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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(1)2022 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35008941

RESUMO

Poplar is an illustrious industrial woody plant with rapid growth, providing a range of materials, and having simple post-treatment. Various kinds of environmental stresses limit its output. Plant annexin (ANN) is a calcium-dependent phospholipid-binding protein involved in plant metabolism, growth and development, and cooperatively regulating drought resistance, salt tolerance, and various stress responses. However, the features of the PtANN gene family and different stress responses remain unknown in poplar. This study identified 12 PtANN genes in the P. trichocarpa whole-genome and PtANNs divided into three subfamilies based on the phylogenetic tree. The PtANNs clustered into the same clade shared similar gene structures and conserved motifs. The 12 PtANN genes were located in ten chromosomes, and segmental duplication events were illustrated as the main duplication method. Additionally, the PtANN4 homogenous with AtANN1 was detected localized in the cytoplasm and plasma membrane. In addition, expression levels of PtANNs were induced by multiple abiotic stresses, which indicated that PtANNs could widely participate in response to abiotic stress. These results revealed the molecular evolution of PtANNs and their profiles in response to abiotic stress.

2.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res ; : 119206, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35026348

RESUMO

Pyruvate kinase isoform M2 (PKM2) is a rate-limiting glycolytic enzyme that is widely expressed in embryonic tissues. The expression of PKM2 declines in some tissues following embryogenesis, while other pyruvate kinase isozymes are upregulated. However, PKM2 is highly expressed in cancer cells and is believed to play a role in supporting anabolic processes during tumour formation. In this study, PKM2 was identified as an inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R)-interacting protein by mass spectrometry. The PKM2:IP3R interaction was further characterized by pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays, which showed that PKM2 interacted with all three IP3R isoforms. Moreover, fluorescence microscopy indicated that both IP3R and PKM2 localized at the endoplasmic reticulum. PKM2 binds to IP3R at a highly conserved 21-amino acid site (corresponding to amino acids 2078-2098 in mouse type 1 IP3R isoform). Synthetic peptides (denoted 'TAT-D5SD' and 'D5SD'), based on the amino acid sequence at this site, disrupted the PKM2:IP3R interaction and potentiated IP3R-mediated Ca2+ release both in intact cells (TAT-D5SD peptide) and in a unidirectional 45Ca2+ flux-assay on permeabilized cells (D5SD peptide). The TAT-D5SD peptide did not affect the enzymatic activity of PKM2. Reducing PKM2 protein expression using siRNA increased IP3R-mediated Ca2+ signalling in intact cells without altering the ER Ca2+ content. These data identify PKM2 as an IP3R-interacting protein that inhibits intracellular Ca2+ signalling. The elevated expression of PKM2 in cancer cells is therefore not solely connected to its canonical role in glycolytic metabolism, rather PKM2 also has a novel non-canonical role in regulating intracellular signalling.

3.
Carbohydr Polym ; 278: 118960, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34973775

RESUMO

In our continuous exploration for bioactive polysaccharides, a novel polysaccharide FMP-2 was isolated and purified from the fruiting bodies of Morchella esculenta by alkali-assisted extraction. FMP-2 had an average molecular weight of 1.09 × 106 Da and contained mannose, glucuronic acid, glucose, galactose, and arabinose in a molar ratio of 4.10:0.22:1.00:5.75:0.44. The backbone of FMP-2 mainly consisted of 1,2-α-D-Galp, 1,6-α-D-Galp, and 1,4-α-D-Manp, with branches of 1,4,6-α-D-Manp and 1,2,6-α-D-Galp. FMP-2 can stimulate phagocytosis and promote the secretion of NO, ROS, and cytokines like IL-6, IL-1ß, and TNF-α in RAW264.7 cells ranging from 25 to 400 µg/mL. FMP-2 had great repairing effect on the immune injury of zebrafish induced by chloramphenicol. The phagocytosis ability of zebrafish macrophages and the proliferation of neutrophils can be greatly enhanced by polysaccharide FMP-2 with concentrations from 50 to 200 µg/mL. These findings suggest that FMP-2 might be used as a potential immunomodulator in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

4.
J Hazard Mater ; 426: 128090, 2022 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34952498

RESUMO

Heavy metal contamination has caused serious threats to surrounding fragile environments and human health. While the novel microbial-induced carbonate precipitation (MICP) technology in the recent years has been proven effective in improving material mechanical and durability properties, the mechanisms remedying heavy metal contamination still remain unclear. In this study, the potential of applying the MICP technology to the lead remediation under the effects of urease activity and calcium source was explored. The values of OD600 corresponding to the ureolytic bacterial activity, electrical conductivity (EC), urease activity (UA) and pH were applied to monitor the degree of urea hydrolysis. Further, the carbonate precipitations that possess different speciations and cannot be distinguished through test tube experiments were reproduced using the Visual MINTEQ software package towards verifying the validity of the proposed simulations, and revealing the mechanisms affecting the lead remediation efficiency. The findings summarised in this work give deep insights into lead-contaminated site remediation engineering.

5.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 75(1): 118-129, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34428974

RESUMO

How interpreting training may enhance semantic integration in general language processing (instead of language processing during interpreting) was not clear, and its neural correlates remained unexplored. Two groups of university students with different amounts of interpreting training experience (more-IE and less-IE) performed a second language (L2) reading task, in which the target sentence ended with three types of lateralized words: expected words, words of related semantic violation (related violation), and words of unrelated semantic violation (unrelated violation). N400 responses elicited by the final words were used to index semantic integration. Two major findings suggested potential contributions of interpreting training to L2 semantic integration. First, the more-IE group exhibited smaller N400 amplitudes than the less-IE group for expected words, and no group differences were obtained for the two violations. Second, N400 amplitudes for related violations were generally smaller than those for unrelated violations in the right visual field, and this difference was more fully captured (more broadly distributed over the scalp) in the more-IE group than in the less-IE group. Therefore, smaller N400 amplitudes for expected words but not for violations, and broader scalp distribution of the differences between related and unrelated violations constitute the neural correlates for the potential contributions of interpreting training to general L2 semantic integration. The results also suggest possible connections between different types of language experience.


Assuntos
Idioma , Semântica , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Leitura
6.
Plant Dis ; 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34784752

RESUMO

Allamanda cathartica L. is an important ornamental plant (Wong et al. 2013). In August 2020, anthracnose-type lesions were observed on the leaves of A. cathartica in a garden in Zhanjiang, Guangdong Province, China (N21°17', E110°18'). Disease incidence and severity varied from 18 to 20% and 20 to 50% (n = 100 investigated plants), respectively.  The early symptoms were yellow spots on the edge or tip of the leaves. The spots gradually expanded and became dark brown, eventually coalescing into large irregular or circular lesions. Ten symptomatic leaves from 10 plants were sampled. The margins of the samples were cut into 2 mm × 2 mm pieces. The surfaces were disinfected with 75% ethanol for 30 sec and 2% sodium hypochlorite for 60 sec . Thereafter, the samples were rinsed thrice in sterile water, placed on PDA, and incubated at 28 ℃. Pure cultures were obtained by transferring hyphal tips to new PDA plates. Twenty-eight isolates of Colletotrichum ssp. were obtained (isolation frequency = 28/4×10 = 70%). Three representative single-spore isolates (ACC-1, ACC-2, and ACC-3) were used for further study. Colonies on PDA were white to gray with cottony mycelia in 6 days at 28 ℃. Conidia were one-celled, hyaline, cylindrical, clavate, and obtuse at both ends; they measured 11.5 to 16.5 µm × 3.5 to 5.5 µm (n = 50). Appressoria were oval to irregular in shape and dark brown in color, and they measured 7.3 to 10.5 µm × 5.7 to 6.5 µm (n = 20). Morphological characteristics matched the description of Colletotrichum siamense (Prihastuti et al. 2009; Sharma et al. 2013). For molecular identification, the colony PCR method with MightyAmp DNA Polymerase (Lu et al. 2012) was used to amplify the internal transcribed spacer (ITS), calmodulin (CAL), actin (ACT), chitin synthase (CHS-1), and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) loci of the isolates using primer pairs ITS1/ITS4, CL1C/CL2C, ACT-512F/ACT-783R, CHS-79F/CHS-354R, and GDF1/GDR1, respectively (Weir et al. 2012). Sequences of the isolates deposited in GenBank under acc. nos. MZ061912 to MZ061914 (ITS), MZ126886 to MZ126888 (CAL), MZ126856 to MZ126858 (ACT), MZ126916 to MZ126918 (CHS-1), and MZ126946 to MZ126948 (GAPDH), respectively. They were 100% identical to ITS (JX010250), CAL (HM131507), ACT (JX009895), CHS-1 (HM131497), and GAPDH (JX009713) sequences of C. siamense respectively too. A phylogenetic tree was generated using the concatenated sequences of ITS, CAL, ACT, CHS-1, and GAPDH. The isolates were clustered with C. siamense strains including the type ICMP 19118. Pathogenicity tests were performed by in vivo. The inoculation and control groups (n = 5 plants each, 1-month-old) were sprayed with a spore suspension of isolates (1 × 105 per mL) and sterile distilled water, respectively, until run-off. The plants were grown in pots in a greenhouse at 25°C to 28°C, with relative humidities approximately 80%. Anthracnose lesions were observed on the leaves after 10 days while the control plants remained healthy. The pathogen re-isolated from all the inoculated leaves was identical to the inoculation isolates in terms of morphology and just ITS analysis, but unsuccessful from the control plants. C. siamense has been reported to cause anthracnose in a broad range of hosts (Weir et al. 2012), but not in A. cathartica. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to report C. siamense causing anthracnose on A. cathartica. Thus, this work provides a foundation for controlling anthracnose in A. cathartica in the future.

7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19926, 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620918

RESUMO

In addition to the shearing behavior of soil, the creep character is also considered crucial in determining the long-term shear strength. This especially holds true for the loess that possesses the metastable microstructure and is prone to landslide hazards. This study explored the potential application of straw reinforcement to enhance the shearing and creep properties of the Quaternary loess. The mechanism responsible for the straw reinforcement to elevate the peak shear strength was revealed. Furthermore, three creep characters, namely attenuating creep, non-attenuating creep, and viscous flow were identified in this study. The unreinforced and reinforced specimen behaved in a different manner under identical shear stress ratio condition. The reinforced specimen was superior in limiting the particle relative movement within the shear plane than the unreinforced specimen. The chain reaction of interparticle contact loss, accompanied with excessive viscous displacement, rapid weakening of creep resistance, and eventually accelerated creep displacement, provided an evidence for the formation mechanism of slow-moving landslide. The long-term shear strength using the isochronal stress-strain relationship may be used for optimising the design of high-fill embankment works.

8.
Biol Futur ; 72(4): 473-488, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34554492

RESUMO

Mechanisms associated with the control of flower color in crape myrtle varieties have yet to be sufficiently elucidated, which has tended to hamper the use of modern molecular and genetic strategies in the breeding programs for this plant. The whole transcriptome of four L. indica varieties characterized by different flower colors (white, light purple, deep purplish pink, and strong red) was sequenced, and we performed bioinformatic, quantitative PCR, and co-expression analyses of R2R3 MYB transcription factor and anthocyanin/flavonol pathway genes. We obtained a total of 49,980 transcripts with full-length coding sequences. Both transcriptome and qPCR analyses revealed that anthocyanin/flavonol pathway genes were differentially expressed among the four different flowers types, with the expression of LiPAL, LiCHS, LiCHI, LiDFR, LiANS/LDOX, and LiUFGT being induced in colorful flowers, whereas that of LiF3´5´H, LiFLS, and LiLAR was found to be inhibited. Base on phylogenetic analysis, seven R2R3 MYB transcriptional factors were identified as putative regulators of flower color. The molecular characteristics and co-expression patterns indicated that these MYBs differentially modulate their target genes, with two probably acting as activators, three as repressors, and one contributing to the regulation of vacuolar pH. The findings of this study indicate that the anthocyanin biosynthesis is more active than the flavonol and proanthocyanin in the colorful flowers. These observations provide new genomic information on L. indica and contribute gene resources for the flower color-targeted breeding of crape myrtle.

