R3 prenylation is necessary for eicosanoid metabolism. In addition, we observe that pharmacological inhibition of MVA pathway by simvastatin is sufficient to inhibit CYB5R3 translocation and induces smooth muscle death. Therefore, we conclude that the dysregulation of MVA intermediates is an essential mechanism for metaflammation initiation, in which the imbalanced production of eicosanoid intermediates in ER serve as an important pathogenic factor. Moreover, the interplay of MVA and eicosanoids metabolism as we reported here illustrates a model for the coordinating regulation among metabolite pathways.

13.
Acta Otolaryngol ; 140(9): 749-755, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32869700

RESUMO

Background: It is beneficial for CI patients listen to music. However it is necessary to take steps to improve the musicality of CI patients.Objectives: The aims of the study were to evaluate the primary musicality of children with cochlear implants versus those with normal hearing.Material and methods: Children participating in this study were divided into two groups: the cochlear implant group (CI group) and the normal hearing group (NH group). The 'Musical Ears Evaluation Form for Professionals' was used to evaluate the subjects' primary musicality.Results: The scores for overall and the three subcategories of primary musicality in children with cochlear implants and in those with normal hearing also improved significantly over time (p < .05). The score for overall primary musicality was not significantly different between CI and NH groups in the same hearing age (p > .05). There were significant differences between the two groups in the same chronological age (p < .05).Conclusions and significance: The primary musicality in children with cochlear implants was not significantly different from normal hearing ones at the same hearing age. The primary musicality in children with cochlear implants was significantly lower than that of children with normal hearing at the same chronological age.

14.
World J Gastroenterol ; 26(30): 4442-4452, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32874056

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is the first-line treatment for patients with unresectable liver cancer; however, TACE is associated with postembolization pain. AIM: To analyze the risk factors for acute abdominal pain after TACE and establish a predictive model for postembolization pain. METHODS: From January 2018 to September 2018, all patients with liver cancer who underwent TACE at our hospital were included. General characteristics; clinical, imaging, and procedural data; and postembolization pain were analyzed. Postembolization pain was defined as acute moderate-to-severe abdominal pain within 24 h after TACE. Logistic regression and a classification and regression tree were used to develop a predictive model. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to examine the efficacy of the predictive model. RESULTS: We analyzed 522 patients who underwent a total of 582 TACE procedures. Ninety-seven (16.70%) episodes of severe pain occurred. A predictive model built based on the dataset from classification and regression tree analysis identified known invasion of blood vessels as the strongest predictor of subsequent performance, followed by history of TACE, method of TACE, and history of abdominal pain after TACE. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.736 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.682-0.789], the sensitivity was 73.2%, the specificity was 65.6%, and the negative predictive value was 92.4%. Logistic regression produced similar results by identifying age [odds ratio (OR) = 0.971; 95%CI: 0.951-0.992; P = 0.007), history of TACE (OR = 0.378; 95%CI: 0.189-0.757; P = 0.007), history of abdominal pain after TACE (OR = 6.288; 95%CI: 2.963-13.342; P < 0.001), tumor size (OR = 1.978; 95%CI: 1.175-3.330; P = 0.01), multiple tumors (OR = 2.164; 95%CI: 1.243-3.769; P = 0.006), invasion of blood vessels (OR = 1.756; 95%CI: 1.045-2.950; P = 0.034), and TACE with drug-eluting beads (DEB-TACE) (OR = 2.05; 95%CI: 1.260-3.334; P = 0.004) as independent predictive factors for postembolization pain. CONCLUSION: Blood vessel invasion, TACE history, TACE with drug-eluting beads, and history of abdominal pain after TACE are predictors of acute moderate-to-severe pain. The predictive model may help medical staff to manage pain.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876788

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare natural orifice specimen extraction surgery (NOSES) and conventional laparoscopic (LAP) surgery in treating colorectal cancer. METHODS: The present authors conducted a systematic search in the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs), prospective nonrandomized studies, and retrospective studies up to May 2019. We used postoperative complications as the main endpoints, and used hospital stay, time to first flatus, operative time, postoperative pain, cosmetic result, wound infections, and oncological outcomes as the secondary endpoints. Subgroup analyses were conducted according to the different specimen extraction sites (transanal and transvaginal). A sensitivity analysis was carried out to evaluate the reliability of the outcomes. RevMan5.3 software was used for statistical analysis. RESULT: Twelve studies (one RCT, ten retrospective studies, and one prospective nonrandomized study) involving a total of 1437 patients (NOSES group 665 patients and LAP surgery group 772 patients) were included. Meta-analysis showed that compared with LAP surgery, NOSES resulted in a shorter hospital stay (WMD = -0.79 days; 95% CI -1.17 to -0.42; P < 0.001; P = 0.02), a shorter time to first flatus (WMD = -0.58 days; 95% CI -0.75 to -0.40; P < 0.001), less postoperative pain (WMD = -1.51; 95% CI -1.99 to -1.04; P < 0.001), a better cosmetic result (WMD = 1.37; 95% CI 0.59 to 2.14; P < 0.001), and fewer wound infections (OR = 0.13; 95% CI 0.05 to 0.35; P < 0.001) and postoperative complications (OR = 0.48; 95% CI 0.36 to 0.65; P < 0.001). Oncological outcomes did not differ between the two groups, while the operative time (WMD = 13.95 min; 95% CI 4.55 to 23.35; P = 0.004) was longer in the NOSES group. CONCLUSION: The present systematic meta-analysis is an attempt to assess the impact of NOSES, namely, its oncological outcomes and surgical safety in colorectal cancer patients. Pooled comparisons revealed that NOSES was superior to LAP surgery in terms of postoperative morbidity, postoperative pain, hospital stay, the time to first flatus, cosmetic results, and wound infections; however, NOSES was associated with a longer operative time. Considering the abovementioned limitations and the very low level of evidence of the comparisons, further RCTs are required to verify the results of our study.

