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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32282186

RESUMO

High-performance electromagnetic (EM) wave absorbing materials are strongly desired in many fields like portable devices and aircraft. Introducing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to certain materials has been proved to be an effective method leading to good EM wave absorption capability. In this work, CNTs are successfully synthesized on SiC fibers with high speed by using a newly developed method which is far more efficient than the commonly used one. The obtained CNT/SiCf composites exhibit high-performance EM wave absorption capability. With 0.72 wt % CNTs, the reflection loss of the 4 mm composite with only 20 wt % filler loading reaches -62.5 dB with the broad effective absorption bandwidth of 8.8 GHz, covering almost the entire Ku band and three-quarters X band. Moreover, the composites can be added to varying matrices so as to modify their EM wave absorption and other properties. The EM wave absorption performance can be easily tuned in a wide range by varying the CNT content, thickness, and filler loading. This work offers a new route for efficiently synthesizing CNTs but, more importantly, for designing high-performance and multifunctional EM wave absorbing materials.

3.
J Exp Med ; 217(5)2020 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130408

RESUMO

USP22 is a cytoplasmic and nuclear deubiquitinating enzyme, and the functions of cytoplasmic USP22 are unclear. Here, we discovered that cytoplasmic USP22 promoted nuclear translocation of IRF3 by deubiquitianting and stabilizing KPNA2 after viral infection. Viral infection induced USP22-IRF3 association in the cytoplasm in a KPNA2-depedent manner, and knockdown or knockout of USP22 or KPNA2 impaired IRF3 nuclear translocation and expression of downstream genes after viral infection. Consistently, Cre-ER Usp22fl/fl or Lyz2-Cre Usp22fl/fl mice produced decreased levels of type I IFNs after viral infection and exhibited increased susceptibility to lethal viral infection compared with the respective control littermates. Mechanistically, USP22 deubiquitinated and stabilized KPNA2 after viral infection to facilitate efficient nuclear translocation of IRF3. Reconstitution of KPNA2 into USP22 knockout cells restored virus-triggered nuclear translocation of IRF3 and cellular antiviral responses. These findings define a previously unknown function of cytoplasmic USP22 and establish a mechanistic link between USP22 and IRF3 nuclear translocation that expands potential therapeutic strategies for infectious diseases.

4.
Nanotechnology ; 31(25): 255710, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050191

RESUMO

Electromagnetic wave (EMW) induction of shape memory polymer (SMP) composites with multifunctional inorganic fillers is a high efficiency, uniform, and non-contact method. Herein, the shape memory effect of ternary BCN/Fe3O4/PCL composites induced by EMWs are explored. The components of Fe3O4 and the BCN nanotubes serve as wave-absorbing materials. The electromagnetic properties and EMW absorption performance of BCN/Fe3O4/PCL are discussed in detail. The EMWs absorbed by BCN/Fe3O4/PCL are dissipated by dielectric loss and magnetic loss. The shape memory mechanism of BCN/Fe3O4/PCL is based on the Fe3O4 and BCN nanotubes dissipating absorbed EMW energy into heat to boost the temperature of the composites, thereby responding to EMW remote control. This work introduces a new direction for SMPs induced by EMWs as potential candidates in the application of shape recovery in a restricted space.

5.
Bioorg Chem ; 96: 103637, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032849

RESUMO

The inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is a promising therapeutic approach to treat inflammation and other disorders. In our present investigation on searching for sEH inhibitors from traditional Chinese medicines, we found that Alisma orientale displayed inhibition of sEH. We constructed a small library of protostane-type triterpenoids (1-25) isolated from A. orientale, and screened their inhibitory activities. Alismanin B (1), 11-deoxy-25-anhydro alisol E (4), 11-deoxy alisol B (5), and 25-O-ethyl alisol A (15) displayed concentration-dependently inhibitory activities against sEH with IC50 values from 3.40 ± 0.57 µM to 9.57 ± 0.88 µM. 11-Deoxy-25-anhydro alisol E (4) and 11-deoxy alisol B (5) were defined as mixed-type competitive inhibitors with Ki values of 12.6 and 3.48 µM, respectively, based on the result of inhibition kinetics. The potential interaction mechanism of 11-deoxy alisol B (5) with sEH was analyzed by molecular docking and molecular dynamics, revealing that amino acid residues Trp336 and Tyr466 were vital for its inhibitory activity.

6.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 313-319, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020836

RESUMO

From December 2019, an outbreak of unusual pneumonia was reported in Wuhan with many cases linked to Huanan Seafood Market that sells seafood as well as live exotic animals. We investigated two patients who developed acute respiratory syndromes after independent contact history with this market. The two patients shared common clinical features including fever, cough, and multiple ground-glass opacities in the bilateral lung field with patchy infiltration. Here, we highlight the use of a low-input metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) approach on RNA extracted from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). It rapidly identified a novel coronavirus (named 2019-nCoV according to World Health Organization announcement) which was the sole pathogens in the sample with very high abundance level (1.5% and 0.62% of total RNA sequenced). The entire viral genome is 29,881 nt in length (GenBank MN988668 and MN988669, Sequence Read Archive database Bioproject accession PRJNA601736) and is classified into ß-coronavirus genus. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that 2019-nCoV is close to coronaviruses (CoVs) circulating in Rhinolophus (Horseshoe bats), such as 98.7% nucleotide identity to partial RdRp gene of bat coronavirus strain BtCoV/4991 (GenBank KP876546, 370 nt sequence of RdRp and lack of other genome sequence) and 87.9% nucleotide identity to bat coronavirus strain bat-SL-CoVZC45 and bat-SL-CoVZXC21. Evolutionary analysis based on ORF1a/1b, S, and N genes also suggests 2019-nCoV is more likely a novel CoV independently introduced from animals to humans.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , China , Feminino , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Masculino , Filogenia , RNA Viral/genética , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 564: 454-466, 2020 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926454

RESUMO

Hildewintera-colademononis-like hexagonal boron nitride carbon nanotubes (BN@CNT) composites can be fabricated via two steps: a composite structure predesign in a solvent and a subsequent thermal treatment process at high temperature. The as-obtained hildewintera-colademononis-like BN@CNT composites contain porous h-BN microrods as stems and CNTs as spines. The densities and specific surface area of these BN@CNT composites can be tuned by adjusting the relative amounts of CNTs in the composites, which can reach 0.072 ± 0.0046 g/cm3 and 583.63 m2/g, respectively. These BN@CNT composites based absorbers show excellent microwave absorption (MA) properties which have effective frequency absorption width (≤-10 dB) from 2.8 to 18 GHz when the absorber thicknesses are in the range of 1.0-6.0 mm, and the minimum RL values can reach up to -48.45 dB for BN@CNTs-3 based absorber with an absorber thickness only of 1.4 mm. Moreover, the widest absorption bandwidth of 4.24 GHz (12.96-17.20 GHz) can be obtained for BN@CNTs-2 based absorber when the absorber thickness is 1.6 mm. Therefore, these hildewintera-colademononis-like BN@CNT composites are expected to be used as microwave absorption materials as they are lightweight and have broad absorption bands and strong absorption with thin thickness. This facile and controllable fabrication process offers a new strategy for designing and fabricating diverse h-BN/carbon based composites for different applications.

8.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932202

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) exhibits multiple biological functions in various tissues. Stem cells from apical papilla (SCAP) can be isolated from human apical papilla tissues in developmental teeth of children. The purposes of this study were to investigate the expression of FGF receptors (FGFRs) and the effects of bFGF on SCAP and related MEK/ERK signaling. METHODS: SCAP cells were treated under different concentrations of bFGF with or without U0126 (an inhibitor of MEK/ERK). Expression of FGFR1 and FGFR2 in SCAP was analyzed by RT-PCR. Cell proliferation was measured by MTT assay. The expressions of type I collagen, cdc 2, cyclin B1, TIMP-1 and p-ERK proteins were examined by Western blot. RESULTS: SCAP cells expressed FGFR1 and FGFR2. Exposure of SCAP to bFGF enhanced cell proliferation, and the expression cyclinB1, cdc 2, and TIMP-1, but not type I collagen. U0126 pretreatment and co-incubation attenuated the bFGF-induced proliferation, cdc2, cyclin B1 and TIMP-1 proteins' expression, but not type I collagen in SCAP. CONCLUSION: SCAP cells express FGFRs. bFGF may stimulate proliferation and affect the matrix turnover of SCAP cells, possibly via stimulation of FGFRs and MEK/ERK signaling pathway. These results are useful for clinical therapies for apexogenesis and regeneration of pulpo-dentin complex.

9.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 34(1): e4697, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495945

RESUMO

A liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS) method was developed and validated to measure GDC-0084 in human plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Reverse-phase chromatography with gradient elution was performed using a C18 column (50 × 2.0 mm, 3 µm). Solid-phase extraction of plasma and CSF was employed to give excellent recovery. MS detection was performed with positive ion screening in multiple reaction monitoring mode. The precursor to the product ions (Q1 → Q3) selected for GDC-0084 and GDC-0084-d6 were 383.2 → 353.2 and 389.2 → 353.2, respectively. A separate calibration curve was established for human plasma and CSF. Both calibration curves, ranging from 0.2 to 200 ng/mL, were linear and had acceptable intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy. The lower limit of quantitation and limit of detection for GDC-0084 in human plasma were 0.2 ng/mL (signal/noise ≥47) and 0.005 ng/mL (signal/noise ≥3.5), respectively, and for GDC-0084 in human CSF were 0.2 ng/mL (signal/noise ≥19.7) and 0.04 ng/mL (signal/noise ≥7.2). This method was successfully applied to analyze serial plasma samples obtained from children with diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas and other midline gliomas who participated in pharmacokinetic studies as part of a phase I clinical trial of GDC-0084.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Oxazinas/sangue , Oxazinas/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Pirimidinas/sangue , Pirimidinas/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Criança , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Modelos Lineares , Oxazinas/química , Oxazinas/farmacocinética , Pirimidinas/química , Pirimidinas/farmacocinética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos
10.
Eur J Pharm Sci ; 142: 105106, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669383

RESUMO

Prexasertib (LY2606368) is a potent and selective small molecule inhibitor of cell-cycle checkpoint CHK1 and CHK2 protein kinases and is currently under clinical evaluation for treatment of pediatric malignancies. As a candidate therapy for pediatric Group 3 medulloblastoma (G3MB), prexasertib CNS penetration was evaluated in mice using cerebral microdialysis and pharmacokinetic modeling. A plasma pharmacokinetic study with a population-based design was performed in CD1 nude mice bearing G3MB orthotopically implanted in the brain and receiving a single dose of prexasertib (10 mg/kg, subcutaneously) to characterize prexasertib disposition and to establish a limited plasma sampling model for the microdialysis studies. The microdialysis studies were performed in both non-tumor bearing mice and in mice bearing G3MB receiving 10 mg/kg prexasertib subcutaneously, for up to 24 h post-dose. Plasma and extracellular fluid (ECF) concentrations were quantified using validated LC MS/MS methods, and analyzed using a population pharmacokinetic model. Model-derived prexasertib tumor/ECF to plasma partition coefficient Kp,uu (ratio of tumor/brain ECF to unbound plasma AUC0-24 h) was significantly greater in G3MB tumor-bearing mice (0.17 ±â€¯0.08) compared to non-tumor bearing mice (0.09 ±â€¯0.04, p = 0.04). A pharmacodynamic study was then performed in mice bearing G3MB (20 mg/kg, IV) to evaluate prexasertib-induced target engagement after a single dose. Phosphorylated CHK1 serine 345 (pCHK1 S345), phosphorylated Histone 2A variant (γ-H2AX), and cleaved caspase-3 were quantified in mouse G3MB tumor tissues by immunohistochemistry at different time points up to 24 h post-dose. The induction of pCHK1 S345 and γ-H2AX peaked at 2 h after the dose and was elevated above baseline for at least 6 h, reflecting relevant CHK1 inhibition and DNA damage. Cleaved caspase-3 levels increased at 24 h suggesting initiation of cell apoptosis. Adequate unbound prexasertib exposure reached the brain tumor site relative to target engagement in G3MB tumor bearing mice at a clinically relevant dosage. These results support further preclinical and clinical development of prexasertib to treat children with medulloblastoma.

11.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31796512

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To characterize the population pharmacokinetics of cyclophosphamide, active 4-hydroxy-cyclophosphamide (4OH-CTX), and inactive carboxyethylphosphoramide mustard (CEPM), and their associations with hematological toxicities in infants and young children with brain tumors. To use this information to provide cyclophosphamide dosing recommendations in this population. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Patients received four cycles of a 1-hour infusion of 1.5 g/m2 cyclophosphamide. Serial samples were collected to measure cyclophosphamide, 4OH-CTX, and CEPM plasma concentrations. Population pharmacokinetic modeling was performed to identify the patient characteristics influencing drug disposition. Associations between drug exposures and metrics reflecting drug-induced neutropenia, erythropenia, and thrombocytopenia were investigated. A Bayesian approach was developed to predict 4OH-CTX exposure using only cyclophosphamide and CEPM plasma concentrations. RESULTS: Data from 171 patients (0.07-4.9 years) were adequately fitted by a two-compartment (cyclophosphamide) and one-compartment models (metabolites). Young infants (< 6 months) exhibited higher mean 4OH-CTX exposure than did young children (138.4 vs 107.2 µM·h p<0.0001). No genotypes exhibited clinically significant influence on drug exposures. Worse toxicity metrics were significantly associated with higher 4OH-CTX exposures. Dosing simulations suggested decreased cyclophosphamide dosage to 1.2 g/m2 for young infants vs 1.5 g/m2 for children to attain similar 4OH-CTX exposure. Bayesian-modeled 4OH-CTX exposure predictions were precise (mean absolute prediction error 14.8±4.2%) and had low bias (mean prediction error 4.9±5.1%). CONCLUSIONS: A 4OH-CTX exposure-toxicity association was established and a decreased cyclophosphamide dosage for young infants was suggested to reduce toxicity in this population. Bayesian modeling to predict 4OH-CTX exposure may reduce clinical processing-related costs and provide insights into further exposure-response associations.

12.
Acta Trop ; 203: 105283, 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31811863

RESUMO

Echinococcosis is considered by the World Health Organization (WHO) to be a neglected zoonotic disease in the world. Some Tibetan communities were found to be highly endemic for echinococcosis just 20 years ago. Until recently, we were able to understand the overall disease burden of echinococcosis in Tibetan communities after prevalence data being available from nationwide investigations from 2012 to 2016. Data were abstracted from 9 publications regarding to echinococcosis prevalence between 2016-2018; from 10 data bases on echinococcosis prevalence for 151 Tibetan counties; and statistics of population, Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and health staff from 44 local statistic bureaus and government websites at provincial, prefecture and county level, and 2 books of provincial yearly statistics. These data were used to estimate the Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) due to cystic echinococcosis (CE) and alveolar echinococcosis (AE). The distribution of DALYs was presented geographically and economically. The echinococcosis DALYs in the Tibetan communities were estimated to be 126,159 (95%UI 122,415-137,675) annually using the method recommended by WHO. AE DALYs were estimated to be 105,829 (95%UI 101,969-117,090), which were more than CE DALYs of 20,330 (95%UI 19,690-21,581). Echinococcosis affects people more in underdeveloped areas. There was a tendency that a higher echinococcosis DALYs were usually correlated a higher altitude. Health services are also poorly provided in terms of number of health staff of 5.05 per 1000 population in comparison with the national average of 5.8 per 1000 population. The data suggest that the echinococcosis burden in the center region of Qinghai-Tibet plateau is higher than that of other regions, and consequently more control and health services should be provided to the region.

13.
J Pharm Pharm Sci ; 22(1): 612-629, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31815662

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Cyclophosphamide is widely used to treat children with medulloblastoma; however, little is known about its brain penetration. We performed cerebral microdialysis to characterize the brain penetration of cyclophosphamide (130 mg/kg, IP) and its metabolites [4-hydroxy-cyclophosphamide (4OH-CTX) and carboxyethylphosphoramide mustard (CEPM)] in non-tumor bearing mice and mice bearing orthotopic Group 3 medulloblastoma. METHODS: A plasma pharmacokinetic study was performed in non-tumor-bearing CD1- nude mice, and four cerebral microdialysis studies were performed in non-tumor-bearing (M1 and M3) and tumor- bearing mice (M2 and M4). Plasma samples were collected up to 6-hours post-dose, and extracellular fluid (ECF) samples were collected over 60-minute intervals for 24-hours post-dose. To stabilize and quantify 4OH-CTX, a derivatizing solution was added in blood after collection, and either directly in the microdialysis perfusate (M1 and M2) or in ECF collection tubes (M3 and M4). Plasma/ECF cyclophosphamide and CEPM, and 4OH-CTX concentrations were separately measured using different LC-MS/MS methods. RESULTS: All plasma/ECF concentrations were described using a population-based pharmacokinetic model. Plasma exposures of cyclophosphamide, 4OH-CTX, and CEPM were similar across studies (mean AUC=112.6, 45.6, and 80.8 µmol∙hr/L). Hemorrhage was observed in brain tissue when the derivatizing solution was in perfusate compared with none when in collection tubes, which suggested potential sample contamination in studies M1 and M2. Model-derived unbound ECF to plasma partition coefficients (Kp,uu) were calculated to reflect CNS penetration of the compounds. Lower cyclophosphamide Kp,uu was obtained in tumor-bearing mice versus non-tumor bearing mice (mean 0.15 versus 0.22, p=0.019). No differences in Kp,uu were observed between these groups for 4OH- CTX and CEPM (overall mean 0.10 and 0.07). CONCLUSIONS: Future studies will explore potential mechanisms at the brain-tumor barrier to explain lower cyclophosphamide brain penetration in tumor-bearing mice. These results will be used to further investigate exposure-response relationships in medulloblastoma xenograft models.

14.
J Cancer ; 10(26): 6754-6760, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31777605

RESUMO

Previous studies have suggested a relationship between ABO blood group and clinical outcome of various cancers. Nevertheless, little is known about the association between ABO blood group and survival in patients with ovarian carcinoma. This study aimed to investigate the prognostic significance of ABO blood group in patients with ovarian carcinoma. 941 patients who were newly diagnosed with ovarian carcinoma between February 2007 and February 2016 were enrolled in the present study. The relationship between ABO blood type and clinical features in patients with ovarian cancer was analyzed using chi-square tests. Overall survival (OS) stratified by B antigen was evaluated using log-rank test and Kaplan-Meier method. Presence of the B antigen (B/AB) had a worse OS than those in the absence of the B antigen (A/O) in all patients with ovarian cancer, especially in patients with FIGO stage I, IV, and menopause. Presence of the B antigen (B/AB) was significantly correlated with OS than those with non-B antigen (A/O) (hazard ratios 1.342; 95% confidence interval 1.069-1.685; P=0.011). Multivariate analyses revealed that presence of the B antigen (B/AB) was independently associated with OS (hazard ratios 1.532; 95% confidence interval 1.111-2.112; P=0.009). This study indicated that presence of the B antigen (B/AB) was an unfavorable prognostic factor in ovarian carcinoma, especially in patients with FIGO stage I, IV, and menopause.

15.
Inflammation ; 2019 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760526

RESUMO

C-reactive protein (CRP) is a major human acute-phase reactant that is composed of five identical subunits. CRP dissociates into subunits at inflammatory loci forming monomeric CRP (mCRP) with substantially enhanced activities, which can be further activated by reducing the intra-subunit disulfide bond. However, conformational changes underlying the activation process of CRP are less well understood. Conformational changes accompanying the conversion of CRP to mCRP with or without reduction were examined with circular dichroism spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, electron microscopy, size-exclusion chromatography, and neoepitope expression. The conversion of CRP to mCRP follows a two-stage process. In the first stage, CRP dissociates into molten globular subunits characterized by intact secondary structure elements with greatly impaired tertiary packing. In the second stage, these intermediates completely lose their native subunit conformation and assemble into high-order aggregates. The inclusion of reductant accelerates the formation of molten globular subunits in the first step and promotes the formation of more compact aggregates in the second stage. We further show a significant contribution of electrostatic interactions to the stabilization of native CRP. The conformational features of dissociated subunits and the aggregation of mCRP may have a key impact on their activities.

16.
J Mol Cell Biol ; 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504682

RESUMO

The release and nuclear translocation of the intracellular domain of NOTCH receptor (NICD) is the prerequisite for Notch signaling mediated transcriptional activation. NICD is subjected to various post-translational modifications including ubiquitination. Here we surprisingly found NUMB proteins stabilize the intracellular domain of NOTCH1 receptor (N1ICD) by regulating the ubiquitin-proteasome machinery, which is independent of NUMB's role in modulating endocytosis. BAP1, a deubiquitinating enzyme (DUB), was further identified as a positive N1ICD regulator, and NUMB facilitates the association between N1ICD and BAP1 to stabilize N1ICD. Intriguingly, BAP1 stabilizes N1ICD independent of its DUB activity but relying on the BRCA1-inhibiting function. BAP1 strengthens Notch signaling and maintains stem-like properties of cortical neural progenitor cells. Thus, NUMB enhances Notch signaling by regulating the ubiquitinating activity of the BAP1-BRCA1 complex.

17.
Acta Trop ; 199: 105132, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404523

RESUMO

A literature review was performed to define the history of transmission of human parasitic diseases and the evolution of control measures adopted in Sichuan Province during the past several decades. In particular, monitoring data related to soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections collected since 2006 were analyzed to determine prevalence based on the current control measures and strategies. It was observed that high STH infections, existing mostly in hilly and mountain areas where cultural and economic development has been slower than that in the plain areas, present a continuing challenge to the prevention and control of STHs. For example, it was found that health knowledge, awareness and preventive behavior rates are low in residents over 50 years old, contributing to positive correlations between high infection and low efficacy of control in rural areas. Financial resources of the government at various levels have not been adequate to provide sufficient budget support and personnel dedicated to prevention and control including human deworming in endemic areas. Recent initiatives of the central government have been directed at addressing both parasitic diseases and poverty and, together, present opportunities for the implementation of more effective and integrated control activities.


Assuntos
Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Solo/parasitologia , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Pobreza , Prevalência
18.
Acta Trop ; 199: 105133, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415736

