Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 338
Filtrar
1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35005957

RESUMO

A total of 11 new (1-11) and 2 known (12 and 13) ent-kaurane diterpene derivatives were identified from the roasted beans of Coffea cultivar S288. Their structures were established by extensive spectroscopic analysis, including one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (heteronuclear single-quantum correlation, heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation, correlation spectroscopy, and rotating-frame Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy), high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, and X-ray analyses. Cafespirone acid A (1) represents the first example of diterpene featuring a spirocyclic skeleton constructed from a 6/6/5 tricyclic system. Cafeane acid A (2) possesses a 6/6/6/5 tetracyclic system as a result of the C/D ring rearrangement. Furthermore, compounds 1-12 were evaluated for their α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. The results showed that compounds 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, and 11 had a moderate inhibitory effect on α-glucosidase, and half-maximal inhibitory concentration values of compounds 4, 6, 7, and 10 were 18.76 ± 1.46, 4.88 ± 0.03, 12.35 ± 0.91, and 12.64 ± 0.59 µM, respectively, compared to the positive control acarbose (60.71 ± 16.45 µM). Additionally, the molecular docking experiments showed that the carbonyl group at C-19 of compounds 4, 6, and 7 formed strong hydrogen bonds with ARG315, which may make them have moderate inhibitory activity.

2.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 97(1): 124-133, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34996545

RESUMO

Given previous biologic evidence of immunomodulatory effects of coffee, we hypothesized that the association between coffee intake of colorectal cancer patients and survival differs by immune responses. Using a molecular pathologic epidemiology database of 4465 incident colorectal cancer cases, including 1262 cases with molecular data, in the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, we examined the association between coffee intake of colorectal cancer patients and survival in strata of levels of histopathologic lymphocytic reaction and T-cell infiltrates in tumor tissue. We did not observe a significant association of coffee intake with colorectal cancer-specific mortality (multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio [HR] for 1-cup increase of coffee intake per day, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.84 to 1.03). Although statistical significance was not reached at the stringent level (α=.005), the association of coffee intake with colorectal cancer-specific mortality differed by Crohn disease-like lymphoid reaction (Pinteraction=.007). Coffee intake was associated with lower colorectal cancer-specific mortality in patients with high Crohn disease-like reaction (multivariable HR for 1-cup increase of coffee intake per day, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.37 to 0.81; Ptrend=.002) but not in patients with intermediate Crohn disease-like reaction (the corresponding HR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.72 to 1.44) or negative/low Crohn disease-like reaction (the corresponding HR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.83 to 1.07). The associations of coffee intake with colorectal cancer-specific mortality did not significantly differ by levels of other lymphocytic reaction or any T-cell subset (Pinteraction>.18). There is suggestive evidence for differential prognostic effects of coffee intake by Crohn disease-like lymphoid reaction in colorectal cancer.

3.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 3): 131880, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426286

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Bisphenol A (BPA), a common endocrine disrupter, can be activated by cytochrome P450 (CYP) metabolizing enzymes and might influence the development of breast cancer (BC). We hypothesized that BPA could interact with CYP genes, synergistically contributing to the BC risk. METHODS: Urinary BPA was measured in a total of 302 newly diagnosed BC patients and 302 healthy controls by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry. A set of seven CYP gene polymorphisms was genotyped by using the Sequenom MassARRAY system. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the associations of BPA and BPA-SNP interaction with BC risk. RESULTS: BC patients had a higher urinary BPA concentration than healthy individuals (P < 0.001). Each 1-unit increase in log-transformed urinary BPA was associated with a 54 % increased BC risk [95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.34-1.77, P < 0.001]. Individuals with the CYP19A1 rs1902580 GA + AA genotype showed a significantly higher BC risk than those with the GG genotype (OR = 1.45, 95 % CI, 1.01-2.09, P < 0.05). A significant BPA-CYP17A1 rs743572 interaction was found to be associated with a higher risk of BC (Pinteraction = 0.020). Compared with low-BPA individuals carrying CYP17A1 rs743572 GG genotypes, high-BPA individuals with the GA + AA genotype had a higher BC risk, with an odds ratio of 2.49 (95 % CI, 1.52-4.13, P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The positive association of BPA exposure with BC risk might be modified by CYP17A1 rs743572, providing evidence for the interaction effect of environment-genes on the etiology of BC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Compostos Benzidrílicos , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Fenóis , Esteroide 17-alfa-Hidroxilase/genética
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 807(Pt 1): 150753, 2022 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619205

