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Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477493


Chloropropanols such as 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) and 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol (1,3-DCP) have drawn increasing attention due to their release from food contact paper and their potential carcinogenic effects. In this study, the effects were investigated of water extraction conditions on release of chloropropanols from food contact paper, and the extraction efficiencies of chloropropanols by water extract and migration method were compared. Cold water was found to be more severe than hot water for extraction of chloropropanols, with the highest water extraction value obtained at 23°C. Two hours of extraction was sufficient as the chloropropanols can be fully extracted from food contact paper within a short period of time. Increase of temperature in the range of 10°C-60°C had little impact on release of chloropropanols, however, the extraction of chloropropanols decreased when high temperatures (80°C or above) were applied due to volatilisation losses. Hence, attention should be paid when choosing extract conditions representing the worst-case scenario. The water extraction value using EN 645 method gives higher results compared to migration test described in GB 31604.1 and GB 5009.156, suggesting that the water extract method was probably more severe. For migration test, aqueous-based simulants were found to be more conservative than oil-based simulants, suggesting the conventional experiment conditions applicable for compliance test of chloropropanols migration can be simplified and optimised.

Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33818316


To determine the occurrence of mineral oil hydrocarbons (MOH) in food contact papers in China, and to investigate the potential sources of MOH contamination, a total of 159 food contact papers and raw materials were analysed by off-line solid-phase extraction-gas chromatography flame ionisation detection (SPE-GC-FID) and a GC-MS method. The migration of MOH from food contact papers into Tenax, olive oil or 50% ethanol under the worst foreseeable conditions of use was determined. The results indicated that the occurrence of MOH in China is of a potential health risk concerning the migration of mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) and mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH) which were detected in 82.6% and 50.4% of samples, respectively. Migration of MOSH from 47.9% of samples was higher than 2 mg/kg and migration of MOAH from 32.2% samples exceeded 0.5 mg/kg in case of the worst foreseeable condition of use. The highest mean migration of MOSH and MOAH were found in packaging papers for long-term storage (more than 6 months), with mean migration of 91.2 mg/kg and 1.4 mg/kg, respectively. Migration of MOH from printed paper was considerably higher than that of unprinted paper, validating previous findings that the printing ink is the predominant source of MOH contamination in food contact papers. Migration of MOH from paper bowls used for packing instant noodles was relatively low, suggesting the internal hollow layer may be acting as a functional barrier that could block the transfer of MOH (up to C28) through the gas phrase, even though the outer layer was made from recycled paper. High concentrations of MOSH and MOAH were also detected in de-foamers, adhesives and rosin sizing agents, indicating that the MOH contamination caused by the use of raw materials and additives should also be taken into consideration.

Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos/análise , Óleo Mineral/análise , China , Análise de Alimentos , Embalagem de Alimentos
Talanta ; 202: 285-296, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31171184


Atmospheric pressure gas chromatography (APGC) coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) and electron ionization mass spectrometry together with commercial library search are two complementary techniques for non-target screening of volatile and semi-volatile compounds. Optimization was first conducted to achieve easier search of correspondent peaks between the two systems. Analytical strategy for the determination of volatile and semi-volatile compound with different identification confidence levels was then proposed and applied to food contact grade polypropylene (PP) samples. Identification was found to be much easier and less time-consuming especially when correspondent peak was found in the two systems with the help of library search, exact mass of precursor and fragment ions as well as Kovats Index (KI). The behavior of APGC-QTOF-MS was also further investigated. Apart from the M+. ion and the well-known adduct [M+H]+ others such as [M-3H + O]+, [M-3H+2O]+ and [M-H+3O]+ were also observed for n-alkanes. Besides, new reaction products were found, formed by diol compounds (1-Monostearoylglycerol, 2-Monostearoylglycerol and NX 8000K) and silanediol dimethyl, which would be a transformation product of the silicone base septum or the methyl 5% phenyl polysiloxane based column. These new compounds were only detected in APGC-MS-QTOF as EI-GC-MS was not enough sensitive for this purpose.

Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27636863


Three nanocopper/low-density polyethylene (LDPE) composite films were tested in food simulants (3% acetic acid and 10% ethanol) and real food matrices (rice vinegar, bottled water and Chinese liquor) to explore the behaviours of copper migration using ICP-OES and GFAAS. The effects of exposure time, temperature, nanocopper concentration and contact media on the release of copper from nanocopper/LDPE composite films were studied. It was shown that the migration of copper into 10% ethanol was much less than that into 3% acetic acid at the same conditions. With the increase of nanocopper concentration, exposure time and temperature, the release of copper increased. Copper migration does not appear to be significant in the case of bottled water and Chinese liquor compared with rice vinegar with a maximum value of 0.54 µg mL-1 for the CF-0.25# bags at 70°C for 2 h. The presence and morphology of copper nanoparticles in the films and the topographical changes of the films were confirmed by field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM). In this manner, copper nanoparticles of different morphologies, sizes and distribution were found, and samples with higher nanocopper concentration had a more irregular topography. In the case of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), no chemical bonds formed between copper nanoparticles and LDPE. Copper nanoparticles were just as physically dispersed in LDPE.

Cobre/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Polietileno/química
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24666013


An analytical method based on ICP-MS was developed for the determination of Ti in food simulants (3% (w/v) aqueous acetic acid and 50% (v/v) aqueous ethanol). The method was used to determine the migration of Ti from nano-TiO2-PE films used for food packaging into food simulants under different temperature and migration time conditions. The maximum migration amounts into 3% (w/v) aqueous acetic acid were 1.4 ± 0.02, 6.3 ± 0.5 and 12.1 ± 0.2 µg kg(-1) at 25, 70 and 100°C, respectively, while into 50% (v/v) aqueous ethanol, the maximum migration amounts were 0.5 ± 0.1, 0.6 ± 0.03 and 2.1 ± 0.1 µg kg(-1) at 25, 70 and 100°C, respectively. Increasing the additive content in the film promoted migration of nanoparticles. The results indicated that the migration of nanoparticles might occur via dissolution from the surface and cut edges of the solid phase (film) into the liquid phase (food simulant).

Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Embalagem de Alimentos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Titânio/análise , Ácido Acético , Etanol , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Espectrometria de Massas , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Nanocompostos/química , Nanocompostos/toxicidade , Nanocompostos/ultraestrutura , Tamanho da Partícula , Polietileno , Titânio/toxicidade , Água
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 26(1): 109-10, 116, 2006 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16495190


OBJECTIVE: To determine organochlorine pesticide residue in 9 Chinese herbs. METHODS: The organochlorine pesticides were extracted from the herbs with mixed solvents of n-hexane and acetone by a solid-phase extraction cartridge Florisil. Capillary gas chromatography was used to separate the samples. RESULTS: Good linearities were obtained for 11 organochlorine pesticides. The average recoveries at two concentration levels ranged from 79.9% to 89.0%,and from 86.3% to 104.8%, with relative standard deviations of 1.8% to 7.1%, respectively and detection limit of 2 g/kg. The residues of the organic pesticides exceeded national standard in Pogostemon cablin and Panax notoginseng. CONCLUSION: Capillary gas chromatography combined with electron capture detection provides a practical means for detecting organic pesticide residue in Chinese herbal medicines, and the limits of pesticide residues should be formulated in Chinese pharmacopoeia.

Contaminação de Medicamentos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa