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1.
J Adv Res ; 35: 153-168, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35003799

RESUMO

Introduction: Colonic urea-nitrogen metabolites have been implicated in the pathogenesis of certain diseases which can be affected by environmental factors. Objectives: We aimed to explore the influence of ambient humidity on colonic urea-nitrogen metabolism. Methods: Blood biochemical indexes, metabolites of intestinal tract, and gut microbiota composition of mice (n = 10/group) exposed to high relative humidity (RH, 90 ± 2%) were analyzed during the 14-day exposure. Results: After 12-h exposure, plasma blood urea nitrogen (BUN) level increased along with a decrease in the activity of erythrocyte Na+/K+ -ATPase. Moreover, abnormal erythrocyte morphologies appeared after 3 days of exposure. The colonic BUN and ammonia levels increased significantly after the 12-h and 24-h exposure, respectively. The colonic level of amino acids, partly synthesized by gut microbiota using ammonia as the nitrogen source, was significantly higher on the 7th day. Furthermore, the level of fecal short-chain fatty acids was significantly higher after 3-day exposure and the level of branched-chain fatty acids increased on the 14th day. Overall, gut microbiota composition was continuously altered during exposure, facilitating the preferential proliferation of urea-nitrogen metabolism bacteria. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that short-term high RH exposure influences colonic urea-nitrogen metabolism by increasing the influx of colonic urea and altering gut microbiota, which might further impact the host health outcomes.

2.
Food Chem ; 370: 131069, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536780

RESUMO

Wholegrains have been promoted for human consumption due to their various health benefits. However, different wholegrains vary in nutritional composition and their beneficial impact on health. In this study, we compared the in vitro starch and protein digestibility, as well as dietary fiber content of eight different wholegrains including barley, buckwheat, coix seed, foxtail millet, oat, proso millet, quinoa, and sorghum and their porridges. We found that boiling improved starch digestibility of all grains, and protein digestibility except proso millet and sorghum. Porridges made from oats, quinoa, or buckwheat are considered healthier than others due to their lower glycemic index and glycemic load, higher digestible protein content and amino acid bioaccessibility, and higher dietary fiber content (>12%). This study could provide a comprehensive nutritional composition and digestibility of the eight types of wholegrains and their porridges. Dietary recommendations were also given for different populations based on factor analysis.


Assuntos
Dieta , Digestão , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Grão Comestível/química , Humanos , Amido
3.
Food Funct ; 12(16): 7343-7357, 2021 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34180493

RESUMO

Fructans such as fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) and inulin have been reported to directly regulate ileal inflammatory responses in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemic mice, without alterations in the colonic microbiota. Firstly, we replicated this model and found that a single gavage of 10 mg g-1 of fructans directly promoted caecal acetate and propionate production. Thus, the previous understanding of microbiota-independent effects of prebiotic fructans in endotoxemic mice has been challenged. In parallel, we performed a daily gavage of 160 mg kg-1 of inulin, xylan, or Dendrobium officinale polysaccharides (DOP) for two weeks prior to LPS injection. The long-term intake of prebiotic fibres reduced the bacterial load in the spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs), and in comparison, a single gavage of fructans increased that. However, the long-term intake was unable to improve the short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) synthesis and epithelial barrier function that were impaired by LPS. Notably, the three fibre types consistently reduced the expression of mucin 2 (MUC2) and variously modulated critical mediators (IL-18, IL-22, and HIF-1α) to regulate the host-commensal microbiota interactions in the ileum. In addition, the three fibre types consistently inhibited the inflammatory T helper (Th) cell response in the ileum, while they diversely modulated the peripheral and systemic Th cell responses. Overall, the prebiotic fibres displayed microbiota-related changes in endotoxemic mice, and the potential associations with the in vivo anti-inflammatory effects of prebiotic fibres need further investigation.

4.
Food Chem ; 358: 129819, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933974

RESUMO

The formation mechanism of furan has been studied extensively in model systems, however, furan formation in real foods are complex and far from being fully understood. In this study, the effects of acid-regulating agent (citric acid), sugar addition (glucose, fructose and sucrose) and thickening agents (xanthan gum, κ-carrageenan and pectin) on furan levels in strawberry jams were studied; meanwhile the formation pathway of furan in canned strawberry jam was proposed by carbon module labeling (CAMOLA) technique. Our results suggested low pH promoted furan formation in strawberry jam. Besides, fructose produces more furans than sucrose and glucose, and the addition of xanthan gum reduced furan levels significantly. The kinetic data showed that ascorbic and dehydroascorbic acid degradation followed first-order kinetics while rate of furan formation followed zero-order kinetics. This study presented the possibility of mitigating furan formation in canned strawberry jams by optimization of processing parameters and addition of xanthan gum.


Assuntos
Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos/métodos , Fragaria/química , Furanos/química , Carragenina/química , Ácido Cítrico/química , Ácido Desidroascórbico/química , Frutose/química , Frutas/química , Glucose/química , Cinética , Pectinas/química , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/química , Sacarose/química
5.
Food Chem ; 314: 126037, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954941

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the effect of fermentation with Lactobacillus plantarum NCU137 on the nutritional, sensory and stability properties of Coix (Coix lachryma-jobi L.) seed. The nutritional compounds, including free amino acid, free fatty acid, soluble dietary fiber and organic acids of fermented coix seed were significantly (p < 0.05) increased than those of non-fermented coix seed. The fermented coix seed exhibiting a special flavor, due to the production of acids, the decreased level of aldehydes and ketones, and the increased level of alcohols in the volatile compounds, whereas the amount of hazardous substance 2-pentylfuran was reduced and natural antiseptic hexanoic acid was produced. The increased viscosity together with the larger particle size and the reduced absolute ζ potential contribute to the stability of the fermented coix seed paste system. Therefore, fermentation with L. plantarum NCU137 could improve the nutritional, sensory and stability properties of coix seed.


Assuntos
Coix/química , Coix/microbiologia , Lactobacillus plantarum/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/microbiologia , Álcoois/análise , Álcoois/metabolismo , Aldeídos/análise , Aldeídos/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/análise , Coix/metabolismo , Fermentação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Furanos/metabolismo , Cetonas/análise , Cetonas/metabolismo , Valor Nutritivo , Sementes/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis
6.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 135: 110937, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682932

RESUMO

Large prospective cohort studies suggested an important role of cereal insoluble fiber in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes, which challenge the traditional view that viscosity and solubility are the main driving factors for these beneficial effects of dietary fiber. To evaluate the anti-diabetic effects of insoluble- (BIF) and soluble fibers (BSF) enzymatically isolated from barley, a conventional rat model and a type 2 diabetes rat model were used. Our results showed that 4-week treatment of BIF or BSF effectively reduced FBG in the diabetic condition, with caecal level of propionic acid and minor SCFAs increased by BIF and that of butyric acid and insulin sensitivity improved by BSF, respectively. The two treatments further ameliorated liver function, judged by the recovered serum level of ALT, albumin and total protein levels. BIF and BSF also increased HDL-C and decreased serum MDA. In normal rats, BIF and BSF showed a hypolipidaemic effect in triglycerides and LDL-C, reduced body weight and enhanced the caecal production of minor SCFAs. Furthermore, the two treatments reduced the caecal level of butyric acid while BSF increased that of propionic acid. In conclusion, BIF could exert anti-diabetic effects that might via a different mechanism from BSF.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Hordeum/química , Fígado/metabolismo , Animais , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Ceco/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/sangue , Ratos Wistar , Solubilidade
7.
Food Res Int ; 123: 403-413, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284992

RESUMO

The effect of unsaturated free fatty acids (FFAs) and triglycerides (TGs) on the formation of acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) at frying temperature was investigated. We hypothesized that the nature of the precursors generated by the Maillard reaction in the presence of FFAs and TGs, such as the Amadori product and α-dicarbonyl compounds, would impact acrylamide and HMF formation. Interestingly, the initial pH of the aqueous phase impairs the observed effect of the addition of lipids on the formation of acrylamide. Addition of FFAs and TGs increased acrylamide formation in non-buffered systems (distilled water, pH 4.6), but decreased it in buffered systems (sodium acetate, pH 6.0). Conversely, incorporation of these lipids promoted HMF formation under both conditions. The degree of fatty acid unsaturation played an important role in the formation of acrylamide and HMF. The effect of unsaturated lipids on the acrylamide and HMF was due to lipid oxidation. Statistical correlations were made between acrylamide and HMF formation and α-dicarbonyl compounds in the presence of unsaturated lipids.


Assuntos
Acrilamida/química , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/química , Furaldeído/análogos & derivados , Temperatura Alta , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Manipulação de Alimentos , Furaldeído/química , Reação de Maillard , Modelos Teóricos , Oxirredução , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
8.
J Biol Chem ; 294(3): 932-940, 2019 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30504219

RESUMO

The liver and pancreas are two major digestive organs, and among the different cell types in them, hepatocytes and the insulin-producing ß cells have roles in both health and diseases. Accordingly, clinicians and researchers are very interested in the mechanisms underlying the development and regeneration of liver and pancreatic ß cells. Gene and enhancer traps such as the Tol2 transposon-based system are useful for identifying genes potentially involved in developmental processes in the zebrafish model. Here, we developed a strategy that combines a Tol2-mediated enhancer trap and the Cre/loxP system by using loxP-flanked reporters driven by ß cell- or hepatocyte-specific promoters and the upstream activating sequence (UAS)-driving Cre. Two double-transgenic reporter lines, Tg(ins:loxP-CFPNTR-loxP-DsRed; 10×UAS:Cre, cryaa:Venus) and Tg(fabp10:loxP-CFPNTR-loxP-DsRed; 10×UAS:Cre, cryaa:Venus), were established to label pancreatic ß cells and hepatocytes, respectively. These two double-transgenic lines were each crossed with the Tol2-enhancer trap founder lines to screen for and identify genes expressed in the ß cell and hepatocytes during development. This trap system coupled with application of nitroreductase (NTR)/metronidazole (Mtz)-mediated cell ablation could identify genes expressed during regeneration. Of note, pilot enhancer traps captured transiently and weakly expressed genes such as rab3da and ensab with higher efficiencies than traditional enhancer trap systems. In conclusion, through permanent genetic labeling by Cre/loxP, this improved Tol2-mediated enhancer trap system provides a promising method to identify transiently or weakly expressed, but potentially important, genes during development and regeneration.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Fígado/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Peixe-Zebra/crescimento & desenvolvimento
9.
J Nutr Biochem ; 53: 104-110, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29202273

RESUMO

Diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance have been linked to changes in bile acid (BA) profiles, which in turn are highly dependent on the dietary composition and activity of the gut microbiota. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether the type and level of fiber had an effect on cecal BA composition when included in low- and high-fat diets. Groups of rats were fed two barley varieties, which resulted in three test diets containing three levels of ß-glucans and two levels of dietary fiber. BAs were preconcentrated using hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction and quantified by gas chromatography. The amount of the secondary BAs, lithocholic-, deoxycholic- and hyodexycholic acids was generally higher in groups fed high-fat diets compared with corresponding acids in groups fed low-fat diets (P<.05). In contrast, most of the primary and the secondary BAs, ursodeoxycholic acid and ß- and ω-muricholic acids, were two to five times higher (P<.05) in groups fed low-fat diets than in groups fed high-fat diets. This was particularly true for groups fed the highest level of ß-glucans and in some cases also the medium level. The BA profile in the gut was strongly dependent on the amount and type of dietary fiber in the diet, which may be useful in the prevention/treatment of diseases associated with changes in BA profiles.


Assuntos
Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Ceco/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Hordeum , beta-Glucanas/farmacologia , Animais , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/análise , Ceco/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Hordeum/química , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Ratos Wistar , beta-Glucanas/análise
10.
Food Funct ; 6(9): 3165-76, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26227569