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bisphenols and triclosan (TCS) are common endocrine disrupters (EDCs) that may induce oxidative stress. However, there is limited information as to whether these EDCs interact with genetic variants to modify the levels of oxidative stress on a genome-wide scale. METHODS: We first performed a genome-wide scan among a Chinese population and also measured three urinary EDCs, including bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol F (BPF) and TCS, and three urinary oxidative stress markers [4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-mercapturic acid (HNE-MA), 8-iso-prostaglandin-F2α (8-isoPGF2α) and 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG)]. Subsequently, we examined interactions between three urinary EDCs and nearly 4.6 million genetic variants for three urinary oxidative stress markers by the general linear model. RESULTS: Urinary BPA, BPF and TCS were positively associated with HNE-MA, 8-isoPGF2α and 8-OHdG. Significant rs6855040 (4p15.32/between SNORA75B and QDPR)-BPA, rs1112943 (4q35.1/SNX25)-TCS interactions were associated with the 8-isoPGF2α levels (all P < 5 × 10-8). In addition, rs4656116 (1p22.3/CACL1), rs16958760 (17p11.2/between USP43 and DHRS7C) and rs11651078 (17p11.2/LOC339260) showed significant gene-TCS interactions with 8-OHdG (all P < 5 × 10-8). The gene-level analysis found significant interaction between SNX25 and TCS for 8-isoPGF2α levels (P < 2.12 × 10-6). CONCLUSION: Our results identify several gene-EDCs interactions for oxidative stress, highlighting that EDCs may modify the effect of genetic variants on oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Triclosan , 8-Hidroxi-2'-Desoxiguanosina , Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Biomarcadores , Estresse Oxidativo , Fenóis , Triclosan/toxicidade
5.
JAMA Oncol ; 2021 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34854871

RESUMO

Importance: Immune regulation is important for carcinogenesis; however, the cancer risk profiles associated with immune-mediated diseases need further characterization. Objective: To assess the prospective association of 48 immune-mediated diseases with the risk of total and individual cancers and the prospective association of organ-specific immune-mediated diseases with the risk of local and extralocal cancers. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study used data from the UK Biobank cohort study on adults aged 37 to 73 years who were recruited at 22 assessment centers throughout the UK between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2010, with follow-up through February 28, 2019. Exposures: Immune-mediated diseases. Main Outcomes and Measures: The association of immune-mediated diseases with risk of cancer was assessed with multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs after adjusting for various potential confounders using time-varying Cox proportional hazards regression. Heterogeneity in the associations of organ-specific immune-mediated diseases with local and extralocal cancers was assessed using the contrast test method. Results: A total of 478 753 participants (mean [SD] age, 56.4 [8.1] years; 54% female) were included in the study. During 4 600 460 person-years of follow-up, a total of 2834 cases of cancer were documented in 61 496 patients with immune-mediated diseases and 26 817 cases of cancer in 417 257 patients without any immune-mediated diseases (multivariable HR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.04-1.12). Five of the organ-specific immune-mediated diseases were significantly associated with higher risk of local but not extralocal cancers: asthma (HR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.14-1.56), celiac disease (HR, 6.89; 95% CI, 2.18-21.75), idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (HR, 6.94; 95% CI, 3.94-12.25), primary biliary cholangitis (HR, 42.12; 95% CI, 20.76-85.44), and autoimmune hepatitis (HR, 21.26; 95% CI, 6.79-66.61) (P < .002 for heterogeneity). Nine immune-mediated diseases were associated with an increased risk of cancers in the involved organs (eg, asthma with lung cancer [HR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.14-1.57; P < .001] and celiac disease with small intestine cancer [HR, 6.89; 95% CI, 2.18-21.75; P = .001]); 13 immune-mediated diseases were associated with an increased risk of cancer in the near organs (eg, Crohn disease with liver cancer: [HR, 4.01; 95% CI, 1.65-9.72; P = .002]) or distant organs (eg, autoimmune hepatitis with tongue cancer [HR, 27.75; 95% CI, 3.82-199.91; P = .001]) or in different systems (eg, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura with liver cancer [HR, 11.96; 95% CI, 3.82-37.42; P < .001]). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, immune-mediated diseases were associated with an increased risk of total cancer. Organ-specific immune-mediated diseases had stronger associations with risk of local cancers than extralocal cancers. The associations for individual immune-mediated diseases were largely organ specific but were also observed for some cancers in the near and distant organs or different systems. Our findings support the role of local and systemic immunoregulation in cancer development.

6.
Org Lett ; 2021 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34860022

RESUMO

A TfOH-promoted synthesis of fluorinated polyfused heterocycles via the cascade cyclization of azadienes and difluoroenoxysilanes has been developed, leading to the facile construction of fluorinated benzofuro[3,2-b]pyridines, 5H-indeno[1,2-b]pyridines, and 5,6-dihydrobenzo[h]quinolines. This one-pot formal [4 + 2] approach involves 1,4-difluoroalkylation, desulfonylation, cyclization, and dehydrated and dehydrofluorinated aromatization and represents the first application of difluoroenoxysilane in cascade transformations. Furthermore, this methodology is highlighted by the synthesis of three fluoro analogues of bioactive molecules with potent topoisomerase inhibitory activities.

7.
Cancer Immunol Res ; 2021 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34937729

RESUMO

Although tumor-infiltrating T cells hold a beneficial prognostic role in colorectal cancer, other lymphocytic populations are less characterized. We developed a multiplexed immunofluorescence assay coupled with digital image analysis and machine learning to identify natural killer (NK) cells (NCAM1+CD3-), natural killer T-like (NKT-like) cells (NCAM1+CD3+), and T cells (NCAM1-CD3+) within the PTPRC+ (CD45+) cell population and to measure their granzyme B (GZMB; cytotoxicity marker) and FCGR3A (CD16a; NK-cell maturity marker) expression. We evaluated immune cell densities and spatial configuration in 907 incident colorectal carcinoma cases within two prospective cohort studies. We found that T cells were approximately 100 times more abundant than NK and NKT-like cells. Overall, NK cells showed high GZMB expression and were located closer to tumor cells than T and NKT-like cells. In T and NKT-like cells, GZMB expression was enriched in cells in closer proximity to tumor cells. Higher densities of both T and NKT-like cells associated with longer cancer-specific survival, independent of potential confounders (P trend < 0.0007). Higher stromal GZMB+ and FCGR3A+ NK-cell densities associated with longer cancer-specific survival (P trend < 0.003). For T and NKT-like cells, greater proximity to tumor cells associated with longer cancer-specific survival (P trend < 0.0001). These findings indicate that cytotoxic NCAM1+CD3-GZMB+ NK cells and NCAM1+CD3+ NKT-like cells are relatively rare lymphocytic populations within the colorectal cancer microenvironment and show distinct spatial configuration and associations with patient outcome. The results highlight the utility of a quantitative multimarker assay for in situ, single-cell immune biomarker evaluation and underscore the importance of spatial context for tumor microenvironment characterization.

8.
Genet Med ; 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34906466

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Adducins interconnect spectrin and actin filaments to form polygonal scaffolds beneath the cell membranes and form ring-like structures in neuronal axons. Adducins regulate mouse neural development, but their function in the human brain is unknown. METHODS: We used exome sequencing to uncover ADD1 variants associated with intellectual disability (ID) and brain malformations. We studied ADD1 splice isoforms in mouse and human neocortex development with RNA sequencing, super resolution imaging, and immunoblotting. We investigated 4 variant ADD1 proteins and heterozygous ADD1 cells for protein expression and ADD1-ADD2 dimerization. We studied Add1 functions in vivo using Add1 knockout mice. RESULTS: We uncovered loss-of-function ADD1 variants in 4 unrelated individuals affected by ID and/or structural brain defects. Three additional de novo copy number variations covering the ADD1 locus were associated with ID and brain malformations. ADD1 is highly expressed in the neocortex and the corpus callosum, whereas ADD1 splice isoforms are dynamically expressed between cortical progenitors and postmitotic neurons. Human variants impair ADD1 protein expression and/or dimerization with ADD2. Add1 knockout mice recapitulate corpus callosum dysgenesis and ventriculomegaly phenotypes. CONCLUSION: Our human and mouse genetics results indicate that pathogenic ADD1 variants cause corpus callosum dysgenesis, ventriculomegaly, and/or ID.

9.
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue ; 27(5): 403-409, 2021 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34914314

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the central sensitization mechanism of pain in chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS). METHODS: We randomly divided 40 adult male SPF SD rats, aged 3-4 weeks and weighing 250-350 g, into a normal control and a CP/CPPS model group. After modeling, we analyzed the state of infiltration of CD4+T cells into the L5-S2 spinal cord and detected the expression levels of GFAP and CR3 in the spinal cord tissue using flow cytometry, real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and immunofluorescence staining. RESULTS: Compared with the normal controls, the CP/CPPS model rats showed dramatically increased expression of CD4+T cells in the mononuclear cells of the L5-S2 spinal cord tissue (P < 0.01), mRNA expressions of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) secreted from the Th1 cells, interleukin (IL)-17 and retinoic acid-associated orphan receptor (ROR) γt secreted from the Th17 cells, cytokines IL-6 and IL-1ß, and chemokines CCL2, CCL20 and CXCL10 (P < 0.01), and expressions of the molecular markers of Th1 and Th17 cells IFN-γ and IL-17 and those of astrocytes and microglias GFAP and CR3. CONCLUSIONS: CD4+T cells, specifically Th1 and Th17 cells, infiltrate L5-S2 spinal cord neurons in CP/CPPS model rats. The inflammatory factors secreted from these cells may damage the neuronal cells, affect nervous conduction, promote central sensitization and activate astrocytes and microglias, leading to the development and progression of pain.


Assuntos
Sensibilização do Sistema Nervoso Central , Células Th17 , Animais , Masculino , Dor Pélvica , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Medula Espinal
10.
Int J Gen Med ; 14: 9671-9679, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34934344

RESUMO

Aim: The aim of the present study was to identify the association between tumor grade and liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS)-related genes, and to generate a LLPS-related gene-based risk index (LLPSRI) as a prognostic tool for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: Weighted gene correlation network analysis was performed to test whether the LLPS-related gene modules were associated with tumor grade of HCC. The candidate modules were subjected to functional enrichment analysis. We generated a LLPSRI using the expression profiles of the hub genes among the candidate modules in order to identify patients at high risk. Then, the biological characteristics of the high-risk patients were revealed using gene set enrichment analysis. Additionally, an independent external data set was used to validate the LLPSRI. Results: Four gene modules showed a significant positive correlation with tumor grade and involved various cancer-related pathways. Among the hub genes, six were selected to generate the LLPSRI, which was significantly associated with prognosis of HCC patients. The LLPSRI could successfully divide patients with HCC into high- and low-risk groups, and patients in the high-risk group showed shorter overall survival than those in the low-risk group. E2F, MYC, and mTORC1 signaling may be important determinants of survival in the high-risk group. The prognostic value of the LLPSRI was validated with the independent external data set. Conclusion: We identified LLPS-related gene modules that are associated with HCC tumor grade. The LLPSRI may be useful as a prognostic marker of HCC, and it may reliably stratify patients into groups at low or high risk of worse survival. Our analysis also suggests that certain biological characteristics of HCC may be associated with high risk of worse survival.

11.
Breast Cancer ; 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635981

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: FOXA1 is a pioneer transcription factor which has been established as a carcinogenic factor and can regulate the expression of downstream target genes in breast cancer. We hypothesized that genetic variants modulating FOXA1 expression might play a role in the risk of breast cancer. METHODS: Physical interaction predicted by PreSTIGE analysis and CHIA-PET data integration with cis-expression quantitative trait loci (cis-eQTL) based SNP-FOXA1 analysis were used to identify potentially regulatory variants modulating the expression of FOXA1. Then, we utilized a case-control study consisting of 855 new diagnosed breast cancer cases and 920 controls in the Chinese population to identify breast cancer associated variants. Biological assays were conducted in breast cancer cell lines to illustrate the effects of associated variants on breast cancer risk. RESULTS: We identified that rs7160774 G > A variant was associated with lower risk of breast cancer (OR = 0.77, 95% confidence interval = 0.62-0.96, P = 0.022). Biological experiments indicated that rs7160774[A] allele down-regulated the expression of FOXA1 compared to the G allele by influencing transcription factor binding affinity, thus playing an important role in the development of breast cancer. CONCLUSION: Our study suggested that the regulatory variant rs7160774 was associated with risk of breast cancer by long-range modulating FOXA1 expression and provided critical insights into pinpoint causal genetic variants.

12.
Carcinogenesis ; 42(11): 1347-1356, 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34665859

RESUMO

Substantial evidence highlighted the critical role of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA) in driving hepatocarcinogenesis. We hypothesized that functional variants in genome-wide association studies (GWASs) associated loci might alter the expression levels of lncRNAs and contribute to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we prioritized potentially cis-expression quantitative trait loci-based single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-lncRNA association together with the physical interaction by the analyses from Hi-C data in GWAS loci of chronic hepatitis B and HCC. Subsequently, by leveraging two-stage case-control study (1738 hepatitis B [HBV]) related HCC cases and 1988 HBV persistent carriers) and biological assays, we identified that rs2647046 was significantly associated with HCC risk (odds ratio = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.11 to 1.43, P = 4.14 × 10-4). Luciferase reporter assays and electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that rs2647046 A allele significantly increased transcriptional activity via influencing transcript factor binding affinity. Allele-specific chromosome conformation capture assays revealed that enhancer with rs2647046 interacted with the HLA-DQB1-AS1 promoter to allele-specifically influence its expression by CTCF-mediated long-range loop. Cell proliferation assays indicated that HLA-DQB1-AS1 is a potential oncogene in HCC. Our study showed HLA-DQB1-AS1 regulated by a causal SNP in a long-range interaction manner conferred the susceptibility to HCC, suggesting an important mechanism of modulating lncRNA expression for risk-associated SNPs in the etiology of HCC.

13.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34551433

RESUMO

Enhancer RNAs (eRNAs) are a class of non-coding RNAs transcribed from enhancers. As the markers of active enhancers, eRNAs play important roles in gene regulation and are associated with various complex traits and characteristics. With increasing attention to eRNAs, numerous eRNAs have been identified in different human tissues. However, the expression landscape, regulatory network and potential functions of eRNAs in animals have not been fully elucidated. Here, we systematically characterized 185 177 eRNAs from 5085 samples across 10 species by mapping the RNA sequencing data to the regions of known enhancers. To explore their potential functions based on evolutionary conservation, we investigated the sequence similarity of eRNAs among multiple species. In addition, we identified the possible associations between eRNAs and transcription factors (TFs) or nearby genes to decipher their possible regulators and target genes, as well as characterized trait-related eRNAs to explore their potential functions in biological processes. Based on these findings, we further developed Animal-eRNAdb (http://gong_lab.hzau.edu.cn/Animal-eRNAdb/), a user-friendly database for data searching, browsing and downloading. With the comprehensive characterization of eRNAs in various tissues of different species, Animal-eRNAdb may greatly facilitate the exploration of functions and mechanisms of eRNAs.

14.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(18)2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34576487

RESUMO

A trifunctional photoinitiator based on commercial photoinitiators 2-hydroxy-2-methylpropiophenone (Irgacure1173) and 2-hydroxy-4'-(2-hydroxyethoxy)-2-methylpropiophenone (Irgacure2959) was synthesized by an esterization reaction. Its structure was characterized by UV-Vis spectrometry, Infrared Transformed Fourier, Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectra, 13 Carbon Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectra, Mass Spectrometry, and Thermogravimetry. In addition, its photoinitiating activity was investigated. The results showed that the novel photoinitiator had good photoinitiating activity and thermal stability compared to commercial photoinitiators. The migration of the residual photoinitiator in the cured film was lower than that of 1173 and 2959.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34529108

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite heightened interest in early-onset colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosed before age 50, little is known on immune cell profiles of early-onset CRC. It also remains to be studied whether CRCs diagnosed at or shortly after age 50 are similar to early-onset CRC. We therefore hypothesized that immune cell infiltrates in CRC tissue might show differential heterogeneity patterns between three age groups (< 50 "early onset," 50-54 "intermediate onset," ≥ 55 "later onset"). METHODS: We examined 1,518 incident CRC cases with available tissue data, including 35 early-onset and 73 intermediate-onset cases. To identify immune cells in tumor intraepithelial and stromal areas, we developed three multiplexed immunofluorescence assays combined with digital image analyses and machine learning algorithms, with the following markers: (1) CD3, CD4, CD8, CD45RO (PTPRC), and FOXP3 for T cells; (2) CD68, CD86, IRF5, MAF, and MRC1 (CD206) for macrophages; and (3) ARG1, CD14, CD15, CD33, and HLA-DR for myeloid cells. RESULTS: Although no comparisons between age groups showed statistically significant differences at the stringent two-sided α level of 0.005, compared to later-onset CRC, early-onset CRC tended to show lower levels of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (P = 0.013), intratumoral periglandular reaction (P = 0.025), and peritumoral lymphocytic reaction (P = 0.044). Compared to later-onset CRC, intermediate-onset CRC tended to show lower densities of overall macrophages (P = 0.050), M1-like macrophages (P = 0.062), CD14+HLA-DR+ cells (P = 0.015), and CD3+CD4+FOXP3+ cells (P = 0.039). CONCLUSIONS: This hypothesis-generating study suggests possible differences in histopathologic lymphocytic reaction patterns, macrophages, and regulatory T cells in the tumor microenvironment by age at diagnosis.