16.
J Exp Med ; 217(12)2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880631

RESUMO

Talaromyces marneffei causes life-threatening opportunistic infections, mainly in Southeast Asia and South China. T. marneffei mainly infects patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) but also infects individuals without known immunosuppression. Here we investigated the involvement of anti-IFN-γ autoantibodies in severe T. marneffei infections in HIV-negative patients. We enrolled 58 HIV-negative adults with severe T. marneffei infections who were otherwise healthy. We found a high prevalence of neutralizing anti-IFN-γ autoantibodies (94.8%) in this cohort. The presence of anti-IFN-γ autoantibodies was strongly associated with HLA-DRB1*16:02 and -DQB1*05:02 alleles in these patients. We demonstrated that adult-onset acquired immunodeficiency due to autoantibodies against IFN-γ is the major cause of severe T. marneffei infections in HIV-negative patients in regions where this fungus is endemic. The high prevalence of anti-IFN-γ autoantibody-associated HLA class II DRB1*16:02 and DQB1*05:02 alleles may account for severe T. marneffei infections in Southeast Asia. Our findings clarify the pathogenesis of T. marneffei infection and pave the way for developing novel treatments.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881687

RESUMO

Recent methods based on deep learning have shown promise in converting grayscale images to colored ones. However, most of them only allow limited user inputs (no inputs, only global inputs, or only local inputs), to control the output colorful images. The possible difficulty lies in how to differentiate the influences of different inputs. To solve this problem, we propose a two-stage deep colorization method allowing users to control the results by flexibly setting global inputs and local inputs. The key steps include enabling color themes as global inputs by extracting K mean colors and generating K-color maps to define a global theme loss, and designing a loss function to differentiate the influences of different inputs without causing artifacts. We also propose a color theme recommendation method to help users choose color themes. Based on the colorization model, we further propose an image compression scheme, which supports variable compression ratios in a single network. Experiments on colorization show that our method can flexibly control the colorized results with only a few inputs and generate state-of-the-art results. Experiments on compression show that our method achieves much higher image quality at the same compression ratio when compared to the state-of-the-art methods.

18.
Ann Palliat Med ; 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921107

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study explores whether postoperative hand-assisted expectoration can reduce postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) in patients with esophageal cancer. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on 543 patients undergoing radical esophageal cancer (EC) surgery in our hospital from October 2018 to August 2019, 156 of whom received postoperative handassisted sputum excretion (pulmonary rehabilitation, PR) and 387 of whom who did not receive postoperative hand-assisted sputum excretion (no pulmonary rehabilitation, NPR). Because the clinical characteristics of the two groups were not balanced, we used propensity score matching (PSM) to account for the variable factors of age, gender, body mass index (BMI), chronic respiratory comorbidity, smoking index, operation time, operation method, pathological stage. The main observation index used was PPCs. RESULTS: Among these 543 patients, 365 were male (67.2%), while 178 were female (32.8%). The age ranged from 30 to 82 years, with an average of 63.6±7.5 years old. In all, 342 patients (63%) underwent video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) surgery, while 201 patients (37%) underwent thoracotomy. Furthermore, 72 patients in the PR group received preoperative rehabilitation training and postoperative hand-assisted sputum excretion (combination pulmonary rehabilitation, CPR), while 87 patients only received postoperative hand-assisted sputum excretion (postoperative pulmonary rehabilitation, PPR). The patients in the PR group and the NPR group were uneven in terms of clinical characteristics, and we performed PSM as a result. After matching, PPC incidence in patients in the PR group was lower than that in the NPR group (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that hand-assisted sputum excretion after EC surgery can reduce PPCs.

19.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2020: 6752876, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908635

RESUMO

Extracts or active components from Acorus gramineus Aiton (EAAGA) have been clinically used for cognition impairment more than hundreds of years and are still used in modern times in China and elsewhere worldwide. Previous studies reported that EAAGA improves cognition impairment in animal models. Here, we conducted a preclinical systematic review to assess the current evidence of EAAGA for cognition impairment. We searched 7 databases up until June 2019. Methodological quality for each included studies was accessed according to the CAMARADES 10-item checklist. The primary outcome measures were neurobehavioral function scores evaluated by the Morris water maze test, electrical Y-maze test, step-down test, radial eight-arm maze test, and step-through test. The secondary outcome measures were mechanisms of EAAGA for cognition function. Finally, 34 studies involving 1431 animals were identified. The quality score of studies range from 1 to 6, and the median was 3.32. Compared with controls, the results of the meta-analysis indicated EAAGA exerted a significant effect in decreasing the escape latency and error times and in increasing the length of time spent in the platform quadrant and the number of platform crossings representing learning ability and memory function (all P < 0.01). The possible mechanisms of EAAGA are largely through anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiapoptosis activities, inhibition of neurotoxicity, regulating synaptic plasticity, protecting cerebrovascular, stimulating cholinergic system, and suppressing astrocyte activation. In conclusion, EAAGA exert potential neuroprotective effects in experimental cognition impairment, and EAAGA could be a candidate for cognition impairment treatment and further clinical trials.

20.
Org Lett ; 22(18): 7118-7122, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877199

RESUMO

N-Alkenoxypyridinium salts were found to be highly active electrophilic reagents that could be used to activate the C-N bond of amides. Both aromatic amides and aliphatic amides could be transformed into the corresponding ß-oxo esters with good yields via the combined use of N-alkenoxypyridinium salts and water. The methodology proceeds under mild reaction conditions and is tolerant of various functional groups in both reaction partners.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA