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1.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(46): 15791-15803, 2018 11 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30285448

RESUMO

The ensemble emission spectra of colloidal InP quantum dots are broader than achievable spectra of cadmium- and lead-based quantum dots, despite similar single-particle line widths and significant efforts invested in the improvement of synthetic protocols. We seek to explain the origin of persistently broad ensemble emission spectra of colloidal InP quantum dots by investigating the nature of the electronic states responsible for luminescence. We identify a correlation between red-shifted emission spectra and anomalous broadening of the excitation spectra of luminescent InP colloids, suggesting a trap-associated emission pathway in highly emissive core-shell quantum dots. Time-resolved pump-probe experiments find that electrons are largely untrapped on photoluminescence relevant time scales pointing to emission from recombination of localized holes with free electrons. Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy on InP quantum dots reveals multiple emissive states and increased electron-phonon coupling associated with hole localization. These localized hole states near the valence band edge are hypothesized to arise from incomplete surface passivation and structural disorder associated with lattice defects. We confirm the presence and effect of lattice disorder by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and Raman scattering measurements. Participation of localized electronic states that are associated with various classes of lattice defects gives rise to phonon-coupled defect related emission. These findings explain the origins of the persistently broad emission spectra of colloidal InP quantum dots and suggest future strategies to narrow ensemble emission lines comparable to what is observed for cadmium-based materials.

2.
ACS Nano ; 12(11): 11529-11540, 2018 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30335943

RESUMO

Treatment of InP colloidal quantum dots (QDs) with hydrofluoric acid (HF) has been an effective method to improve their photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) without growing a shell. Previous work has shown that this can occur through the dissolution of the fluorinated phosphorus and subsequent passivation of indium on the reconstructed surface by excess ligands. In this article, we demonstrate that very significant luminescence enhancements occur at lower HF exposure though a different mechanism. At lower exposure to HF, the main role of the fluoride ions is to directly passivate the surface indium dangling bonds in the form of atomic ligands. The PLQY enhancement in this case is accompanied by red shifts of the emission and absorption peaks rather than blue shifts caused by etching as seen at higher exposures. Density functional theory shows that the surface fluorination is thermodynamically preferred and that the observed spectral characteristics might be due to greater exciton delocalization over the outermost surface layer of the InP QDs as well as alteration of the optical oscillator strength by the highly electronegative fluoride layer. Passivation of surface indium with fluorides can be applied to other indium-based QDs. PLQY of InAs QDs could also be increased by an order of magnitude via fluorination. We fabricated fluorinated InAs QD-based electrical devices exhibiting improved switching and higher mobility than those of 1,2-ethanedithiol cross-linked QD devices. The effective surface passivation eliminates persistent photoconductivity usually found in InAs QD-based solid films.

3.
Nano Lett ; 16(8): 5060-7, 2016 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27411026

RESUMO

Nanoscale stress-sensing can be used across fields ranging from detection of incipient cracks in structural mechanics to monitoring forces in biological tissues. We demonstrate how tetrapod quantum dots (tQDs) embedded in block copolymers act as sensors of tensile/compressive stress. Remarkably, tQDs can detect their own composite dispersion and mechanical properties with a switch in optomechanical response when tQDs are in direct contact. Using experimental characterizations, atomistic simulations and finite-element analyses, we show that under tensile stress, densely packed tQDs exhibit a photoluminescence peak shifted to higher energies ("blue-shift") due to volumetric compressive stress in their core; loosely packed tQDs exhibit a peak shifted to lower energies ("red-shift") from tensile stress in the core. The stress shifts result from the tQD's unique branched morphology in which the CdS arms act as antennas that amplify the stress in the CdSe core. Our nanocomposites exhibit excellent cyclability and scalability with no degraded properties of the host polymer. Colloidal tQDs allow sensing in many materials to potentially enable autoresponsive, smart structural nanocomposites that self-predict impending fracture.

4.
Science ; 351(6272): 475-8, 2016 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26823421

RESUMO

The (111) surface of copper (Cu), its most compact and lowest energy surface, became unstable when exposed to carbon monoxide (CO) gas. Scanning tunneling microscopy revealed that at room temperature in the pressure range 0.1 to 100 Torr, the surface decomposed into clusters decorated by CO molecules attached to edge atoms. Between 0.2 and a few Torr CO, the clusters became mobile in the scale of minutes. Density functional theory showed that the energy gain from CO binding to low-coordinated Cu atoms and the weakening of binding of Cu to neighboring atoms help drive this process. Particularly for softer metals, the optimal balance of these two effects occurs near reaction conditions. Cluster formation activated the surface for water dissociation, an important step in the water-gas shift reaction.

5.
Chem Sci ; 7(6): 3857-3861, 2016 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30155029

RESUMO

We have demonstrated a rational two-dimensional (2D) conjugation approach towards achieving panchromatic absorption of small molecules. By extending the conjugation on two orthogonal axes of an electron acceptor, namely, bay-annulated indigo (BAI), the optical absorptions could be tuned independently in both high- and low-energy regions. The unconventional modulation of the high-energy absorption is rationalized by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Such a 2D tuning strategy provides novel guidelines for the design of molecular materials with tailored optoelectronic properties.

6.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 6(23): 4711-6, 2015 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26554672

RESUMO

Colloidal quantum dots exhibit various defects and deviations from ideal structures due to kinetic processes, although their band gap frequently remains open and clean. In this Letter, we computationally investigate intrinsic defects in a real-size PbS quantum dot passivated with realistic Cl-ligands. We show that the colloidal intrinsic defects are ionic in nature. Unlike previous computational results, we find that even nonideal, atomically nonstoichiometric quantum dots have a clean band gap without in-gap-states provided that quantum dots satisfy electronic stoichiometry.


Assuntos
Chumbo/química , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Pontos Quânticos/química , Sulfetos/química , Filosofia
7.
ACS Nano ; 9(10): 10445-52, 2015 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26402255

RESUMO

Artificial solids composed of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are being developed for large-area electronic and optoelectronic applications, but these materials often have defect-induced in-gap states (IGS) of unknown chemical origin. Here we performed scanning probe based spectroscopic analysis and density functional theory calculations to determine the nature of such states and their electronic structure. We found that IGS near the valence band occur frequently in the QDs except when treated with reducing agents. Calculations on various possible defects and chemical spectroscopy revealed that molecular oxygen is most likely at the origin of these IGS. We expect this impurity-induced deep IGS to be a common occurrence in ionic semiconductors, where the intrinsic vacancy defects either do not produce IGS or produce shallow states near band edges. Ionic QDs with surface passivation to block impurity adsorption are thus ideal for high-efficiency optoelectronic device applications.

8.
Nano Lett ; 15(9): 6102-9, 2015 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26305572

RESUMO

LiFePO4 has long been held as one of the most promising battery cathode for its high energy storage capacity. Meanwhile, although extensive studies have been conducted on the interfacial chemistries in Li-ion batteries,1-3 little is known on the atomic level about the solid-liquid interface of LiFePO4/electrolyte. Here, we report battery cathode consisted with nanosized LiFePO4 particles in aqueous electrolyte with an high charging and discharging rate of 600 C (3600/600 = 6 s charge time, 1 C = 170 mAh g(-1)) reaching 72 mAh g(-1) energy storage (42% of the theoretical capacity). By contrast, the accessible capacity sharply decreases to 20 mAh g(-1) at 200 C in organic electrolyte. After a comprehensive electrochemistry tests and ab initio calculations of the LiFePO4-H2O and LiFePO4-EC (ethylene carbonate) systems, we identified the transient formation of a Janus hydrated interface in the LiFePO4-H2O system, where the truncated symmetry of solid LiFePO4 surface is compensated by the chemisorbed H2O molecules, forming a half-solid (LiFePO4) and half-liquid (H2O) amphiphilic coordination environment that eases the Li desolvation process near the surface, which makes a fast Li-ion transport across the solid/liquid interfaces possible.

9.
Nano Lett ; 15(5): 3249-53, 2015 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25844919

RESUMO

Charge hopping and percolation in quantum dot (QD) solids has been widely studied, but the microscopic nature of the percolation process is not understood or determined. Here we present the first imaging of the charge percolation pathways in two-dimensional PbS QD arrays using Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). We show that under dark conditions electrons percolate via in-gap states (IGS) instead of the conduction band, while holes percolate via valence band states. This novel transport behavior is explained by the electronic structure and energy level alignment of the individual QDs, which was measured by scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS). Chemical treatments with hydrazine can remove the IGS, resulting in an intrinsic defect-free semiconductor, as revealed by STS and surface potential spectroscopy. The control over IGS can guide the design of novel electronic devices with impurity conduction, and photodiodes with controlled doping.

10.
Chem Sci ; 6(5): 3180-3186, 2015 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29142688

RESUMO

Combining core annulation and peripheral group modification, we have demonstrated a divergent synthesis of a family of highly functionalized coronene derivatives from a readily accessible dichlorodiazaperylene intermediate. Various reactions, such as aromatic nucleophilic substitution, Kumada coupling and Suzuki coupling proceed effectively on α-positions of the pyridine sites, giving rise to alkoxy, thioalkyl, alkyl or aryl substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In addition to peripheral group modulation, the aromatic core structures can be altered by annulation with thiophene or benzene ring systems. Corresponding single crystal X-ray diffraction and optical studies indicate that the heteroatom linkages not only impact the solid state packing, but also significantly influence the optoelectronic properties. Moreover, these azacoronene derivatives display significant acid-induced spectroscopic changes, suggesting their great potential as colorimetric and fluorescence proton sensors.

11.
J Am Chem Soc ; 136(42): 15093-101, 2014 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25254646

RESUMO

A novel electron acceptor was synthesized from one-step functionalization of the readily available indigo dye. The resulting bay-annulated indigo (BAI) was utilized for the preparation of a series of novel donor-acceptor small molecules and polymers. As revealed experimentally and by theoretical calculations, substituted BAIs have stronger electron accepting characteristics when compared to several premier electron deficient building blocks. As a result, the donor-acceptor materials incorporating BAI acceptor possess low-lying LUMO energy levels and small HOMO-LUMO gaps. In situ grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering studies of the thin films of BAI donor-acceptor polymers indicated improved crystallinity upon thermal treatment. Field effect transistors based on these polymers show excellent ambipolar transporting behavior, with the hole and electron mobilities reaching 1.5 and 0.41 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), respectively, affirming BAI as a potent electron accepting unit for high performance organic electronic materials.

12.
Science ; 345(6199): 916-9, 2014 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25146287

RESUMO

An understanding of how facets of a nanocrystal develop is critical for controlling nanocrystal shape and designing novel functional materials. However, the atomic pathways of nanocrystal facet development are mostly unknown because of the lack of direct observation. We report the imaging of platinum nanocube growth in a liquid cell using transmission electron microscopy with high spatial and temporal resolution. The growth rates of all low index facets are similar until the {100} facets stop growth. The continuous growth of the rest facets leads to a nanocube. Our calculation shows that the much lower ligand mobility on the {100} facets is responsible for the arresting of {100} growing facets. These findings shed light on nanocrystal shape-control mechanisms and future design of nanomaterials.

13.
J Am Chem Soc ; 136(29): 10515-20, 2014 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24992695

RESUMO

We synthesize platinum nanoparticles with controlled average sizes of 2, 4, 6, and 8 nm and use them as model catalysts to study isopropanol oxidation to acetone in both the liquid and gas phases at 60 °C. The reaction at the solid/liquid interface is 2 orders of magnitude slower than that at the solid/gas interface, while catalytic activity increases with the size of platinum nanoparticles for both the liquid-phase and gas-phase reactions. The activation energy of the gas-phase reaction decreases with the platinum nanoparticle size and is in general much higher than that of the liquid-phase reaction which is largely insensitive to the size of catalyst nanoparticles. Water substantially promotes isopropanol oxidation in the liquid phase. However, it inhibits the reaction in the gas phase. The kinetic results suggest different mechanisms between the liquid-phase and gas-phase reactions, correlating well with different orientations of IPA species at the solid/liquid interface vs the solid/gas interface as probed by sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy under reaction conditions and simulated by computational calculations.

14.
Science ; 344(6190): 1380-4, 2014 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24876347

RESUMO

Controlling the structure of colloidal nanocrystals (NCs) is key to the generation of their complex functionality. This requires an understanding of the NC surface at the atomic level. The structure of colloidal PbS NCs passivated with oleic acid has been studied theoretically and experimentally. We show the existence of surface OH(-) groups, which play a key role in stabilizing the PbS(111) facets, consistent with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy as well as other spectroscopic and chemical experiments. The role of water in the synthesis process is also revealed. Our model, along with existing observations of NC surface termination and passivation by ligands, helps to explain and predict the properties of NCs and their assemblies.

15.
ACS Nano ; 8(3): 2532-40, 2014 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24547977

RESUMO

We fabricate a field-effect transistor by covalently functionalizing PbS nanoparticles with tetrathiafulvalenetetracarboxylate. Following experimental results from cyclic voltammetry and ambient-pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we postulate a near-resonant alignment of the PbS 1Sh state and the organic HOMO, which is confirmed by atomistic calculations. Considering the large width of interparticle spacing, we observe an abnormally high field-effect hole mobility, which we attribute to the postulated resonance. In contrast to nanoparticle devices coupled through common short-chained ligands, our system maintains a large degree of macroscopic order as revealed by X-ray scattering. This provides a different approach to the design of hybrid organic-inorganic nanomaterials, circumvents the problem of phase segregation, and holds for versatile ways to design ordered, coupled nanoparticle thin films.

16.
Inorg Chem ; 52(16): 9216-28, 2013 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23902538

RESUMO

Cobalt-cobalt and iron-cobalt bonds are investigated in coordination complexes with formally mixed-valent [M2](3+) cores. The trigonal dicobalt tris(diphenylformamidinate) compound, Co2(DPhF)3, which was previously reported by Cotton, Murillo, and co-workers (Inorg. Chim. Acta 1996, 249, 9), is shown to have an energetically isolated, high-spin sextet ground-state by magnetic susceptibility and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. A new tris(amidinato)amine ligand platform is introduced. By tethering three amidinate donors to an apical amine, this platform offers two distinct metal-binding sites. Using the phenyl-substituted variant (abbreviated as L(Ph)), the isolation of a dicobalt homobimetallic and an iron-cobalt heterobimetallic are demonstrated. The new [Co2](3+) and [FeCo](3+) cores have high-spin sextet and septet ground states, respectively. Their solid-state structures reveal short metal-metal bond distances of 2.29 Å for Co-Co and 2.18 Å for Fe-Co; the latter is the shortest distance for an iron-cobalt bond to date. To assign the positions of iron and cobalt atoms as well as to determine if Fe/Co mixing is occurring, X-ray anomalous scattering experiments were performed, spanning the Fe and Co absorption energies. These studies show only a minor amount of metal-site mixing in this complex, and that FeCoL(Ph) is more precisely described as (Fe0.94(1)Co0.06(1))(Co0.95(1)Fe0.05(1))L(Ph). The iron-cobalt heterobimetallic has been further characterized by Mössbauer spectroscopy. Its isomer shift of 0.65 mm/s and quadrupole splitting of 0.64 mm/s are comparable to the related diiron complex, Fe2(DPhF)3. On the basis of spectroscopic data and theoretical calculations, it is proposed that the formal [M2](3+) cores are fully delocalized.


Assuntos
Cobalto/química , Compostos Organometálicos/química , Formamidas/química , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Organometálicos/síntese química , Teoria Quântica
17.
Inorg Chem ; 51(1): 728-36, 2012 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22148181

RESUMO

The nature of the iron-iron bond in the mixed-valent diiron tris(diphenylforamidinate) complex Fe(2)(DPhF)(3), which was first reported by Cotton, Murillo et al. (Inorg. Chim. Acta 1994, 219, 7-10), has been examined using additional spectroscopic and theoretical methods. It is shown that the coupling between the two iron centers is strongly ferromagnetic, giving rise to an octet spin ground state. On the basis of Mössbauer spectroscopy, the two iron centers, formally mixed-valent Fe(II)Fe(I), are completely equivalent with an isomer shift δ = 0.65 mm s(-1) and quadrupole splitting ΔE(Q) = +0.32 mm s(-1). A large, positive zero-field splitting D(7/2) = 8.2 cm(-1) has been determined from magnetic susceptibility measurements. Multiconfigurational quantum studies of the complete molecule Fe(2)(DPhF)(3) found one dominant configuration (σ)(2)(π)(4)(π*)(2)(σ*)(1)(δ)(2)(δ*)(2), which accounts for 73% of the ground-state wave function. By considering all the configurations, an estimated metal-metal bond order of 1.15 has been calculated. Finally, Fe(2)(DPhF)(3) exhibits weak electronic absorptions in the visible and near-infrared regions, which are assigned as d-d transitions from the doubly occupied metal-metal π molecular orbital to half-occupied π*, δ, and δ* orbitals.


Assuntos
Compostos de Ferro/química , Elétrons , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Modelos Moleculares , Teoria Quântica , Espectroscopia de Mossbauer
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