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1.
BMJ Open ; 11(4): e043664, 2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33910947

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations requiring hospitalisation are a considerable burden, both clinically and economically. Although long-acting maintenance therapy is recommended in both the GOLD (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease) and Chinese COPD guidelines, proper implementation is lacking. The objective of this study was to assess the clinical and economic impact of prescribing long-acting maintenance therapy to discharged patients with COPD after hospitalisation for an exacerbation in China by using an outcomes model. DESIGN: This health economic analysis was conducted using a Markov cohort model from the Chinese healthcare payer perspective. Two health states (alive and dead) were modelled, and exacerbations were included as possible events. SETTING: The target population was Chinese patients with COPD, >40 years of age, who were hospitalised for an exacerbation, with 1 year of follow-up. A recent COPD national prevalence study was referenced for population calculations. INTERVENTION: A hypothetical future scenario, where 100% of patients would receive long-acting maintenance therapy after hospitalisation for an exacerbation, was compared with the current scenario, in which only 38.5% of patients are receiving long-acting maintenance therapy after hospitalisation. OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of exacerbations, deaths and medical costs were measured. RESULTS: We estimated that there were approximately 4 million Chinese patients with COPD who were hospitalised annually due to an exacerbation. By prescribing long-acting maintenance therapy, our model predicted that 917 360 exacerbations and 4034 deaths could be avoided, translating into cost savings of ¥3.5 billion (US$0.5 billion). Scenario analysis also showed that if the rate of exacerbations requiring hospitalisation was higher than our base case analysis, cost savings could reach up to ¥10.7 billion (US$1.5 billion). CONCLUSION: Administering long-acting maintenance therapy to more patients with COPD at hospital discharge could considerably reduce exacerbations and healthcare spending in China.

2.
Shock ; 2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756503

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Studies have shown nonlinear relationships between systolic blood pressure (SBP) and outcomes, with increased risk observed at both low and high blood pressure levels. However, the relationships between cumulative times at different SBP levels and outcomes in critically ill patients remain unclear. We hypothesized that an appropriate SBP level is associated with a decrease in adverse outcomes after intensive care unit (ICU) admission. METHODS: This study was a retrospective analysis of data from the Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care (MIMIC) III database, which includes more than 1,000,000 SBP records from 12,820 patients. Associations of cumulative times at 4 SBP ranges (<100, 100-120, 120-140, and ≥140 mm Hg) with mortality (12-, 3-, 1-month mortality and in-hospital mortality) were evaluated. Restricted cubic splines and multivariable Cox regression models were employed to assess associations between mortality and cumulative times at SBP levels (4 levels: <2, 2-12, 12-36, ≥36 hours) over 72 hours of ICU admission. Additionally, 120-140 mm Hg was subdivided into <12 hours (Group L) and ≥12 hours (Group M) subsets and subjected to propensity-score matching and subgroup analyses. RESULTS: At 120-140 mm Hg, level-4 SBP was associated with lower adjusted risks of mortality at 12 months (OR, 0.71; CI, 0.61-0.81), 3 months (OR, 0.72; CI, 0.61-0.85), and 1 month (OR, 0.61; CI, 0.48-0.79) and in the hospital (OR, 0.71; CI, 0.58-0.88) than level-1 SBP. The cumulative times at the other 3 SBP ranges (<100, 100-120, and ≥140 mm Hg) were not independent risk predictors of prognosis. Furthermore, Group M had lower 12-month mortality than Group L, which remained in the propensity-score matched and subgroup analyses. CONCLUSIONS: SBP at 120-140 mm Hg was associated with decreased adverse outcomes. Randomized trials are required to determine whether the outcomes in critically ill patients improve with early maintenance of a SBP level at 120-140 mm Hg.

3.
Sci Total Environ ; 778: 146276, 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714831

RESUMO

The development of inexpensive and efficient heterogeneous catalyst for the conversion of biomass including food and winery processing waste to value-added products is crucial in biorefinery. Glucose could be obtained via the hydrolysis of waste cellulose or starch-rich material, and the isomerization of glucose to fructose using either Lewis acid or Brønsted base catalysts is an important route in biorefinery. As a natural clay mineral, bentonite (Bt) is widely used as adsorption material and catalyst support, but how its intrinsic acid-base properties can impact the biomass conversion chemistry is still rarely reported. In this study, we investigated the influence of the textural and acid-base properties of Bt on the glucose isomerization reaction. The reaction kinetics and mechanism, and the effect of Al3+-exchange were explored. The results showed that the activation energy of Bt-catalyzed glucose conversion was 59.0 kJ mol-1, and the in-situ Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) characterization proved that Brønsted base was responsible for the isomerization. The highest fructose yield of 39.2% with 86.3% selectivity could be obtained at 110 °C for 60 min in water. Alkaline rinse and calcination can recover most of the catalytic activity of the spent catalyst.

4.
Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol ; 44(1): 63-72, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965582

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore the outcomes of combined transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) with sorafenib in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with portal vein tumour thrombus (PVTT) and to establish a prognostic prediction nomogram to differentiate target patients and stratify risk. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This multicentre, retrospective study consisted of 185 consecutive treatment-naïve patients with HCC and PVTT treated with TACE plus sorafenib from three institutions between January 1st, 2012 and December 31st, 2017. The primary outcome measurement of the study was overall survival (OS). The type of PVTT was classified by the Liver Cancer Study Group of Japan. The prognostic nomogram was established based on the predictors and was performed with interval validation. RESULTS: The median OS of the Vp1-3 and Vp4 groups was 12.4 months (11.7-18.9) and 8.5 months (7.6-11.2) (P = 0.00098), respectively, and there was a significant difference in the median OS between the Vp1-2 and Vp3 subgroups (16.4 months (12.2-27.9) vs. 10.9 months (8.4-18.1), P = 0.041). The multivariate Cox regression analysis suggested that tumour size, albumin-bilirubin grade, and PVTT type were independent prognostic factors. The C-index value of the nomogram based on these predictors in the entire cohort was 0.731 (0.628-0.833). CONCLUSIONS: After the combined therapy of TACE and sorafenib, advanced HCC patients with segmental or subsegmental PVTT showed better survival than those with main PVTT. The nomogram can be applied to identify advanced HCC patients with PVTT who may benefit most from the combination treatment and be helpful for making decision in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/terapia , Quimioembolização Terapêutica/métodos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Veia Porta/patologia , Sorafenibe/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nomogramas , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33245680

RESUMO

Background: Drug-eluting beads transarterial chemoembolization (DEB-TACE) has emerged as an alternative to conventional transarterial chemoembolization (cTACE) for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), although selection between the approaches remains controversial. Objective: To compare patients with unresectable HCC treated with DEB-TACE and cTACE in terms of hepatobiliary changes on imaging and clinical complications. Methods: This retrospective study included 1002 patients (871 men, 131 women; mean age, 59±12 years) from three centers with treatment-naïve unresectable HCC who underwent 780 DEB-TACE using epirucibin (780 procedures in 394 patients) and 1187 cTACE using lipiodol mixed with doxorubicin and oxaliplatin (1187 procedures in 608 patients) between May 2016 and November 2018. A total of 83.4% of patients had hepatitis B related liver disease; 57.6% were Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage A or B; 42.4% had ≥3 nodules. Mean tumor size was 6.3±4.2 cm. Hepatobiliary changes and tumor response were evaluated on CT or MRI 1 month after TACE. Clinical records were reviewed for adverse events. Results: Bile duct dilation and portal vein narrowing on imaging, as well as liver failure and grade 3 abdominal pain on clinical follow-up, all had higher frequency (p<.05) in the DEB-TACE (15.5%, 4.6%, 2.3%, and 6.1%, respectively) versus the cTACE (7.4%, 1.6%, 0.7%, and 2.1%, respectively) group. Higher frequency of bile duct dilation for DEB-TACE was observed in subgroup analyses of patients with BCLC stage A or B, with cirrhosis, without cirrhosis, and without main portal vein tumor thrombus (all p<.05). Total bilirubin at 1 month was 1.5±2.4 mg/dl (95% CI, 1.2-1.8) for DEB-TACE versus 1.3±2 mg/dl (95% CI, 1.1-1.5) for cTACE (p=.02). cTACE and DEB-TACE groups were not different for other manifestations of post-embolization syndrome or systemic toxicity (p>.05). Local tumor disease control rate (DCR) was not different between cTACE and DEBTACE (p>.05), although overall DCR was higher in cTACE than DEB-TACE (1 month: 87.5% vs 80.0%, p=.001; 3 months: 78.5% vs 72.1%, p=.02). Conclusion: Compared with cTACE, DEB-TACE was associated with more frequent hepatobiliary injuries and severe abdominal pain. Clinical impact: Greater caution and closer follow-up are warranted for patients who undergo DEB-TACE for unresectable HCC.

6.
Front Oncol ; 10: 593292, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33102242

RESUMO

Objectives: To develop and validate a deep learning-based overall survival (OS) prediction model in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) plus sorafenib. Methods: This retrospective multicenter study consisted of 201 patients with treatment-naïve, unresectable HCC who were treated with TACE plus sorafenib. Data from 120 patients were used as the training set for model development. A deep learning signature was constructed using the deep image features from preoperative contrast-enhanced computed tomography images. An integrated nomogram was built using Cox regression by combining the deep learning signature and clinical features. The deep learning signature and nomograms were also externally validated in an independent validation set of 81 patients. C-index was used to evaluate the performance of OS prediction. Results: The median OS of the entire set was 19.2 months and no significant difference was found between the training and validation cohort (18.6 months vs. 19.5 months, P = 0.45). The deep learning signature achieved good prediction performance with a C-index of 0.717 in the training set and 0.714 in the validation set. The integrated nomogram showed significantly better prediction performance than the clinical nomogram in the training set (0.739 vs. 0.664, P = 0.002) and validation set (0.730 vs. 0.679, P = 0.023). Conclusion: The deep learning signature provided significant added value to clinical features in the development of an integrated nomogram which may act as a potential tool for individual prognosis prediction and identifying HCC patients who may benefit from the combination therapy of TACE plus sorafenib.

7.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 26(4): 334-344, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433388

RESUMO

CONTEXT: COVID-19 was characterized as a pandemic by the World Health Organization on March 11, 2020. This research aims to analyze the public health strategies to prevent and control COVID-19 in Shanghai, China, and provide recommendations for public health policy and interventions in the United States. PROGRAM: Based on the Social-Ecological Model, this research collected information for public health strategies from the Shanghai Municipal Health Commission and various Chinese websites. EVALUATION: The daily confirmed new cases of COVID-19 decreased from 27 to 0 in 53 days since the first case of COVID-19 was confirmed in Shanghai on January 20, 2020. DISCUSSION: The pattern of daily confirmed new cases suggests the effectiveness of public health strategies. This research also provides recommendations on the development and improvements of public health strategies in the U.S. by acknowledging the differences in political and social systems between the two countries.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Recursos em Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Saúde Pública , Vigilância em Saúde Pública/métodos , Quarentena/organização & administração , Estados Unidos
8.
Ultrasonics ; 106: 106159, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32361042

RESUMO

High volume fraction SiC particle reinforced Al-based MMCs (SiC/Al MMCs) were bonded by Ultrasonic-promoted transient-liquid-phase (UTLP) bonding with pure Zn foil as interlayer at 390 °C. Oxide films were removed totally attributing to ultrasonic vibration and liquid Zn-Al eutectic phase were formed. Ultrasonic vibration time extension promoted element diffusion and decreased the bonding wide because of vibration squeezing effect, which would shorten bonding time. But overlong ultrasonic time made SiC particles contact with each other result in poor joint quality. Sound joints obtained with ultrasonic vibration time of 60 s and the shear strength of joint is 134.4 MPa. The oxide films removed processes and UTLP joint formation mechanism of high volume fraction SiC/Al MMCs were discussed in details.

9.
Cell Biochem Funct ; 38(7): 943-954, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32325539

RESUMO

Growing data have recognized the significance of Response Gene to Complement (RGC)-32 in numerous tumour developments. Notwithstanding, the functional role and underlying mechanism of it in tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) remain enigmatic. Here, to identify the impact of RGC-32 in TSCC, its expression in multiple TSCC cells was measured and loss-of-function experiments in cell lines were performed to illuminate the function of it induced TSCC progression, via si-RNA knockdown, CCK-8, colony formation, wound-healing, transwell, flow cytometry and western blot assays. To clarify potential mechanism, expressions of hallmarks in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process and PI3K/AKT signalling were assessed, and the upstream miR regulator of RGC-32 was predicted and verified by applying bioinformatic approaches and dual-luciferase reporter assay, respectively. Finally, the rescue experiments were applied to better elucidate the effect of miR-26b/RGC-32 axis in TSCC behaviours. As a result, RGC-32 was upregulated in TSCC cells and knocking down of it abrogated cell proliferation, trans-migration and invasion, whilst promoted apoptosis in TSCC, which was regulated through repressing EMT and inactivation of PI3K/AKT signalling. Subsequently, miR-26b was predicted and identified as an upstream regulator of RGC-32, and the pro-tumorigenic effect of RGC-32 was reversed by miR-26b overexpression. Collectively, our results demonstrated that RGC-32 facilitated TSCC progression, which was modulated by activations of PI3K/AKT pathway and EMT process, and reduction of its negative regulator of miR-26b. These findings highlight a novel role of miR-26b/RGC-32 axis in TSCC and underlying mechanism, encouraging a potent usage in TSCC treatment. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY: We first uncovered that Response Gene to Complement-32 played a significantly pro-tumorigenic role in tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC), which was closely regulated by downregulation of miR-26b and activations of epithelial-mesenchymal transition process and PI3K/AKT signalling. These findings contribute to better understand the molecular mechanism in carcinogenesis of TSCC, and shed some light on promising strategy for TSCC therapeutics.

10.
Ann Palliat Med ; 9(1): 1-7, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005057

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Optimal communication and collaboration between inter-disciplinary health care providers is critical to ensuring high quality patient care. We aimed to quantify the impact on physician-nurse collaboration (PNC) of implementing daily goal sheets (DGSs) in emergency settings. METHODS: The usage of a DGS was administered in morning rounds in an emergency intensive care unit (ICU) for four consecutive months. A Jefferson Scale of Attitudes Toward Physician-Nurse Collaboration (JSAPNC) form was used before (n=113) and after (n=107) the intervention to evaluate the attitudes of PNCs from the perspective of both physicians and nurses. RESULTS: There is a significant positive relation between the attitude to PNC and the participant age, educational background, and professional rank and title before DGS application (P<0.01 for each), whereas there was no significant difference observed after the initiation of the DGS. CONCLUSIONS: The use of a DGS improves physician-nurse collaborations in emergency care settings.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Comunicação , Comportamento Cooperativo , Objetivos Organizacionais , Relações Médico-Enfermeiro , China , Humanos
11.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(45): 42149-42155, 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31633325

RESUMO

Conversion of CO2 into value-added chemicals with a facile hydrogen source such as water is always of great interest for sustainable development. In this work, a simple and efficient method of reduction of bicarbonate to formate on a simple Ni powder catalyst with water as the facile hydrogen source and Zn as the regenerable reductant is proposed. The Ni catalyst and in situ formed Zn/ZnO exhibited a synergetic catalytic activity in the conversion of bicarbonate into formate, and a good formate yield of 81% was obtained. Detailed studies revealed that the synergetic catalytic activity between Ni and the in situ formed Zn/ZnO was mainly attributed to (i) the inhibited oxidation of Zn by Ni, leading to more interface of Zn/ZnO; (ii) the decreased growth of ZnO crystal along the [0001] direction, and thus increasing the more polar (0001) Zn face and the (0001̅) O face, which have high activity; and (iii) the enhanced generation of more oxygen vacancies at the Zn/ZnO interface to promote the formate yield. This research demonstrates an efficient method of using a simple and nonprecious metal catalyst for the CO2 reduction into value-added chemicals and provides a better understanding of the synergistic catalytic mechanism of Ni and Zn/ZnO.

12.
mSphere ; 4(5)2019 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533998

RESUMO

Dengue is caused by infection with any one of four dengue viruses (DENV); the risk of severe disease appears to be enhanced by the cross-reactive or subneutralizing levels of antibody from a prior DENV infection. These antibodies opsonize DENV entry through the activating Fc gamma receptors (FcγR), instead of infection through canonical receptor-mediated endocytosis, to result in higher levels of DENV replication. However, whether the enhanced replication is solely due to more efficient FcγR-mediated DENV entry or is also through FcγR-mediated alteration of the host transcriptome response to favor DENV infection remains unclear. Indeed, more efficient viral entry through activation of the FcγR can result in an increased viral antigenic load within target cells and confound direct comparisons of the host transcriptome response under antibody-dependent and antibody-independent conditions. Herein, we show that, despite controlling for the viral antigenic load in primary monocytes, the antibody-dependent and non-antibody-dependent routes of DENV entry induce transcriptome responses that are remarkably different. Notably, antibody-dependent DENV entry upregulated DENV host dependency factors associated with RNA splicing, mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes, and vesicle trafficking. Additionally, supporting findings from other studies, antibody-dependent DENV entry impeded the downregulation of ribosomal genes caused by canonical receptor-mediated endocytosis to increase viral translation. Collectively, our findings support the notion that antibody-dependent DENV entry alters host responses that support the viral life cycle and that host responses to DENV need to be defined in the context of its entry pathway.IMPORTANCE Dengue virus is the most prevalent mosquito-borne viral infection globally, resulting in variable manifestations ranging from asymptomatic viremia to life-threatening shock and multiorgan failure. Previous studies have indicated that the risk of severe dengue in humans can be increased by a specific range of preexisting anti-dengue virus antibody titers, a phenomenon termed antibody-dependent enhancement. There is hence a need to understand how antibodies augment dengue virus infection compared to the alternative canonical receptor-mediated viral entry route. Herein, we show that, besides facilitating viral uptake, antibody-mediated entry increases the expression of early host dependency factors to promote viral infection; these factors include RNA splicing, mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes, vesicle trafficking, and ribosomal genes. These findings will enhance our understanding of how differences in entry pathways can affect host responses and offer opportunities to design therapeutics that can specifically inhibit antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue virus infection.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Vírus da Dengue/fisiologia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Receptores de IgG/imunologia , Internalização do Vírus , Anticorpos Facilitadores , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Linhagem Celular , Células Cultivadas , Dengue/virologia , Humanos , Monócitos/imunologia , Monócitos/virologia , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transcriptoma , Replicação Viral
13.
Nat Med ; 25(8): 1218-1224, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31308506

RESUMO

Flaviviral infections result in a wide spectrum of clinical outcomes, ranging from asymptomatic infection to severe disease. Although the correlates of severe disease have been explored1-4, the pathophysiology that differentiates symptomatic from asymptomatic infection remains undefined. To understand the molecular underpinnings of symptomatic infection, the blood transcriptomic and metabolomic profiles of individuals were examined before and after inoculation with the live yellow fever viral vaccine (YF17D). It was found that individuals with adaptive endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and reduced tricarboxylic acid cycle activity at baseline showed increased susceptibility to symptomatic outcome. YF17D infection in these individuals induced maladaptive ER stress, triggering downstream proinflammatory responses that correlated with symptomatic outcome. The findings of the present study thus suggest that the ER stress response and immunometabolism underpin symptomatic yellow fever and possibly even other flaviviral infections. Modulating either ER stress or metabolism could be exploited for prophylaxis against symptomatic flaviviral infection outcome.


Assuntos
Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Vacina contra Febre Amarela/imunologia , Febre Amarela/metabolismo , Adulto , Ciclo do Ácido Cítrico , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia , Febre Amarela/etiologia
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30956681

RESUMO

Background: This study was to investigate the role of adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR) in inhibiting the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on osteoclastogenesis in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). Methods: Wistar rats were divided into four groups: sham-control group, CIA-control group, CIA-EA group, and CIA-EA-SCH58261 (A2AR antagonist) group. We detected tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB), receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL), protein kinase A (PKA), and extracellular regulatory protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) in peripheral blood by ELISA. PKA, ERK1/2, and NF-κB in ankle joints were determined by western blotting. We evaluated the arthritis damage by histological examination and determined the number of osteoclasts by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining. Results: EA treatment downregulated the expression of TNF-α, RANKL, PKA, ERK1/2, and NF-κB in peripheral blood but increased the levels of PKA and ERK1/2 in ankle joints. Importantly, EA treatment reduced bone erosion as evidenced by the histological findings and inhibited osteoclastogenesis as revealed by TRAP staining. All these effects of the EA treatment were reversed by combining EA treatment with the A2AR antagonist SCH58261. Conclusion: Our data suggest that EA treatment activated A2AR. The effects of the A2AR antagonist SCH58261 suggest that the inhibition of osteoclast formation, the inhibition of TNF-α, RANKL, and NF-κB expression, and the increase of ERK1/2 are all dependent on this EA-induced A2AR activation. It is therefore likely that these pathways with clearly defined roles in inflammation and bone erosion are at least partially involved in the mediation of the inhibition of synovitis and osteoclast formation induced by EA.

15.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(8): 1056-1059, 2019 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30617362

RESUMO

H2S is considered to be an important reductant in abiotic CO2 reduction to organics, however, almost no experimental support has been reported. Herein, the first observation of CO2 reduction to formate with H2S under alkaline hydrothermal conditions is reported, and water is found to act as a hydrogen donor.

16.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1864: 3-18, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30415325

RESUMO

Efficient delivery of macromolecules into plant cells and tissues is important for both basic research and biotechnology product applications. In transgenic research, the goal is to deliver DNA molecules into regenerable cells and stably integrate them into the genome. Over the past 40 years, many macromolecule delivery methods have been studied. To generate transgenic plants, particle bombardment and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation are the methods of choice for DNA delivery. The rapid advance of genome editing technologies has generated new requirements on large biomolecule delivery and at the same time reinvigorated the development of new transformation technologies. Many of the gene delivery options that have been studied before are now being repurposed for delivering genome editing machinery for various applications. This article reviews the major progress in the development of tools for large biomolecule delivery into plant cells in the new era of precision genome engineering.


Assuntos
Edição de Genes/métodos , Técnicas de Transferência de Genes , Engenharia Genética/métodos , Genoma de Planta/genética , Agrobacterium/genética , Biotecnologia/instrumentação , Biotecnologia/métodos , Edição de Genes/instrumentação , Edição de Genes/tendências , Engenharia Genética/instrumentação , Engenharia Genética/tendências , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Transformação Genética
17.
Cytokine ; 118: 124-129, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29656959

RESUMO

Interleukin (IL)-33/ST2 pathway plays a pivotal role in tumorigenesis through influencing cancer stemness, tumor growth, metastasis, angiogenesis, and accumulation of regulatory T cells in tumor microenvironments. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of IL-33 rs7025417 and ST2 rs3821204 with the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Genotyping of IL-33 rs7025417 and ST2 rs3821204 was carried out using a Taqman assay. IL-33 and ST2 mRNA was examined using real-time PCR and plasma IL-33 and sST2 levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The ST2 rs3821204 CC genotype was associated with a significantly increased risk of HCC (CC vs. GG: adjusted OR = 2.29, 95% CI, 1.39-3.78; dominant model: adjusted OR = 1.58, 95% CI, 1.12-2.23; recessive model: adjusted OR = 1.88, 95% CI, 1.21-2.93; C vs. G: adjusted OR = 1.53, 95% CI, 1.20-1.95). Gene-environment interaction analysis showed that the risk effect of rs3821204 CG/CC genotypes was more evident in smokers (adjusted OR = 1.70, 95% CI, 1.13-2.55) and drinkers (adjusted OR = 1.57, 95% CI, 1.04-2.37). The increased risk was also observed in combined analysis. Moreover, HCC patients with ST2 rs3821204 CC genotype had higher levels of mRNA and protein expression (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that ST2 rs3821204 CC genotype may contribute to hepatocarcinogenesis by enhancing ST2 production at the transcriptional and translational level.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Proteína 1 Semelhante a Receptor de Interleucina-1/genética , Interleucina-33/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Frequência do Gene/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/genética
18.
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue ; 24(7): 613-617, 2018 07.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30173444

RESUMO

Objective: To study the influence of povidone-iodine (PI) versus that of the benzethonium chloride wipe (BCW) on semen collection and semen quality of sperm donors undergoing penile skin disinfection and provide some evidence for the selection of disinfection methods for semen collection. METHODS: We used PI from August to December 2015 and BCWs from January to July 2016 for penile skin disinfection before semen collection, with two samples from each donor, one collected with and the other without penis skin disinfection (the blank control group). After semen collection, we conducted a questionnaire investigation on the influence of the two disinfection methods on semen collection and compared the semen parameters between the two groups of sperm donors. RESULTS: Totally, 185 sperm donors were included in this study, of whom 63 underwent penile skin disinfection with PI and the other 122 with BCWs before semen collection. Statistically significant differences were found between the PI and BCW groups in the adaptability to the disinfectant and rigid disinfection procedures (P <0.05), but not in the other items of the questionnaire (P >0.05). Compared with the sperm donors of the blank control group, those of the PI group showed statistically significant difference in the percentage of progressively motile sperm (PMS) (ï¼»63.02 ± 3.18ï¼½% vs ï¼»61.45 ± 4.78ï¼½%, P<0.05), but not in the abstinence time (ï¼»4.97 ± 1.79ï¼½ vs ï¼»4.7 ± 0.94ï¼½ d, P >0.05), semen volume (ï¼»4.11 ± 1.54ï¼½ vs ï¼»4.15 ± 1.61ï¼½ ml, P >0.05), sperm concentration (ï¼»110 ± 29.6ï¼½ vs ï¼»107.5 ± 31.79ï¼½ ×106/ml, P >0.05), or total sperm count (ï¼»439.10 ± 170.13ï¼½ vs ï¼»434.02 ± 186.91ï¼½ ×106/ejaculate, P >0.05), while those of the BCW group exhibited no remarkable difference in any of the above parameters (P >0.05). Among the samples with abnormal semen quality, significantly fewer were found with abnormal PMS in the BCW than in the PI group (1.64% ï¼»2/122ï¼½ vs 9.68% ï¼»6/62ï¼½, P <0.05). However, there were no significant differences between the PI and BCW groups in the abnormal semen volume, abnormal sperm concentration, or the rate of semen bacterial contamination (P >0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Before semen collection from donors, penile skin disinfection with povidone-iodine may affect both the semen collection process and the quality of donor sperm, while the benzethonium chloride wipe can reduce the influence on the semen collection process and does not affect the semen parameters.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/administração & dosagem , Benzetônio/administração & dosagem , Desinfecção/métodos , Povidona-Iodo/administração & dosagem , Recuperação Espermática , Desinfecção/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pênis , Sêmen , Análise do Sêmen , Pele , Contagem de Espermatozoides , Espermatozoides , Doadores de Tecidos
19.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1676: 41-59, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28986903

RESUMO

One of the major limitations of maize transformation is the isolation of a large number of immature embryos using the time-consuming manual extraction method. In this article, we describe a novel bulk embryo extraction method for fast isolation of a large number of embryos suitable for both biolistic- and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Optimal gene delivery and tissue culture conditions are also described for achieving high efficiency in Agrobacterium-mediated maize transformation using phosphomannose isomerase (PMI) as a selectable marker.


Assuntos
Agrobacterium tumefaciens/fisiologia , Técnicas de Transferência de Genes , Manose-6-Fosfato Isomerase/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Transformação Genética , Zea mays/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/embriologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/microbiologia , Transgenes , Zea mays/embriologia , Zea mays/microbiologia
20.
Transl Psychiatry ; 7(12): 1292, 2017 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29249805

RESUMO

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) may have the potential to prevent depressive relapse. This assessor-blinded, randomized controlled study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of rTMS as a mono- and combination therapy in the prevention of depressive relapse/recurrence. A total of 281 depressed patients who had achieved stable full or partial remission on a 6-month antidepressant (ADP) run-in treatment were randomly assigned to an rTMS (n = 91), ADP (n = 108), or combined (rTMS + ADP, n = 82) treatment group for 12 months. Monthly clustered rTMS was conducted in 5-10 sessions over a 3-5-day period. Maintenance outcomes were assessed using time to relapse/recurrence and relapse/recurrence rate. Overall, 71.2% (200/281) of the participants completed the treatment per the protocol. rTMS + ADP and rTMS significantly reduced the risk of relapse/recurrence compared with ADP (P = 0.000), with hazard ratios of 0.297 and 0.466, respectively. Both rTMS-containing regimens produced significantly lower relapse/recurrence rates than ADP (15.9% and 24.2% vs. 44.4%, P < 0.001). In the relapsed/recurrent subgroup, first-episode depressed, rTMS-treated patients had a markedly lower relapse/recurrence rate than ADP-treated patients. Five patients on the ADP-containing regimens, but none on rTMS alone, developed acute mania. The rTMS-containing regimens had considerably more certain side effects than did the ADP group. We concluded that TMS, whether as a mono- or additional therapy, is superior to antidepressants in preventing depressive relapse/recurrence, particularly in first-episode depressed patients. The treatment does not increase the risk of manic switch, but may increase the risk of certain side effects.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/prevenção & controle , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Terapia Combinada , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Prevenção Secundária , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
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