10.
Nanoscale ; 13(37): 15590-15597, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34528990

RESUMO

Studies on transuranic oxides provide a particularly valuable insight into chemical bonding in actinide compounds, in which subtle differences between metal ions and oxygen atoms are of fundamental importance for the stability of these compounds as well as their existence. In the case of neptunium, it is still mainly limited to specific Np oxide compounds without periodicity in the formation of stable structures or different oxidation states. Here, we report a systematic global minimum search of Np2Ox (x = 1-7) clusters and the computational study of their electronic structures and chemical bonding. These studies suggest that Np(V) ion could play the structure-directing role, and thus the mixed-valent Np(III/V) in Np2O4 is predicted accessible. In comparison with lower oxidation state Np analogues, significant 5f-orbital covalent interactions with Np(V)O bonding are observed, which shows that these model neptunium oxides can provide new understandings into the behavior of 5f-electrons in chemical bonding and structural design.

11.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 266, 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Humoral immunity plays an important role in the prevention of canine distemper. Anti-CD virus (CDV) antibody has strong antiviral activity and is widely used in the treatment of CD. However, with the increase of CD cases, the availability of therapeutic CD antibody fell short of the clinical needs. RESULTS: The high-titer antiserum with the high-titer neutralizing activity against CDV was obtained from the donkeys (Dezhou Donkey) immunized with the inactivated CDV vaccine. The donkey anti-CDV IgG was purified from the donkey serum, which was identified to significantly inhibit the CDV replication in the cultured Vero cells and effectively reduce the clinical symptoms and increase the survival rates (75%) of CDV-infected dogs (Shih-tzu Dog), similar to that treated with the dog-derived anti-CDV IgG. These results indicate that donkey-derived IgG is a potential substitute for dog-derived IgG to treat the CD in clinic. CONCLUSIONS: Administration of donkey-derived anti-CDV IgG can ameliorate clinical symptoms and inhibit virus replication, thereby increasing the survival of CDV-infected dogs. This study opens up a new source of therapeutic antibody for CD treatment.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Vírus da Cinomose Canina/imunologia , Cinomose/terapia , Soros Imunes/imunologia , Imunização Passiva/veterinária , Imunoglobulina G/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Cães , Equidae , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Taxa de Sobrevida , Replicação Viral
12.
Plant Dis ; 2021 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34420362

RESUMO

Rhapis humilis Blume is an ornamental plant for landscaping that is widely distributed in China. In February 2020, a leaf spot disease was observed on R. humilis in a nursery shed in Zhanjiang (21.17 N, 110.18 E), Guangdong, China. The disease incidence was more than 90%. The early symptom was small water-soaked lesions, which then turned into black necrotic spots. Eventually, the individual lesions coalesced into larger ones, leading to the death of diseased leaves. Ten diseased leaves were collected from the nursery. The diseased tissues were cut into 2 × 2 mm pieces, surface disinfected with 75% ethanol for 30 s and 2% sodium hypochlorite for 60 s, and then rinsed three times with sterile water before pathogen isolation. The tissues were plated on potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium and incubated at 28°C in the dark for 4 days. Pure cultures were produced by transferring hyphal tips to new PDA plates. Three isolates (RHPH-1, RHPH-2, and RHPH-3) were obtained. The colonies of the isolates were approximately 5 cm in diameter after 7 days. They were initially whitish and later became grayish white. The NaOH testing on MEA cultures was negative. No sporulation was detected after 30 days. The fertile structures of the specimens collected in the nursery were examined. Pycnidia were globose, measured 68 to 265 × 72 to 360 µm (n = 20), and mostly embedded. Conidia were aseptate, hyaline, and ellipsoid, measuring 3.6 to 6.5 × 2.2 to 2.7 µm (n = 30). Based on the morphological characteristics, the fungus was identified as in genus Phoma (Boerema et al. 2004). For molecular identification, the colony PCR method with MightyAmp DNA Polymerase (Takara-Bio, Dalian, China) (Lu et al. 2012) was used to amplify the internal transcribed spacer (ITS), partial RNA polymerase II largest subunit (RPB2), and beta-tubulin (ß-tub) loci of three isolates using primer pairs ITS4/ITS5, RPB2-6F/RPB2-7R, and BT2a/BT2b, respectively (Chen et al, 2015; White et al, 1990). The sequences were deposited in GenBank (ITS, MZ419364-MZ419366; RPB2, MZ562293-MZ562295; and ß-tub, MZ562296-MZ562298). Based on BLAST analysis, the sequences of the ITS, RPB2, and ß-tub all showed 100% similarity to Phoma herbarum Westend. (CBS 377.92, accession nos. KT389536 for ITS; KT389663 for RPB2; and KT389837 for ß-tub). Pathogenicity testing was performed in a greenhouse with 80% relative humidity at 25 to 30°C. Ten healthy plants of R. humilis were grown in pots, with one plant in each pot. The leaves were pinpricked with sterile needles before inoculation. They were inoculated with mycelial plugs of the isolates or sterile agar plugs (as control), with four plugs for each leaf. Five plants were used in each treatment. Disease symptoms similar to those in the nursery were observed on the inoculated plants 2 weeks after inoculation, whereas the control plants remained healthy. The fungus was reisolated from the symptomatic leaves and confirmed as P. herbarum by morphology and ITS analysis. P. herbarum was reported to cause leaf spot on Atractylodes lancea, Camellia sinensis, Elaeis guineensis, Lilium brownii, and Vetiveria zizanioides in China; Bituminaria bituminosa, Glycine max, Medicago sativa, and Pisum sativum in Australia; and Salvia nemorosa in Italy (Li et al. 2011; Li et al. 2012; Thangaraj et al. 2018). To our knowledge, the present study was the first to report P. herbarum causing leaf spot on R. humilis in China. P. herbarum seriously affects the supply of seedlings in R. humilis, and its epidemiology on R. humilis should be further studied.

