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1.
Mol Cell Endocrinol ; 501: 110662, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760045

RESUMO

microRNA-147b (miR-147b) is a newly identified tumor-related miRNA that is dysregulated in multiple cancer types. Yet, the role of miR-147b in thyroid carcinoma remains unknown. Herein, we found that miR-147b expression was upregulated in thyroid carcinoma tissues and cell lines. miR-147b inhibition decreased the proliferation, colony formation, and invasion of thyroid carcinoma cells. The tumor suppressive gene SRY-related high-mobility-group box gene 15 (SOX15) was predicted as a miR-147b target gene. SOX15 expression was markedly decreased in thyroid carcinoma tissues and inversely correlated with the miR-147b expression. SOX15 overexpression repressed the proliferation and invasion of thyroid carcinoma cells associated with downregulation of Wnt/ß-catenin signaling. SOX15 knockdown abolished the miR-147b-inhibition-mediated antitumor effect. miR-147b inhibition or SOX15 overexpression retarded the tumor growth of thyroid carcinoma cells in vivo. Overall, our study suggests that miR-147b inhibition restrains the proliferation and invasion of thyroid carcinoma cells through upregulation of SOX15 and inhibition of Wnt/ß-catenin signaling.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31782505

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In the last two decades, the number of intervention studies using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has grown enormously. Though some studies have shown positive influences on episodic memory among older adults, disagreement exists in the literature. Therefore, the current meta-analysis aimed to provide a quantitative assessment of the efficacy of tDCS in modulating episodic memory functions in older adults. METHOD: Eligible studies were sham-controlled trials examining the effects of anodal tDCS on episodic memory in older adults. Twenty-four articles comprising 566 participants aged over 60 qualified for inclusion. RESULTS: Compared to the sham tDCS group, the active tDCS group showed significant memory improvements at both immediate poststimulation (Hedges' g = 0.625, p = .001) and long-term follow-up (Hedges' g = 0.404, p = .002). There were no differences in effect sizes between cognitively healthy and impaired older adults. Moderator analyses suggested that tDCS having a duration of 20 min or less, bilateral stimulation, or a larger stimulation area would produce greater benefits for episodic memory performance in older adults. DISCUSSION: These findings suggest that tDCS holds great promise to ameliorate memory decline in older individuals. In the future, well-designed randomized controlled trials are expected to verify the optimal stimulation protocols and determine the factors impacting the long-term effects of tDCS in enhancing episodic memory.

3.
AIDS Behav ; 23(9): 2453-2466, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31321636

RESUMO

Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) is an evidence-based biomedical HIV prevention but under-utilized by male sexually transmitted diseases patients (MSTDP) in China. A parallel-group, non-blinded randomized controlled trial was conducted. Participants were uncircumcised heterosexual MSTDP attending four sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinics in three Chinese cities. A total of 244 MSTDP were randomized 1:1 into the intervention group (n = 108) and the control group (n = 136). In addition to the education booklet received by the control group, the intervention group watched a 10-min video clip and received a brief counseling delivered by clinicians in the STD clinics. The interventions were developed based on the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Planned Behavior. At Month 6, participants in the intervention group reported significantly higher uptake of VMMC (14.8% versus 2.9%; RR 5.03, 95% CI 1.73, 14.62, p = 0.001). The brief STD clinic-based intervention was effective in increasing VMMC uptake among MSTDP in China.Trial registry: This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT03414710. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03414710 .


Assuntos
Circuncisão Masculina/psicologia , Aconselhamento/métodos , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Heterossexualidade , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , China , Circuncisão Masculina/etnologia , Circuncisão Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
4.
Steroids ; 146: 70-78, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30951758

RESUMO

To identify new potential anti-inflammatory agents, a number of novel steroidal derivatives with nitrogen heterocyclic side chains 4a-4l were synthesized and evaluated for their anti-inflammatory effects in activated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. The synthesis scheme involves two steps, Claisen-Schmidt condensation with the corresponding pregnenolone and aromatic aldehydes as the first step followed by nucleophilic addition of thiosemicarbazide across an α, ß-unsaturated carbonyl as a later step. Compound structures were confirmed by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, HRMS, and IR. The compounds were assayed to test their anti-inflammatory effects in activated RAW 264.7 cells. Compound 4g, 3ß-hydroxy-pregn-5-en-17ß-yl-5'-(m-fluorophenyl)-4', 5'-dihydro-1'-carbothioic acid amido pyrazole, was identified as the most potent anti-inflammatory agent of the analysed compounds, with an IC50 value of 0.86 µM on nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 cells for 24 h compared to dexamethasone (IC50 = 0.62 µM) and low cytotoxicity against RAW 264.7 cells. Compound 4g significantly inhibited NO produced by LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Further studies showed that compound 4g markedly inhibited the expression of pro-inflammatory factors, including inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. These results indicate that derivatives bearing pyrazoline structure might be considered for further research and scaffold optimization in designing anti-inflammatory drugs and compound 4g might be a promising therapeutic anti-inflammatory drug candidate.

5.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(17): 15986-15997, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30945836

RESUMO

Significant efforts have been dedicated to fabricating favorable biomaterial-based bone substitutes for the repair of large bone defects. However, the development of bone biomaterials with suitable physiochemical and osteoinductive properties remains a challenge. Here, novel strontium-graphene oxide (Sr-GO) nanocomposites that allow long-term release of Sr ions are fabricated, which are used to reinforce collagen (Col) scaffolds through covalent cross-linking. The prepared Sr-GO-Col scaffold demonstrates significantly high water retention rates and excellent mechanical properties compared with unmodified Col scaffolds. The Sr-GO-modified Col scaffolds display a strong effect on adipose-derived stem cells by facilitating cell adhesion and osteogenic differentiation and by promoting the secretion of angiogenic factors to stimulate the in vitro tube formation of endothelial cells. Additionally, the secretion of angiogenic VEGF and osteogenic BMP-2 proteins is increased, which may be attributed to the synergistic effects of GO and Sr on the activation of the MAPK signaling pathway. The Sr-GO-Col constructs were then transplanted into rat critical-size calvarial bone defects, which showed the best bone regeneration and angiogenesis outcome at 12 weeks. Moreover, histological staining results show that the Sr-GO-Col group achieved complete defect bridging with the newly formed bone tissue and the residual Sr-GO nanoparticles are phagocytosed and degraded by multinucleated giant cells. These findings reveal that the incorporation of inorganic Sr-GO nanocomposites into biocompatible Col scaffolds is a viable strategy for fabricating favorable substitutes that enhance the regeneration of large bone defects.

6.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 74(7): 1842-1847, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30993329

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the genetic features of the blaVIM-1 gene first detected in a cephalosporin-resistant Vibrio alginolyticus isolate, Vb1978. METHODS: The MICs of V. alginolyticus strain Vb1978 were determined, and the ß-lactamases produced were screened and analysed using conjugation, S1-PFGE and Southern blotting. The complete sequence of the blaVIM-1-encoding plasmid was also obtained using the Illumina and MinION sequencing platforms. RESULTS: V. alginolyticus strain Vb1978, isolated from a retail shrimp sample, was resistant to cephalosporins and exhibited reduced susceptibility to carbapenems. A novel blaVIM-1-carrying conjugative plasmid, designated pVb1978, was identified in this strain. Plasmid pVb1978 had 50 001 bp and comprised 59 predicted coding sequences (CDSs). The plasmid backbone of pVb1978 was homologous to those of IncP-type plasmids, while its replication region was structurally similar to non-IncP plasmids. The blaVIM-1 gene was found to be carried by the class 1 integron In70 and associated with a defective Tn402-like transposon. CONCLUSIONS: A novel blaVIM-1-carrying conjugative plasmid, pVb1978, was reported for the first time in V. alginolyticus, which warrants further investigation in view of its potential pathogenicity towards humans and widespread occurrence in the environment.

7.
Chem Biol Drug Des ; 94(1): 1368-1377, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30873716

RESUMO

As NF-κB signaling pathway is constitutively activated in lung cancer, targeting NF-κB has a potential for the treatment. EF24 has been proved to be a NF-κB inhibitor with good antitumor activity, while whose toxicity possibly became one of the obstacles to enter into clinical application. In order to find high efficiency and low toxicity NF-κB inhibitors, EF24 was modified and 13d was screened out. It was proved that 13d possessed an effective combination of inhibiting NF-κB pathway and showing lower cytotoxicity on normal cells as well as less toxicity in acute toxicity experiment compared with the lead compound of EF24. In addition, 13d was found to inhibit cell vitality, arrest cell cycle in G2/M phase, promote cell apoptosis, and suppress the xenograft tumor growth. Furthermore, 13d was elucidated to induce pyroptosis developing from apoptosis, which was associated with the inhibition of NF-κB. Taken together, it was suggested that 13d was a potent antitumor agent.

8.
Brain Cogn ; 132: 13-21, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30784854

RESUMO

Older adults demonstrate greater susceptibility to high-confidence memory distortions. Cognitive processes underlying memory errors in older adults remain unclear. Here, in a categorized pictures paradigm, we used the event-related potential (ERP) to examine the electrophysiological correlates of false recognition. Young and older participants were presented with categorized pictures during study and subsequently completed an old/new recognition memory task that included studied pictures, lure pictures from studied categories, and new pictures. Behavioral results showed proportionally similar but higher-confidence false memories in older adults compared to young adults. ERP results revealed that false recognition elicited a significant early frontal old/new effect indexing familiarity in young adults, while older adults exhibited a reliable late posterior negativity during false recognition. These findings suggest that episodic reconstruction contributes to high-confidence false memories in older adults.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Recognição (Psicologia)/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Cognição , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Memória/fisiologia , Transtornos da Memória , Memória Episódica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30559135

RESUMO

This study reported the clonal dissemination of OXA-232-producing sequence type 15 (ST15) carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae among elderly patients in China. All patients were immunocompromised, suffered from multiple underlying diseases, and were hospitalized for a prolonged period; however, they slowly recovered on antimicrobial therapy. The bla OXA-232 gene was in a 6.1-kb ColKP3-type nonconjugative plasmid. The strains displayed a multidrug resistance phenotype and were not hypervirulent despite harboring a virulence plasmid. Active surveillance should be enforced to control further transmission.

10.
Theranostics ; 8(19): 5482-5500, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30555559

RESUMO

Background: Treatment of large bone defects represents a major clinical problem worldwide. Suitable bone substitute materials are commonly required to achieve successful bone regeneration, and much effort has been spent to optimize their chemical compositions, 3D architecture and mechanical properties. However, material-immune system interactions are increasingly being recognized as a crucial factor influencing regeneration. Here, we envisioned an accurate and proactive immunomodulation strategy via delivery of IL-4 (key regulator of macrophage polarization) to promote bone substitute material-mediated regeneration. Methods: Four different IL-4 doses (0 ng, 10 ng, 50 ng and 100 ng) were delivered into rat large cranial bone defects at day 3 post-operation of decellularized bone matrix (DBM) material implantation, and the osteogenesis, angiogenesis and macrophage polarization were meticulously evaluated. Results: Micro-CT analysis showed that immunomodulation with 10 ng IL-4 significantly outperformed the other groups in terms of new bone formation (1.23-5.05 fold) and vascularization (1.29-6.08 fold), achieving successful defect bridging and good vascularization at 12 weeks. Histological analysis at 7 and 14 days showed that the 10 ng group generated the most preferable M1/M2 macrophage polarization profile, resulting in a pro-healing microenvironment with more IL-10 and less TNF-α secretion, a reduced apoptosis level in tissues around the materials, and enhanced mesenchymal stem cell migration and osteogenic differentiation. Moreover, in vitro studies revealed that M1 macrophages facilitated mesenchymal stem cell migration, while M2 macrophages significantly increased cell survival, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation, explaining the in vivo findings. Conclusions: Accurate immunomodulation via IL4 delivery significantly enhanced DBM-mediated osteogenesis and angiogenesis via the coordinated involvement of M1 and M2 macrophages, revealing the promise of this accurate and proactive immunomodulatory strategy for developing new bone substitute materials.


Assuntos
Doenças Ósseas/terapia , Substitutos Ósseos/administração & dosagem , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Interleucina-4/administração & dosagem , Osteogênese , Animais , Substitutos Ósseos/metabolismo , Movimento Celular , Citocinas/análise , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Imuno-Histoquímica , Fatores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Interleucina-4/metabolismo , Macrófagos/imunologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/fisiologia , Neovascularização Fisiológica , Ratos , Regeneração , Crânio/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Microtomografia por Raio-X
11.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 10: 298, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30386229

RESUMO

Background: Executive function tends to decline as people age. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is assumed to have beneficial effects on various cognitive functions. Some prior investigations have shown that repeated sessions of tDCS enhance the executive function performance of healthy elderly people by mediating cognitive training gains. However, studies of the effect of long-term stimulation on executive function without cognitive training are absent. Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore whether the executive function of healthy older adults could be enhanced with long-term tDCS alone applied on the prefrontal cortex. Methods: Sixty-five cognitively normal older adults were enrolled and randomly assigned to two groups: an anodal tDCS group and a sham tDCS group. The participants in the two groups received anodal stimulation or sham stimulation over the left dorsolateral prefrontal lobe, for 30 min per day for 10 consecutive days. Executive function was tested before stimulation, immediately after stimulation and 3 months after stimulation. Three core components of executive function were tested using a two-back task for updating, a flanker task for inhibition, and a switching task for shifting. Results: Across the three tasks, we failed to discover any differences between the anodal and sham stimulation. Moreover, we found no statistically significant stimulation effect in the follow-up session. Conclusion: Our study does not support the assumption that multiple sessions of tDCS that are independent of cognitive training have a beneficial effect on executive function in healthy older adults, presumably because the effect of the stimulation lies in its amplification of training gains. It indicates that combining traditional cognitive training methods with brain stimulation may be a better approach to improve older adults' executive function.

12.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 9(1): 331, 2018 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30486863

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bone tissue engineering is not widely used in clinical treatment. Two main reasons hide behind this: (1) the seed cells are difficult to obtain and (2) the process of tissue engineering bone construction is too complex and its efficiency is still relatively low. It is foreseeable that in the near future, the problem of seed cell sources could be solved completely in tissue engineering bone repair. As for the complex process and low efficiency of tissue engineering bone construction, usually two strategies would be considered: (1) the construction strategy based on injectable bone tissue and (2) the construction strategy based on osteogenic cell sheets. However, the application of injectable bone tissue engineering (iBTE) strategy and osteogenic cell sheet strategy is limited and they could hardly be used directly in repairing defects of large segmental bone, especially load-bearing bone. METHODS: In this study, we built an osteogenic micro-tissue with simple construction but with a certain structure and composition. Based on this, we established a new iBTE repair strategy-osteogenic micro-tissue in situ repair strategy, mainly targeting at solving the problem of large segmental bone defect. The steps are as follows: (1) Build the biodegradable three-dimensional scaffold based on the size of the defect site with 3D printing rapid prototyping technology. (2) Implant the three-dimensional scaffold into the defect site. This scaffold is considered as the "steel framework" that could provide both mechanical support and space for bone tissue growth. (3) Inject the osteogenic micro-tissue (i.e., the "cell-extracellular matrix" complex), which could be considered as "concrete," into the three-dimensional scaffold, to promote the bone tissue regeneration in situ. Meanwhile, the digested cells were injected as the compared group in this experiment. After 3 months, the effect of in situ bone defect repair of osteogenic micro-tissue and digested cells was compared. RESULTS: It is confirmed that osteogenic micro-tissue could achieve a higher efficiency on cell usage and has a better repair effect than the digested cells. CONCLUSIONS: Osteogenic micro-tissue repairing strategy would be a more promising clinical strategy to solve the problem of large segmental bone defect.

13.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 9(1): 318, 2018 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30463592