16.
Environ Pollut ; 290: 118077, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523522

RESUMO

Humans are extensively exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) daily via multiple pathways. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that occupational exposure to PAHs increases the risk of lung cancer, but related studies in the general population are limited. Hence, we conducted a case-control study among the Chinese general population to investigate the associations between PAHs exposure and lung cancer risk and analyze the modifications of genetic polymorphisms in DNA repair genes. In this study, we enrolled 122 lung cancer cases and 244 healthy controls in Wuhan, China. Urinary PAHs metabolites were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and rs25487 in X-ray repair cross-complementation 1 (XRCC1) gene was genotyped by the Agena Bioscience MassARRAY System. Then, multivariable logistic regression models were performed to estimate the potential associations. We found that urinary hydroxynaphthalene (OH-Nap), hydroxyphenanthrene (OH-Phe) and the sum of hydroxy PAHs (∑OH-PAHs) levels were significantly higher in lung cancer cases than those in controls. After adjusting for gender, age, BMI, smoking status, smoking pack-years, drinking status and family history, urinary ∑OH-Nap and ∑OH-Phe levels were positively associated with lung cancer risk, with dose-response relationships. Compared with those in the lowest tertiles, individuals in the highest tertiles of ∑OH-Nap and ∑OH-Phe had a 2.13-fold (95% CI: 1.10, 4.09) and 2.45-fold (95% CI: 1.23, 4.87) increased risk of lung cancer, respectively. Effects of gender, age, smoking status and smoking pack-years on the associations of PAHs exposure with lung cancer risk were shown in the subgroup analysis. Furthermore, associations of urinary ∑OH-Nap and ∑OH-PAHs levels with lung cancer risk were modified by XRCC1 rs25487 (Pinteraction ≤ 0.025), and were more pronounced in wild-types of rs25487. These findings suggest that environmental exposure to naphthalene and phenanthrene is associated with increased lung cancer risk, and polymorphism of XRCC1 rs25487 might modify the naphthalene exposure-related lung cancer effect.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Biomarcadores , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Raios X , Proteína 1 Complementadora Cruzada de Reparo de Raio-X
17.
Oncoimmunology ; 10(1): 1956173, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34377593

RESUMO

Immunotherapy targeting the CD274 (PD-L1)/PDCD1 (PD-1) immune checkpoint axis has emerged as a promising treatment strategy for various cancers. Experimental evidence suggests that phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphonate 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling may upregulate CD274 expression. Thus, we hypothesized that PIK3CA mutation, PTEN loss, or their combined status might be associated with CD274 overexpression in colorectal carcinoma. We assessed tumor CD274 and PTEN expression by immunohistochemistry and assessed PIK3CA mutation by pyrosequencing in 753 patients among 4,465 incident rectal and colon cancer cases that had occurred in two U.S.-wide prospective cohort studies. To adjust for potential confounders and selection bias due to tissue availability, inverse probability weighted multivariable ordinal logistic regression analyses used the 4,465 cases and tumoral data including microsatellite instability, CpG island methylator phenotype, KRAS and BRAF mutations. PIK3CA mutation and loss of PTEN expression were detected in 111 of 753 cases (15%) and 342 of 585 cases (58%), respectively. Tumor CD274 expression was negative in 306 (41%), low in 195 (26%), and high in 252 (33%) of 753 cases. PTEN loss was associated with CD274 overexpression [multivariable odds ratio (OR) 1.83; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.22-2.75; P = .004]. PIK3CA mutation was statistically-insignificantly (P = .036 with the stringent alpha level of 0.005) associated with CD274 overexpression (multivariable OR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.03-2.31). PIK3CA-mutated PTEN-lost tumors (n = 33) showed higher prevalence of CD274-positivity (82%) than PIK3CA-wild-type PTEN-lost tumors (n = 204; 70% CD274-positivity) and PTEN-expressed tumors (n = 147; 50% CD274-positivity) (P = .003). Our findings support the role of PI3K signaling in the CD274/PDCD1 pathway.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1 , Neoplasias Colorretais , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Humanos , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Estudos Prospectivos
18.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443501

RESUMO

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of aqueous extracts of unroasted and roasted coffee silverskin (CS). Twenty compounds were identified from 1D and 2D NMR spectra, including caffeine, chlorogenic acid (CGA), trigonelline, fructose, glucose, sucrose, etc. For the first time, the presence of trigonelline was detected in CS. Results of the quantitative analysis showed that the total amount of the main components after roasting was reduced by 45.6% compared with values before roasting. Sugars in the water extracts were the main components in CS, and fructose was the most abundant sugar, its relative content accounting for 38.7% and 38.4% in unroasted and roasted CS, respectively. Moreover, 1D NMR combined with 2D NMR technology shows application prospects in the rapid, non-destructive detection of CS. In addition, it was observed by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) that the morphology of CS changed obviously before and after roasting.