RESUMO

Data in China on human Taenia infections, including Taenia solium cysticercosis, is largely lacking. We aimed to determine the prevalence of taeniasis with all three human Taenia species as well as T. solium cysticercosis in primary school-aged children in minority areas of western Sichuan, China. During April 2016 to December 2017, we did a cross-sectional study in five western Sichuan Province primary schools in Liangshan (3 schools), Ganzi (1 school) and Aba (1 school) prefectures. Diagnosis of taeniasis was made by stool microscopy for presence of Taenia eggs, as well as recovery of taeniid tapeworms or proglottids by medicinal treatment followed by species identification using multiplex PCR. Diagnosis of T. solium cysticercosis was made serologically using an ELISA with low-molecular-weight antigens purified from T. solium cyst fluid to detect specific IgG antibodies. A total of 1672 children were screened for taeniasis and 1639 were evaluated for cysticercosis antibodies. Overall prevalence of taeniasis was 7.5% but was as high as 15.6% at one school site (e.g., Shuiluo). Of the three known human Taenia species, adult T. solium tapeworms were detected in 42 children from four of the five schools (all three schools in Liangshan and one in Aba), giving a prevalence of T. solium taeniasis of 2.5% (95% confidence interval 0-6.7%). Cysticercosis antibody seropositivity by school varied from 2.3% to 15.6% (overall 7.5%). T. solium taeniasis carriers were more likely to have cysticercosis antibodies than children without T. solium taeniasis (43.6% vs 6.6%). Schools with higher prevalences of T. solium taeniasis were more likely to have children with human cysticercosis IgG antibodies. This study shows a high prevalence of taeniasis and T. solium cysticercosis in primary school-aged children in minority areas of western Sichuan, suggesting an urgent necessity for school-based disease control.


Assuntos
Cisticercose/epidemiologia , Taenia solium , Teníase/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Taenia solium/imunologia
19.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 8(1): 68, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362789

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Echinococcosis caused by Echinococcus is one of the most major infectious diseases in north-west highland of China. E. granulosus sensu strict, E. multilocularis, and E. canadensis are known to be the only three species related to human health transmitting in the areas. To achieve targeted treatment and control of echinococcosis, the accurate identification and discrimination of the species are important. However, currently the available diagnostic approaches do not present ideal results either in accuracy or efficiency. METHODS: In the study, a set of primers were designed to aim at the three human-pathogenic Echinococcus species in China. The one-step multiplex PCR assay was developed and evaluated for the specificity and sensitivity. A total of 73 parasitic lesions and 41 fecal materials obtained from human and various animals collected in the clinic and the field were tested to assess the applicability of this method. RESULTS: The multiplex PCR effectively detected the individual DNA from the targeted species and their random mixtures generating with distinguishable expected size of products. The detection limit of the assay for each of the three species was 5 pg/µl when they were tested separately. When DNA mixtures of the targeted species containing the same concentration were used as templates, the lowest amount of DNA which can be detected was 50 pg/µl, 10 pg/µl and 5 pg/µl for E. granulosus s. s., E. multilocularis, and E. canadensis respectively. No cross-reactivity was observed when DNA from eight genetically close species was used as control templates. The multiplex PCR identifications of all samples were in line with the original sequencing results except for those infected with E. shiquicus, which showed negative signals in the developed assay. Of all the tested stool materials, 16 were previously found positive for Echinococcus by visual and microscopic examination. Among these 16 samples, 13 were confirmed by the multiplex PCR, and the other three tested negative. Additionally, the multiplex PCR identified another 14 positive feces from the remained 25 stool samples which absence of worms. CONCLUSIONS: The developed multiplex PCR shows advantages in fast diagnosis and large-scale epidemiological investigation, which proven to be a promising tool utilized in clinic and surveillance system.


Assuntos
Equinococose/diagnóstico , Echinococcus/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Animais , China , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Equinococose/classificação , Equinococose/parasitologia , Echinococcus granulosus/isolamento & purificação , Echinococcus multilocularis/isolamento & purificação , Humanos
20.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-6, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429297

RESUMO

A phytochemical investigation on the whole plant of Plantago maxima Juss. ex Jacq led to the isolation of a new and rare chlorinated iridoid glycoside named plantomoside (1), along with three known compounds, geniposidic acid (2), 10-deoxygeniposidic acid (3), and viteoid II (4). The structure of 1 was determined through 1 D and 2 D NMR spectroscopic data analysis, HR-ESI-MS, and acid hydrolysis.

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