13.
Eur J Med Chem ; 225: 113796, 2021 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450496

RESUMO

In order to obtain new anti-hepatoma drugs with low toxicity, some 1,4,5,6,7,8-hexahydropyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidines (PPMs, 4a-t) were synthesized in this study. Many of them showed significant anti-hepatoma effects against HCC cells and low toxicity toward HHL-5 cells. Combined with their anti-hepatoma activity and toxicity, 4-CF3-substituted 4k was selected as an effective lead compound. Preliminary mechanistic studies revealed that 4k could up-regulate the expression levels of Bax and caspase-3 proteins, down-regulate the expression levels of Bcl-2 protein, promote significant apoptosis of HepG2, and block cells in G2-M phase to prevent cells from completing mitosis. Also, 4k could significantly inhibit the activation of PI3K/AKT/NF-κB pathway by blocking the phosphorylation of PI3K, AKT, NF-κB/p65 and IFN-γ-induced nuclear transport. Docking analysis showed that 4k could reasonably bind to the active sites of Bcl-2, NF-κB/p65, PI3K and AKT. This result suggested that 4k could be used as a new type of NF-κB inhibitor, which provides a scientific basis for further research into the treatment of hepatoma.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34363152

RESUMO

Constructed wetlands (CWs) can be used for tertiary treatment of wastewater; however, carbon source shortages limit denitrification. We studied the effect of algae addition as an external carbon source in CWs and found that the nitrogen removal efficiency of CWs is highly dependent on the algae dosage. Optimal nitrogen removal percentage (80.5%) can be achieved by adding 81.1 mg·L-1 dry weight algae to the influent when the chemical oxygen demand/nitrogen (COD/N) ratio reaches 5.3. Longitudinal changes in the nitrogen concentrations, organic matter concentrations, and nitrogen functional genes were also analyzed. The algae addition strengthened the anoxic environment, boosted the volatile fatty acid concentrations, and improved the ratio of nitrite reductase gene (nirS) and copper-containing nitrite reductase (nirK)/16S rRNA, as well as the ratio of nitrate reductase gene (narG)/16S rRNA, thereby expanding the active space for denitrification. The addition of algae could potentially provide enough carbon to enhance denitrification during treatment of wastewater with a low COD/N ratio.

15.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 36(1): 1622-1631, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34284695

RESUMO

Some methoxy-, hydroxyl-, pyridyl-, or fluoro-substituted 3,5-bis(arylidene)-4-piperidones (BAPs) could reduce inflammation and promote hepatoma cell apoptosis by inhibiting activation of NF-κB, especially after introduction of trifluoromethyl. Herein, a series of trifluoromethyl-substituted BAPs (4-30) were synthesised and the biological activities were evaluated. We successfully found the most potential 16, which contains three trifluoromethyl substituents and exhibits the best anti-tumour and anti-inflammatory activities. Preliminary mechanism research revealed that 16 could promote HepG2 cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner by down-regulating the expression of Bcl-2 and up-regulating the expression of Bax, C-caspase-3. Meanwhile, 16 inhibited activation of NF-κB by directly inhibiting the phosphorylation of p65 and IκBα induced by LPS, together with indirectly inhibiting MAPK pathway, thereby exhibiting both anti-hepatoma and anti-inflammatory activities. Molecular docking confirmed that 16 could bind to the active sites of Bcl-2, p65, and p38 reasonably. The above results suggested that 16 has enormous potential to be developed as a multifunctional agent for the clinical treatment of liver cancers and inflammatory diseases.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , NF-kappa B/antagonistas & inibidores , Piperidonas/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/síntese química , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/química , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Lipopolissacarídeos/antagonistas & inibidores , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Piperidonas/síntese química , Piperidonas/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
16.
J Obstet Gynaecol Res ; 47(9): 3279-3287, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212456

RESUMO

AIM: Given the increasing prevalence of hysteromyoma among the Chinese rural women of childbearing age, it is imperative that more attention should be given to researching risk factors that predispose women to this condition so that early preventive measures may be taken. Our study investigates potential risk factors for uterine fibroids such as participants' demographic characteristics (age, ethnicity, education), physiological characteristics (age at menarche, primiparous age), and the occurrence of several different female reproductive diseases (vaginitis, pelvic inflammatory disease). METHODS: 2200 rural women of reproductive age were screened from a cross-sectional study carried out in the northern Anhui province. Data were collected by questionnaire surveys, gynecological and laboratory examinations and were subjected to univariate and multivariate analysis to evaluate the risk factors for uterine fibroids. RESULTS: Of the 2200 women, 440 had uterine fibroids. In general, women with endometriosis, ovarian cysts and early menarche were more likely to suffer from hysteromyoma. Factors including higher parity, late age of first childbirth, and a regular menstrual cycle were associated with the reduced risk of uterine fibroids. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that parameters such as earlier age of menarche, early primiparous age, lower parity and a variety of female reproductive diseases were associated with an increased risk of uterine fibroids. These findings may be used to guide the formulation of effective prevention and intervention protocols to improve the reproductive health of rural women.


Assuntos
Leiomioma , Neoplasias Uterinas , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Leiomioma/epidemiologia , Menarca , Paridade , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias Uterinas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Uterinas/etiologia
17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(44): 63278-63296, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34227005

RESUMO

Breast cancer is a complex and multifactorial disease which stems significantly from both environmental and genetic factors. A growing number of epidemiological studies have suggested that ambient air pollution (AAP) exposure may play an important role in breast cancer development. However, no consistency has been reached concerning whether high levels of air pollutant exposure were related to increased breast cancer risk among the current evidence. To further clarify such association of long-term AAP exposure with risk of breast cancer, a systematic review and meta-analysis of available evidence was performed. An extensive literature search in 3 academic databases was conducted before March 10, 2020. The risk of bias (RoB) for each individual study was evaluated with a domain-based assessment tool, developed by the National Toxicology Program/Office of Health Assessment and Translation (NTP/OHAT). Meta-estimates for air pollutant-breast cancer combinations were calculated for a standardized increment in exposure by random-effect models. The confidence level in the body of evidence and the certainty of evidence was also assessed for each air pollutant-breast cancer combination. The initial search identified 5446 studies, and 18 of them were eligible. The pooled analysis found an increased risk of breast cancer was associated with an increase in each 10 µg/m3 in nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.01, 1.04), while particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters ≤ 2.5 µm and 10 µm (PM2.5, PM10) revealed no statistically significant associations with breast cancer risk. Our evaluation on the certainty of evidence indicates that there was a "moderate level of evidence" in the body of evidence for an association of NO2 exposure with an increased breast cancer risk and an "inadequate level of evidence" in the body of evidence for an association of PM2.5 and PM10 exposure with an increased breast cancer risk. Our study suggests long-term exposure to NO2 is related to an increased risk of breast cancer. However, in consideration of the limitations, further studies, especially performed in developing countries, with improvements in exposure assessment, outcome ascertainment, and confounder adjustment, are needed to draw a definite evidence of a causal relationship.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Neoplasias da Mama , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias da Mama/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise
18.
Plant Dis ; 2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34184548

RESUMO

Oryza rufipogon Griff is a wild rice germplasm that might contain genes valuable for rice breeding. In May to June 2019, a leaf disease on wild rice (O. rufipogon cv. 'Haihong-12') was observed in a 3.3 ha field in Zhanjiang (20.93° N, 109.79° E), Guangdong, China. Early symptoms were yellow spots from the tip of leaves. Later, the spots gradually expanded downward the entire leaf to turn brown in turn. Symptoms were found in the tillering to the grain-filling stages (Supplementary Figure 1). The disease incidence on plants was between 10% and 40%. Twenty diseased leaves were collected from the field. The margin of the diseased tissues was cut into 2 mm × 2 mm pieces, surface-disinfected with 75% ethanol and 2% sodium hypochlorite for 30 s and 60 s, respectively, and rinsed three times with sterile water before isolation. The tissues were plated onto potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium and incubated at 28 °C. After 5-day incubation, grayish fungal colonies appeared on PDA. Single-spore isolation method was used to recover pure cultures for three isolates (Aas-1, Aas-2, and Aas-3). The colonies first produced light-grayish aerial mycelia, which turned dark grayish upon maturity. Conidiophores were branched. Conidia were two to four in chains, dark brown, ovoid or ellipsoid, and mostly beakless; had one to four transverse and zero to three longitudinal septa; and measured within 7.0-18.5 (average = 12.5) × 3.0-8.8 (average = 4.5) µm (n = 30). Morphological characteristics of the isolates were consistent with the description of Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler (Simmons 2007). The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, partial RNA polymerase II largest subunit (RPB2) gene, translation elongation factor, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase were amplified with primers ITS1/ITS4, RPB2-6F/RPB2-7R, EF-1α-F/EF-1α-R, and GDF1/GDR1, respectively (Woudenberg et al. 2015). Amplicons were sequenced and submitted to GenBank (accession nos. MW042179 to MW042181, MW090034 to MW090036, MW090046 to MW090048, and MW091450 to MW091452, respectively). The sequences of the three isolates were 100% identical (ITS, 570/570 bp; RPB2, 1006/1006 bp; TEF, 254/254 bp and GADPH, 587/587 bp) with those of CBS 479.90 (accession nos. KP124319, KP124787, KP125095, and KP124174) through BLAST analysis. The sequences were also concatenated for phylogenetic analysis by maximum likelihood. The isolates clustered with A. alternata CBS 479.90 (Supplementary Figure 2). The fungus associated with brown leaf spot on wild rice was thus identified as A. alternata. Pathogenicity tests were done in a greenhouse at 24 °C-30 °C with 80% relative humidity. Individual rice plants (cv. 'Haihong-12') with three leaves were grown in 10 pots, with around 50 plants per pot. Five pots were inoculated by spraying a spore suspension (105 spores/mL) onto leaves until runoff occurred, and another five pots were sprayed with sterile water to serve as controls. The test was done three times. Disease symptoms were found on the leaves after 7 days. The tips of the leaves turned yellow and spread downward. Then, the whole leaf turned brown and dried out, but the controls stayed healthy. The pathogen was re-isolated from infected leaves and phenotypically identical to the original isolate Aas-1 to fulfill Koch's postulates. To our knowledge, this report is the first one on A. alternata causing brown leaf spot on wild rice (O. rufipogon). The pathogen has the potential to reduce wild rice yields and future breeding should consider resistance to this pathogen.