Assuntos
Café/anatomia & histologia , Café/química , Alcaloides/análise , Alcaloides/química , Hidroxibenzoatos/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Açúcares/química
19.
Clin Transl Gastroenterol ; 12(8): e00338, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333506

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We recently described the sulfur microbial diet, a pattern of intake associated with increased gut sulfur-metabolizing bacteria and incidence of distal colorectal cancer (CRC). We assessed whether this risk differed by CRC molecular subtypes or presence of intratumoral microbes involved in CRC pathogenesis (Fusobacterium nucleatum and Bifidobacterium spp.). METHODS: We performed Cox proportional hazards modeling to examine the association between the sulfur microbial diet and incidence of overall and distal CRC by molecular and microbial subtype in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1986-2012). RESULTS: We documented 1,264 incident CRC cases among 48,246 men, approximately 40% of whom had available tissue data. After accounting for multiple hypothesis testing, the relationship between the sulfur microbial diet and CRC incidence did not differ by subtype. However, there was a suggestion of an association by prostaglandin synthase 2 (PTGS2) status with a multivariable adjusted hazard ratio for highest vs lowest tertile of sulfur microbial diet scores of 1.31 (95% confidence interval: 0.99-1.74, Ptrend = 0.07, Pheterogeneity = 0.04) for PTGS2-high CRC. The association of the sulfur microbial diet with distal CRC seemed to differ by the presence of intratumoral Bifidobacterium spp. with an adjusted hazard ratio for highest vs lowest tertile of sulfur microbial diet scores of 1.65 (95% confidence interval: 1.14-2.39, Ptrend = 0.01, Pheterogeneity = 0.03) for Bifidobacterium-negative distal CRC. We observed no apparent heterogeneity by other tested molecular markers. DISCUSSION: Greater long-term adherence to the sulfur microbial diet could be associated with PTGS2-high and Bifidobacterium-negative distal CRC in men. Additional studies are needed to further characterize the role of gut microbial sulfur metabolism and CRC.

20.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264325

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biological evidence indicates that smoking can influence macrophage functions and polarization, thereby promoting tumor evolution. We hypothesized that the association of smoking with colorectal cancer incidence might differ by macrophage infiltrates. METHODS: Utilizing the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, we examined the association of smoking with incidence of colorectal cancer subclassified by macrophage counts. Multiplexed immunofluorescence [for CD68, CD86, IRF5, MAF, and MRC1 (CD206)] combined with digital image analysis and machine learning was used to identify overall, M1-polarized, and M2-polarized macrophages in tumor. We used inverse-probability-weighted multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models to control for potential confounders and selection bias due to tissue data availability. All statistical tests were 2-sided. RESULTS: During follow-up of 131,144 participants (3,648,370 person-years), we documented 3,092 incident colorectal cancer cases including 871 cases with available macrophage data. The association of pack-years smoked with colorectal cancer incidence differed by stromal macrophage densities (Pheterogeneity=.003). Compared to never smoking, multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for tumors with low macrophage densities were 1.32 (0.97 to 1.79) for 1-19 pack-years, 1.31 (0.92 to 1.85) for 20-39 pack-years, and 1.74 (1.26 to 2.41) for ≥40 pack-years (Ptrend=.004). In contrast, pack-years smoked were not statistically significantly associated with the incidence of tumors having intermediate or high macrophage densities (Ptrend>.009, with the α level of 0.005). No statistically significant differential association was found for colorectal cancer subclassified by M1-like or M2-like macrophages. CONCLUSIONS: The association of smoking with colorectal cancer incidence is stronger for tumors with lower stromal macrophage counts. Our findings suggest an interplay of smoking and macrophages in colorectal carcinogenesis.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...