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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(2): e28444, 2022 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35029185

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between lipid accumulation index and cerebral hemodynamic integral value in 3264 people undergoing physical examination, so as to analyze the correlation between different lipid accumulation product index (LAP) levels and stroke risk factors. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted from January to December 2019 on 3264 adults at the age of 19 to 85 living in Urumqi, Xinjiang. The stroke related risk factors were evaluated by the questionnaire survey. The enrolled subjects were divided into Q1 group (n = 817), Q2 group (n = 815), Q3 group (n = 816) and Q4 group (n = 816) according to the quartile site at a low-to-high-score manner. RESULTS: The proportion of males was significantly higher than that of females in Q2, Q3, and Q4 groups. The proportion of middle-aged people and the elderly in Q2, Q3, and Q4 groups was significantly higher than that of youths (P < .05). The proportion of patients with history of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, physical inactivity, and smoking, and the levels of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, high-density cholesterol, low-density cholesterol, triglyceride, body mass index, waist circumference increased with the increase of LAP level in different groups (P < .05). On both sides of the cerebral hemodynamic integral value (CVHI) index, Vmean, Vmax, Vmin showed a decreasing trend whereas peripheral resistance, pulse velocity, Zcv, dynamic resistance, critical pressure level, difference between diastolic and critical pressure showed an increase trend with the increase of LAP level. The normal rate of CVHI in 4 groups (>75 points) was 97.4%, 89.7%, 87.0, and 80.8%, respectively, showing a decreasing trend. Logistic regression results showed that the higher the LAP, the higher the abnormal risk of CVHI. CONCLUSION: There is a positive correlation between LAP and CVHI, the higher the LAP, the higher the risk of CVHI abnormality, which should be concerned seriously.

2.
Acta Physiol (Oxf) ; : e13757, 2022 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34978753

RESUMO

Coordinated action among various organelles maintains cellular functions. For instance, mitochondria and lysosomes are the main organelles contributing to cellular metabolism and provide energy for cardiomyocyte contraction. They also provide essential signalling platforms in the cell that regulate many key processes such as autophagy, apoptosis, oxidative stress, inflammation and cell death. Often, abnormalities in mitochondrial or lysosomal structures and functions bring about cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Although the communication between mitochondria and lysosomes throughout the cardiovascular system is intensely studied, the regulatory mechanisms have not been completely understood. Thus, we summarize the most recent studies related to mitochondria and lysosomes' role in CVDs and their potential connections and communications under cardiac pathophysiological conditions. Further, we discuss limitations and future perspectives regarding diagnosis, therapeutic strategies and drug discovery in CVDs.

3.
Food Chem ; 372: 131280, 2022 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818732

RESUMO

In this study, the binding mechanism between bovine serum albumin (BSA) and three gingerols ([6]-, [8]- and [10]-gingerol) was evaluated to explore an effective strategy for improving solubility and stability of gingerols. The fluorescence analysis suggested gingerols could bind with BSA to form a stable BSA/gingerols complex and [10]-gingerol had the strongest binding affinity (Ka = 4.016 × 104 L/mol) at 298 K. Thermodynamic parameters and molecular modeling validated that hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bonds were the main driving force for the interaction of BSA/gingerols. Gingerols bound to BSA at site I (subdomain IIA) resulted in a conformational change of BSA with a structure shrinkage, which was responsible for the decrease of surface hydrophobicity. The formation of BSA/gingerols complexes promoted the solubility of [6]-, [8]- and [10]-gingerol increasing by 1.50, 6.04 and 23.50 times, respectively. In addition, the stability and antioxidant capacity of gingerols was significantly improved after binding with BSA.


Assuntos
Soroalbumina Bovina , Sítios de Ligação , Catecóis , Dicroísmo Circular , Álcoois Graxos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Ligação Proteica , Soroalbumina Bovina/metabolismo , Solubilidade , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Termodinâmica
4.
Bioresour Technol ; 344(Pt B): 126368, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34808317

RESUMO

Biorefinery of Ramulus mori with lower energy consumption through improved enzyme and pretreatment strategies was reported. Directed evolution and saturation mutagenesis were used for the modification of xylanase, the yield of fermentable sugars and the degree of synergy (DS) were determined for different pretreatment (seawater/non-seawater) and enzyme treatment groups (xylanase/cellulase/co-treatment). The dominant mutant I133A/Q143Y of Bispora sp. xylanase XYL10C_ΔN was obtained with improved specific activity (1860 U/mg), catalytic efficiency (1150 mL/s∙mg) at 40 °C, and thermostability (T50 increased by 7 °C). With the pretreatment of seawater immersion, the highest yield of fermentable sugars for Ramulus mori at 40 °C reached 199 µmol/g when hydrolyzed with cellulase and I133A/Q143Y, with the highest DS of 2.6; this was 4.5-fold that of the group hydrolyzed by cellulase alone with non-seawater pretreatment. Thus, bioconversion of reducing sugar from Ramulus mori was improved significantly at lower temperatures, which provides an efficient and energy-saving wayfor biofuel production.


Assuntos
Celulase , Açúcares , Biocombustíveis , Carboidratos , Hidrólise
5.
Virol J ; 18(1): 238, 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34847913

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate viral loads in children with human adenovirus (HAdV) pneumonia at different stages of disease and compare the viral load between upper and lower respiratory tract samples. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled children who required invasive ventilation for HAdV pneumonia. Nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) and tracheal aspirate (TA) samples were collected throughout the entire period of invasive ventilation. Viral detection and quantification were performed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Ninety-four children were enrolled. The median age of the children was 12.0 months (IQR: 11.0-24.0), and > ninety percent of patients were aged between 6 and 59 months. Seven hundred and nine paired NPA-TA samples were collected. The median viral loads of the NPA and TA samples were 7.31 log10 and 7.50 log10 copies/mL, respectively. Viral loads generally decreased steadily over time. The median viral load after 1, 2, 3, and > 3 weeks of the disease course was 8.65, 7.70, 6.69, and 5.09 log10 copies/mL, respectively, in NPA samples and 8.67, 7.79, 7.08, and 5.53 log10 copies/mL, respectively, in TA samples. Viral load showed a significant negative correlation with time since symptom onset in both NPA samples (Spearman r = - 0.607, P = 0.000) and TA samples (Spearman r = - 0.544, P = 0.000). The predicted duration of HAdV shedding was 60.17 days in the NPA group and 65.81 days in the TA group. Viral loads in NPA and TA from the same subjects correlated well with each other (R2 = 0.694). HAdV loads in NPA and TA were most comparable during the early phase of infection (95% limits of agreement, - 1.36 to 1.30 log10 copies/mL, R2 = 0.746). Variation increased during the late phase of infection (i.e., in follow-up samples), with viral loads remaining significantly higher in TA than NPA. CONCLUSIONS: In children with HAdV pneumonia, viral loads in both NPA and TA steadily decreased during the course of the disease, and the predicted duration of viral shedding was more than 2 months. The HAdV DNA load of NPA is highly correlated with that of TA, especially in the initial phase of infection.

6.
Anatol J Cardiol ; 25(12): 872-879, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34866581

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The prognostic value of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) has not been fully elucidated. Therefore, we conducted a cohort study and a meta-analysis to assess the predictive value of IL-6 for stroke and mortality in patients with AF. METHODS: A cohort study was performed in newly diagnosed non-valvular patients with AF. A total of 217 patients with AF were followed up for a mean of 27 months. A multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between IL-6 and stroke/all-cause mortality. The incremental value was also assessed by adding IL-6 to the CHA2DS2-VASc score. Besides, a meta-analysis of all reported cohort studies and our cohort study was conducted to validate the association of circulating IL-6 and stroke/mortality in patients with AF. RESULTS: Our cohort study showed that elevated plasma level of IL-6 was an independent risk factor for predicting stroke [hazard ratio (HR)=3.81; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-13.05; p=0.033] and all-cause mortality (HR=3.11; 95% CI, 1.25-7.72; p=0.015) in patients with AF. Adding IL-6 levels to CHA2DS2-VASc score showed limited improvement of the predictive power for stroke [area under curve (AUC) from 0.81 to 0.88, p=0.006]. Meta-analysis confirmed that increased circulating level of IL-6 was significantly associated with increased risk of stroke (pooled HR=1.97; 95% CI, 1.22-3.17; p=0.006) and all-cause mortality (pooled HR=2.73; 95% CI, 2.29-3.25; p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Increased circulating level of IL-6 was significantly associated with greater risk of stroke and all-cause mortality in patients with AF. Adding IL-6 biomarker to the CHA2DS2-VASc score may help to determine the management of AF treatment.