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Developing cartilage constructed with the appropriate matrix composition and persistent chondrogenesis remains an enduring challenge in cartilage defects. Cartilage progenitor cell (CPC)-based tissue engineering has attracted recent attention because of its strong chondrogenic differentiation capacity. However, due to the lack of a suitable chondrogenic niche, the clinical application of CPC-regenerated cartilage in the subcutaneous environment remains a challenge. In this study, exosomes derived from chondrocytes (CC-Exos) were used to provide the CPC constructs with a cartilage signal in subcutaneous environments for efficient ectopic cartilage regeneration. METHODS: Rabbit CPC-alginate constructs were prepared and implanted subcutaneously in nude mice. CC-Exos were injected into the constructs at the same dose (30 µg exosomes per 100 µL injection) after surgery and thereafter weekly for a period of 12 weeks. Exosomes derived from bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC-Exos) were used as the positive control. The mice in the negative control were administered with the same volume of PBS. At 4 and 12 weeks after implantation, the potential of CC-Exos and BMSC-Exos to promote chondrogenesis and stability of cartilage tissue in a subcutaneous environment were analyzed by histology, immunostaining, and protein analysis. The influences of BMSC-Exos and CC-Exos on chondrogenesis and angiogenic characteristics in vitro were assessed via coculturing with CPCs and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. RESULTS: The CC-Exos injection increased collagen deposition and minimized vascular ingrowth in engineered constructs, which efficiently and reproducibly developed into cartilage. The generated cartilage was phenotypically stable with minimal hypertrophy and vessel ingrowth up to 12 weeks, while the cartilage formed with BMSC-Exos was characterized by hypertrophic differentiation accompanied by vascular ingrowth. In vitro experiments indicated that CC-Exos stimulated CPCs proliferation and increased expression of chondrogenesis markers while inhibiting angiogenesis. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the novel CC-Exos provides the preferable niche in directing stable ectopic chondrogenesis of CPCs. The use of CC-Exos may represent an off-the-shelf and cell-free therapeutic approach for promoting cartilage regeneration in the subcutaneous environment.

14.
J Transl Med ; 16(1): 324, 2018 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30470235

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: At present, many laboratories and hospitals all over the world are attempting and exploring the clinical transformation of this tissue engineered bone graft (TEBG) strategy. Many successful cases of bone tissue engineering (BTE) repair were based on young individuals. But there are little studies about the effectiveness of TEBG strategy in physiological aged individuals. METHODS: In this research, we studied whether aging factor has influence on the skull repair effect of Fetal-TEBG, at the level of the large animal models. We used the fetal bone marrow stromal cells (Fetal-BMSCs) as the seed cells, combining the decalcified bone matrix (DBM) scaffolds, to repair the skull defects of the aged goats and the young goats. The repair effects on both aged goat and young goat were compared by Micro-CT and histology examination. RESULTS: The skull defects of the young goats could be repaired better than that of the aged goats after 6 months by Fetal-TEBG; In the aged goats, although not completely repaired, the defects repaired by Fetal-TEBG was better than that repaired by the Control DBM scaffold. CONCLUSIONS: Aging factor has impact on the bone repair effect of Fetal-TEBG; and the BTE strategy is still efficacious even in the aged individuals. The improvement of the aged state may promote the repair effect of the BTE in the aged individuals.

15.
Pathol Oncol Res ; 2018 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30361906

RESUMO

Vasculogenic mimicry (VM) is a new pattern of blood supplement independent of endothelial vessels, which is related with tumor invasion, metastasis and prognosis. However, the role of VM in the prognosis of cancer patients is controversial. This study aimed to perform a meta-analysis of the published data to attempt to clarify the prognostic value of VM in the digestive cancer. Relevant studies were retrieved from the PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure and VIP databases published before March 29, 2018. Studies were included if they detected VM in the digestive cancer and analyzed the overall survival (OS) or disease-free survival (DFS) according to VM status. Two independent reviewers screened the studies, extracted data, and evaluated the quality of included studies with the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Meta-analysis was performed using STATA 12.0 software. A total of 22 studies with 2411 patients were included in this meta-analysis. Meta-analysis showed that VM was related with the poor OS (HR = 2.30, 95% CI: 2.06-2.56, P < 0.001) and DFS (HR = 2.60, 95% CI: 2.07-3.27, P < 0.001) of patients with digestive cancer. Subgroup analysis showed VM was related with tumor differentiation, lymph node metastasis and TNM stage. Moreover, the present meta-analysis was reliable, and there was no obvious publication bias. This meta-analysis suggested that VM was a poor prognosis of digestive cancer patients. Further large and well-designed studies are required.

17.
Acta Crystallogr E Crystallogr Commun ; 74(Pt 9): 1215-1217, 2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30225102

RESUMO

The mol-ecular structure of the first orally active carbapenem anti-bacterial agent, tebipenem pivoxil (systematic name: (2,2-di-methyl-propano-yloxy)methyl (4R,5S,6S)-3-{[1-(4,5-di-hydro-1,3-thia-zol-2-yl)azetidin-3-yl]sulfanyl}-6-[(1R)-1-hy-droxy-eth-yl]-4-methyl-7-oxo-1-aza-bicyclo-[3.2.0]hept-2-ene-2-carboxyl-ate), C22H31N3O6S2, has been determined and the configurations of the four chiral centers validated. The title compound crystallizes in the triclinic space group P1 with one mol-ecule in the unit cell. Three out of the four rings adopt planar conformations while the thia-zolinyl ring adopts an enveloped conformation. In the crystal, O-H⋯N hydrogen bonds link the mol-ecules into chains along [10].

18.
Int J STD AIDS ; : 956462418781142, 2018 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30139308

RESUMO

Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is not available in China and the willingness to use PrEP among Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM) is not clear. The aim of this study was to better understand the association between PrEP comprehension and the willingness to use PrEP under varying conditions among MSM. An online survey investigating personal characteristics, PrEP comprehension, and PrEP willingness among MSM was conducted. A third of respondents (36.2%, 196 out of 541) reported that they would like to use PrEP. Compared with MSM with a basic level of PrEP comprehension, MSM with a high level were more likely to report clear choices: a willingness or unwillingness to use PrEP (82.4% versus 65.7%, p <0.01). Among 350 MSM willing to use PrEP or uncertain about uptake, those with a high level of PrEP comprehension were more likely to use PrEP daily (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.71, 95% confidence interval 1.04-2.80), and to use PrEP with mild or other side effects (AOR = 2.72 or 2.77). A high level of PrEP comprehension is a key factor in urging MSM to use PrEP under varying conditions. Our findings call attention to the need for health education to improve PrEP comprehension.

19.
Cognition ; 179: 298-310, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30064656

RESUMO

Two competing hypotheses attempt to explain the effects of emotional content on the production of false memory. The conceptual relatedness account posits that negative emotion increases false memory by strengthening familiarity process, whereas the distinctiveness heuristic account postulates that negative emotion reduces false memory by influencing recollection process. Here, using the categorized pictures paradigm, we examined these hypotheses by investigating emotional influences on false recognition memory performance and the event-related potential (ERP) correlates of familiarity and recollection. Participants were presented with positive, neutral, or negative pictures from various categories during encoding and later completed a recognition test while electroencephalogram data were recorded. Behavioral results revealed lower corrected false recognition rates for negative and neutral pictures than for positive ones, with no significant difference between negative and neutral pictures. In addition, negative pictures were associated with a more conservative response bias in comparison with neutral and positive pictures. Importantly, ERP results revealed enhanced recollection-related parietal old/new effects for negative pictures relative to positive and neutral pictures, but comparable familiarity-related early frontal old/new effects across each type of emotional valence category during both true and false recognition. Our results suggest that emotionally negative content may affect production of false memory mainly by engaging a distinctiveness heuristic. Methodological implications of these findings are discussed.

20.
J Craniofac Surg ; 29(8): 2299-2303, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29894461

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this article was to propose a V-shaped minimal facelift incision (FLI) and analyze its efficacy for improving the esthetic outcomes of parotid gland tumors. METHODS: A prospective, nonrandomized study was performed. Forty-six patients with category I benign parotid tumors as to Quer classification (3 cm or less and located superficially and/or peripherally in the gland) were enrolled. The 46 patients who underwent dissection of parotid gland tumors were divided into 2 groups: minimal FLI (group 1) and modified Blair incision (MBI, group 2). The modified minimal FLI was performed via V-shaped preauricular and retroauricular incision with no extension to the hair bearing skin. The operation variables and the cosmetic satisfaction of the patients in each group were compared. RESULTS: Twenty-three patients underwent the minimal FLI approach and 23 underwent the conventional modified Blair incision approach. No recurrence developed in any of the patients at the follow-up for an average of 18.9 ±â€Š2.7 months. Among the operation factors, the authors observed no other significant differences in the size of tumor, operative time, or completeness of resection (P > 0.05). Moreover, facial palsy and Frey syndrome also did not differ between the 2 groups (P > 0.05). However, cosmetic satisfaction evaluated with a graded scale showed much better results in the V-shaped minimal FLI approach group (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: V-shaped minimal FLI with excellent cosmetic outcomes could be used as a safe and preferable approach for parotidectomy, especially for the more conservative extracapsular dissection in small tumors.

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