19.
Plant Dis ; 2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34132600

RESUMO

Melothria indica Lour. is a wild ornamental plant widely distributed in South China. In November 2020, powdery mildew symptoms with 100% (60 plants) incidence were observed on M. indica climbing on a fence in Zhanjiang (21.17N,110.18E), Guangdong, China. The symptoms were typical for powdery mildew with white colonies on leaf surfaces and stems. Conidiophores appeared in all symptomatic tissues. Chasmothecia were observed only during the late stage of disease. Hyphae were hyaline, branched, and septate. Conidiophores were erect, hyaline, smooth, and had a dimension of 61.5 to 185.6 µm × 8.5 to 14.5 µm (n=20) and a cylindrical, flexuous foot cell, followed by 1 to 5 (-6) shorter cells. Conidia were ellipsoid to ovoid and had a dimension of 24.5 to 38.5 µm×15.5 to 21.8 µm (n=50) with well-developed fibrosin bodies. Germ tubes were in the lateral position. Chasmothecia were gregarious or scattered, subglobose, (64.8-) 65.5 µm to 115.5 (-120.5) µm (n=20) in diameter. The appendages were few, and hyphoid. Ascus one per ascomas, clavate, or subglobose, 56.5 to 78.3 (-90) µm×52.5 to 60.5 (-72) (n=20) µm. Each ascus had eight ascospores that were broadly ellipsoid and sized 13.8 to 18.6 µm×12.5 to 16.5 µm (n=30). The morphological characteristics were consistent with the previous description of Podosphaera xanthii (Castagne) U. Braun & Shishkoff (Braun and Cook 2012). Three voucher specimens, Ms-1, Ms-2, and Ms-3, were deposited in the fungus collection at Aquatic Organisms Museum of Guangdong Ocean University, and were used for molecular analysis. Their internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions were amplified using primers ITS1/ITS4. Amplicons were sequenced and submitted to GenBank (accession no. MW512919, MW512920, and MW512921). The sequences were identical to each other and 100% similar to two of P. xanthii (Accession No. MT472035 and MN818563). On the basis of the morphological and molecular characteristics, the fungus was identified as P. xanthii. Pathogenicity was examined through inoculation by gently pressing the naturally infected leaves onto healthy ones of three potted M. indica plants with three leaves. Healthy leaves were leaves of three further plants which served as the control. White powdery mildew colonies with an incidence of 100% were similarly observed after 7 days at 28 °C and 80% relative humidity in a greenhouse. The fungal colonies on diseased leaves were morphologically identical to the specimen, and the control plants developed no symptoms. The Koch's postulates have completed. Golovinomyces cichoracearum is known to cause powdery mildew on M. indica in China (Liu et al. 2015). P. xanthii (synonym:P. fusca p.p.) is the cause of powdery mildew on cucurbits worldwide (Braun and Cook 2000), including M. indica (synonym:M. japonica) in Korea (Kwon et al. 2015) and Japan (Takamatsu et al. 2005), but hitherto not for China. While, the teleomorph of the fungus on cucurbits is seldom found worldwide and in China only in the north (Liu et al. 2011), chasmothecia are recorded for here southern China (21.17N,110.18E).

20.
Small ; 17(26): e2100732, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34080772

RESUMO

The rational synthesis of single-layer noble metal directly anchored on support materials is an elusive target to accomplish for a long time. This paper reports well-defined single-layer Pt (Pt-SL) clusters anchored on ultrathin TiO2 nanosheets-as a new frontier in electrocatalysis. The structural evolution of Pt-SL/TiO2 via self-assembly of single Pt atoms (Pt-SA) is systematically recorded. Significantly, the Pt atoms of Pt-SL/TiO2 possess a unique electronic configuration with PtPt covalent bonds surrounded by abundant unpaired electrons. This Pt-SL/TiO2 catalyst presents enhanced electrochemical performance toward diverse electrocatalytic reactions (such as the hydrogen evolution reaction and the oxygen reduction reaction) compared with Pt-SA, multilayer Pt nanoclusters, and Pt nanoparticles, suggesting an efficient new type of catalyst that can be achieved by constructing single-layer atomic clusters on supports.

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