7.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 716058, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34858999

RESUMO

Background: Heatstroke is a common clinical symptom in summer with high mortality requiring identification of appropriate and rapid methods of assessment. Method: This is a retrospective study that included the recent 10 years clinical data of heatstroke patients. A total of n = 186 patients were included in this study and grouped based on platelet (PLT) abnormality observed on admission. Results: In the study group, n = 120 patients (64.5%) patients had normal PLT and n = 66 patients (35.5%) had abnormal PLT. Compared with PLT-normal group, PLT-abnormal group had higher Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) scores [median 15.0 (IQR 11.5-21.5) vs. 9.0 (IQR 7.0-12.5)] and SOFA scores [median 6.0 (IQR 4.0-10.0) vs. 2.0 (IQR 2.0-4.0)], lower Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (GCS)[median 8.0 (IQR 5.0-12.0) vs. 13.0 (IQR 9.0-14.0)]. The PLT-abnormal group had severe organ damage, including damage to the coagulation system, liver, and kidney (all p < 0.05). Significant differences were noted in 90-day survival between the two groups even after correction for Age, GCS, White blood cell count (WBC), Neutrophil, International normalized ratio (INR), Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), Procalcitonin (PCT), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Creatine (CR), D-Dime (D-D) (Before correction P < 0.001; After correction P = 0.009).The area under the ROC curve for the prediction of mortality based on PLT was 80.7% (95% CI 0.726-0.888, P < 0.001), the optimal cutoff value was 94, the sensitivity was 77.3%, and the specificity was 82.6%. Conclusion: Patients with heatstroke with platelet abnormalities during admission have more severe organ impairment and a lower 90-day survival rate even when adjusted for other factors.

8.
J Neuroinflammation ; 18(1): 286, 2021 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34893068

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: TREM2 is a microglial receptor genetically linked to the risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of soluble TREM2 (sTREM2) have emerged as a valuable biomarker for the disease progression in AD and higher CSF levels of sTREM2 are linked to slower cognitive decline. Increasing sTREM2 in mouse models of amyloidosis reduces amyloid-related pathology through modulating microglial functions, suggesting a beneficial role of sTREM2 in microglia biology and AD pathology. METHODS: In the current study, we performed serial C- and N-terminal truncations of sTREM2 protein to define the minimal sequence requirement for sTREM2 function. We initially assessed the impacts of sTREM2 mutants on microglial functions by measuring cell viability and inflammatory responses. The binding of the sTREM2 mutants to oligomeric Aß was determined by solid-phase protein binding assay and dot blot assay. We further evaluated the impacts of sTREM2 mutants on amyloid-related pathology by direct stereotaxic injection of sTREM2 proteins into the brain of 5xFAD mice. RESULTS: We found that both sTREM2 fragments 41-81 and 51-81 enhance cell viability and inflammatory responses in primary microglia. However, the fragment 51-81 exhibited impaired affinity to oligomeric Aß. When administrated to the 5xFAD mice brain, the sTREM2 fragment 41-81, but not 51-81, increased the number of plaque-associated microglia and reduced the plaque deposition. Interestingly, the fragment 41-81 was more efficient than the physiological form of sTREM2 in ameliorating Aß-related pathology. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the interaction of sTREM2 truncated variants with Aß is essential for enhancing microglial recruitment to the vicinity of an amyloid plaque and reducing the plaque load. Importantly, we identified a 41-amino acid sequence of sTREM2 that is sufficient for modulating microglial functions and more potent than the full-length sTREM2 in reducing the plaque load and the plaque-associated neurotoxicity. Taken together, our data provide more insights into the mechanisms underlying sTREM2 function and the minimal active sTREM2 sequence represents a promising candidate for AD therapy.

9.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2103760, 2021 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34894094

RESUMO

Realizing an energy-dense, highly rechargeable nonaqueous lithium-oxygen battery in ambient air remains a big challenge because the active materials of the typical high-capacity cathode (Li2 O2 ) and anode (Li metal) are unstable in air. Herein, a novel lithium-oxygen full cell coupling a lithium anode protected by a composite layer of polyethylene oxide (PEO)/lithium aluminum titanium phosphate (LATP)/wax to a LiOH-based cathode is constructed. The protected lithium is stable in air and water, and permits reversible, dendrite-free lithium stripping/plating in a wet nonaqueous electrolyte under ambient air. The LiOH-based full cell reaction is immune to moisture (up to 99% humidity) in air and exhibits a much better resistance to CO2 contamination than Li2 O2 , resulting in a more consistent electrochemistry in the long term. The current approach of coupling a protected lithium anode with a LiOH-based cathode holds promise for developing a long-life, high-energy lithium-air battery capable of operating in the ambient atmosphere.

10.
J Biol Chem ; : 101524, 2021 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34953860

RESUMO

RNA binding protein RBM28 (RBM28), as a nucleolar component of spliceosomal small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs), is involved in the nucleolar stress response. Whether and how RBM28 regulates tumor progression remain unclear. Here, we report that RBM28 is frequently overexpressed in various types of cancer and that its upregulation is associated with a poor prognosis. Functional and mechanistic assays revealed that RBM28 promotes the survival and growth of cancer cells by interacting with the DNA binding domain of tumor suppressor p53 to inhibit p53 transcriptional activity. Upon treatment with chemotherapeutic drugs (e.g., adriamycin), RBM28 is translocated from the nucleolus to the nucleoplasm, which is likely mediated via phosphorylation of RBM28 at Ser122 by DNA checkpoint kinases 1 and 2 (Chk1/2), indicating that RBM28 may act as a nucleolar stress sensor in response to DNA damage stress. Our findings not only reveal RBM28 as a potential biomarker and therapeutic target for cancers, but also provide mechanistic insights into how cancer cells convert stress signals into a cellular response linking the nucleolus to regulation of the tumor suppressor p53.

11.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(24)2021 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34960290

RESUMO

The high-precision characterization of the intra-pixel sensitivity (IPS) for infrared focal plane array (FPA) photodetector is of great significance to high-precision photometry and astrometry in astronomy, as well as target tracking in under-sampled remote sensing images. The discrete sub-pixel response (DSPR) model and fill factor model have been used for IPS characterization in some studies. However, these models are incomplete and lack the description of physical process of charge diffusion and capacitance coupling, leading to the inaccuracy of IPS characterization. In this paper, we propose an improved IPS characterization method based on the diffusion and coupling physical (DCP) model for infrared FPA photodetector, which considering the processes of generation and collection of the charge, can improve the accuracy of IPS characterization. The IPS model can be obtained by convolving the ideal rectangular response function with the charge diffusion function and the capacitive coupling function. Then, the IPS model is convolved with the beam spot profile to obtain the beam spot scanning response model. Finally, we calculate the parameters of IPS by fitting the beam spot scanning response map with the proposed DCP model based on the Trust-Region-Reflective algorithm. Simulated results show that when using a 3 µm beam spot to scan, the error of IPS characterization based on DCP model is 0.63%, which is better than that of DSPR model's 3.70%. Experimental results show that the fitting error of the beam spot scan response model based on DCP model is 4.29%, which is better than that of DSPR model's 8.31%.

12.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(46): 55454-55462, 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34767333

RESUMO

Oxygen evolution reaction (OER) on the anode has become one of the most widely studied electrochemical processes, which poses an important role in several energy generation technologies. In this work, we have designed and synthesized a series of metal-organic framework (MOF)-derived oxides pyrolyzed at different temperatures for efficient water oxidation in alkaline solutions. First, the barrel-shaped BMM-10 microcrystals can be conveniently synthesized under solvothermal conditions, and the hollow morphology of BMM-10-Fe with low crystallinity can be obtained through the fierce hydrolysis of Fe(III) ions. After being oxidized in air, there are only two typical phases of oxides including BMM-10-Fe-L and BMM-10-Fe-H. During electrolysis, BMM-10-Fe-L turns out to be immediately degraded into active Ni/FeOOH nanosheets with improved OER performance, while there is almost no structural and morphological change in BMM-10-Fe-H due to the structural rigidity and robust stability. Furthermore, the optimal BMM-10-Fe-H exhibits a promising electrocatalytic OER performance with a low Tafel slope of 137.4 mV dec-1, a small overpotential of 260 mV at 10 mA cm-2, and a high current retention of 93.8% after the stability test. The present work would motivate the scientific community to construct various MOF-derived nanomaterials for efficient energy storage and conversion applications.

13.
Pharmacol Res ; 175: 105992, 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34801681

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that neuropsychiatric stabilizers have a place in resolving gastrointestinal disorders. Lithium carbonate (LC) is one of the most commonly used drugs for bipolar disorder clinically. Here, we estimate the therapeutic function of LC against colitis and investigate the mechanism of intestinal flora and metabolism modulation. METHODS: A colitis model was constructed by continuously administering 2.5% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) solution daily for 7 days. Analysis of gut microbiota was carried out by 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing. Spectrum antibiotic cocktail (ABX) and faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) were employed to evaluate the protective effect of intestinal flora. Colonic Treg cells and related immune responses were detected by flow cytometry. RESULTS: LC treatment significantly alleviated colon inflammation by regulating gut microbial diversity and altering flora composition. Notably, LC treatment upregulated short-chain fatty acid (SCFA)-producing bacteria, especially Akkermansia muciniphila (A. muciniphila), and transformed metabolite SCFA profiles. LC activated anti-inflammatory Treg cell responses in colonic lamina propria (LP) in a G-protein coupled receptor 43 (GPR43)-dependent mechanism. ABX, FMT and single bacteria gavage experiments were conducted to confirm the above mechanism. CONCLUSIONS: As an intestinal microbiome and metabolite modulator, LC alleviates colon inflammation in a GPR43-dependent manner through activating Treg cell responses. Therefore, the therapeutic strategy of the microbiome-metabolite-immune axis, as observed in the A. muciniphila-SCFA-Treg cell axis in our study, might provide a new direction for the treatment of IBD.

14.
Oncogene ; 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34782718

RESUMO

Bladder cancer (BLCA) is the most common malignant tumor of the urinary system and is characterized by high metastatic rates and poor prognosis. The expression of tight junction protein 1 (TJP1) is associated with bladder cancer invasion; however, the mechanism by which TJP1 affects vasculature remodeling remains unknown. In this study, we found that TJP1 expression correlated with tumor angiogenesis and poor overall survival in clinical samples. Furthermore, TJP1 overexpression promoted tumor angiogenesis in BLCA cells and stimulated recruitment of macrophages to tumors by upregulating CCL2 expression. Mechanistically, TJP1 interacted with TWIST1 and enhanced the transcriptional activity of CCL2. The impairment of tumor angiogenesis caused by knockdown of TJP1 was dramatically rescued by overexpression of TWIST1. Furthermore, TJP1 recruited USP2, which deubiquitinated TWIST1, thereby protecting TWIST1 from proteasome-mediated protein degradation. In conclusion, our results suggest that TJP1 controls angiogenesis in BLCA via TWIST1-dependent regulation of CCL2. We demonstrate that TJP1 functions as a scaffold for the interaction between USP2 and TWIST1 and this may provide potential therapeutic targets in bladder cancer.

16.
Zhongguo Gu Shang ; 34(10): 985-90, 2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34726030

RESUMO

Osteoarthritis(OA) is one of the most common joint diseases. As Chinese society enters the age of aging, the incidence of OA has been soar year by year, and research on its pathogenesis has been continuously valued by researchers. Studies have found that inflammatory cytokines, mainly interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), were responsible for the construction of OA inflammatory networks. It was also found that the overexpression of proteases, mainly matrix metalloproteinases(MMPs) and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS), was the direct cause of OA cartilage deficiency. What's more, signaling pathways such as stromal cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and Wnt, chondrocytic senescence and the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), chondrocyte apoptosis and autophagy, and estrogen all play significant roles in OA pathogenesis. This paper extensively reviews the research literature relevant to the pathogenesis of OA in recent years, and systematically expounds the pathogenesis of OA from two aspects:molecular level and cell level. At the end of the paper, we discussed and predicted some potential directions in the future clinical diagnosis and treatment of OA.


Assuntos
Cartilagem Articular , Osteoartrite , Cartilagem , Condrócitos , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta , Osteoartrite/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
17.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 23(10): 1033-1037, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34719419

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To study the clinical features of Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP) with adenovirus (ADV) infection in children. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on the medical data of 228 children with MPP alone and 28 children with MPP and ADV infection. The two groups were compared in terms of clinical features, laboratory results, and treatment outcome. RESULTS: Compared with the MPP group, the MPP+ADV group had significantly longer duration of fever and length of hospital stay, a significantly higher proportion of patients with severe lesions (erosion and exfoliation) of the airway mucosa under bronchoscopy, a significantly higher clinical pulmonary infection score, and a significantly higher proportion of patients requiring oxygen therapy (P<0.05). There were no significant differences between the two groups in white blood cell count, C-reactive protein, Mycoplasma pneumoniae DNA copy number in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and the incidence rates of pleural effusion and extrapulmonary complications (P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with children with MPP alone, children with MPP and ADV infection tend to have more severe clinical manifestations and airway mucosal lesions and are more likely to require oxygen therapy, but most of the laboratory markers lack specificity.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenoviridae , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Criança , Humanos , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
J Mol Cell Biol ; 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34609492

RESUMO

The cyclic GMP‒AMP synthase (cGAS)‒mediator of interferon response factor 3 activation/stimulator of interferon genes (MITA/STING) axis has emerged as a major pathway, which senses microbial or mis-located cellular DNA in the cytosol to trigger innate immune responses. cGAS senses cytosolic DNA without a preference of self or non-self DNA. How the cGAS‒MITA/STING axis is inactivated upon nuclear membrane breakdown (NEBD) at mitotic entry in vertebrate cells to avoid self DNA sensing remains unclear until very recently. In this review, we summarize the recent advances on how cGAS responds to chromosomes upon NEBD and the mechanisms involved in the inactivation of the cGAS‒MITA/STING pathways in mitosis.

19.
Nat Mater ; 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34621059

RESUMO

The field of nanotribology has long suffered from the inability to directly observe what takes place at a sliding interface. Although techniques based on atomic force microscopy have identified many friction phenomena at the nanoscale, many interpretative pitfalls still result from the indirect or ex situ characterization of contacting surfaces. Here we combined in situ high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy measurements to provide direct real-time observations of atomic-scale interfacial structure during frictional processes and discovered the formation of a loosely packed interfacial layer between two metallic asperities that enabled a low friction under tensile stress. This finding is corroborated by molecular dynamic simulations. The loosely packed interfacial layer became an ordered layer at equilibrium distances under compressive stress, which led to a transition from a low-friction to a dissipative high-friction motion. This work directly unveils a unique role of atomic diffusion in the friction of metallic contacts.

20.
China CDC Wkly ; 3(26): 566-568, 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34594937

RESUMO

What is already known about this topic? The World Health Organization consolidated guidelines on recommend care for tuberculosis (TB) and support for multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) patients. But guidelines have not provided detailed guidance or tools for health services providers to implement comprehensive patient care. What is added by this report? China CDC and the United States Agency for International Development-funded Control and Prevention of MDR-TB program introduced a differentiated and personalized comprehensive and supportive care services (CSC) to improve treatment adherence. What are the implications for public health practice? The CSC model helps MDR-TB patients complete treatment and improve treatment success rates, and scaling up the program and implementation in other parts of the country is worth consideration.

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