RESUMO

Barley malt, a product of controlled germination, has been shown to produce high levels of butyric acid in the cecum and portal serum of rats and may therefore have anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of the study was to investigate how four barley malts, caramelized and colored malts, 50-malt and 350-malt, differing in functional characteristics concerning beta-glucan content and color, affect short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), barrier function and inflammation in the hindgut of rats fed high-fat diets. Male Wistar rats were given malt-supplemented high-fat diets for four weeks. Low and high-fat diets containing microcrystalline cellulose were incorporated as controls. All diets contained 70 g kg(-1) dietary fiber. The malt-fed groups were found to have had induced higher amounts of butyric and propionic acids in the hindgut and portal serum compared with controls, while cecal succinic acid only increased to a small extent. Fat increased the mRNA expression of tight junction proteins and Toll-like receptors (TLR) in the small intestine and distal colon of the rats, as well as the concentration of some amino acids in the portal plasma, but malt seemed to counteract these adverse effects to some extent. However, the high content of advanced glycation end-products (AGE) in caramelized malt tended to prohibit the positive effects on occludin in the small intestine and plasma amino acids seen with the other malt products. In conclusion, malting seems to be an interesting process for producing foods with positive health effects, but part of these effects may be destroyed if the malt contains a high content of AGE.


Assuntos
Ácido Butírico/metabolismo , Sistema Digestório/metabolismo , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/análise , Hordeum/química , Hordeum/metabolismo , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Junções Íntimas/genética , Receptores Toll-Like/genética , Animais , Ceco/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Manipulação de Alimentos , Germinação , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Hordeum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Proteínas de Junções Íntimas/metabolismo , Receptores Toll-Like/metabolismo , beta-Glucanas/análise , beta-Glucanas/metabolismo
11.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 59(10): 2066-76, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26184884

RESUMO

SCOPE: The gut microbiota is linked with human health, and by manipulating its composition, health conditions might be improved. The aim of this study was to investigate whether two barley products, whole-grain barley and barley malt, caused differentiation of the cecal microbiota in rats fed high-fat diets and whether there were correlations with the short-chain fatty acids formed. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male Wistar rats were given barley or malt (7-8 dietary fiber/100 g) for 4 weeks. Cellulose was used as a control, and the cecal microbiota was analyzed with next-generation sequencing of 16S rDNA. The barley group had higher abundances of Verrucomicrobia and Actinobacteria and lower abundances of Firmicutes and Deferribacteres than the control group; the alpha diversity was also lower. At the genus level, the barley group had higher abundances of Akkermansia, Ruminococcus, Blautia, and Bilophila. Turicibacter and Roseburia were more abundant in the malt group, and Parabacteroides, Dorea and rc4-4 were enriched in the control group. Most genera correlated with acetic and propionic acids, but Roseburia and Turicibacter instead correlated with butyric acid. Succinic acid correlated with Clostridium and Akkermansia. CONCLUSION: Bioprocessing is a potential method to modulate the gut microbiota for enhanced effects on human health.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Hordeum , Animais , Biodiversidade , Ceco/efeitos dos fármacos , Ceco/microbiologia , DNA Ribossômico , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Germinação , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Hordeum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/microbiologia , Masculino , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/microbiologia , Ratos Wistar
12.
Br J Nutr ; 113(10): 1558-70, 2015 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25864430

RESUMO

Mixed-linkage ß-glucans are fermented by the colon microbiota that give rise to SCFA. Propionic and butyric acids have been found to play an important role in colonic health, as well as they may have extraintestinal metabolic effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate how two whole-grain barley varieties differing in dietary fibre and ß-glucan content affected caecal SCFA, gut microbiota and some plasma inflammatory markers in rats consuming low-fat (LF) or high-fat (HF) diets. Barley increased the caecal pool of SCFA in rats fed the LF and HF diets compared with those fed the control diet, and the effect was generally dependent on fibre content, an exception was butyric acid in the LF setting. Furthermore, whole-grain barley reduced plasma lipopolysaccharide-binding protein and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, increased the caecal abundance of Lactobacillus and decreased the Bacteroides fragilis group, but increased the number of Bifidobacterium only when dietary fat was consumed at a low level. Fat content influenced the effects of barley: rats fed the HF diets had a higher caecal pool of acetic and propionic acids, higher concentrations of amino acids and higher amounts of lipids in the portal plasma and liver than rats fed the LF diets; however, less amounts of butyric acid were generally formed. Interestingly, there was an increase in the caecal abundance of Akkermansia and the caecal pool of succinic acid, and a decrease in the proportion of Bifidobacterium and the Clostridium leptum group. In summary, whole-grain barley decreased HF diet-induced inflammation, which was possibly related to the formation of SCFA and changes in microbiota composition. High ß-glucan content in the diet was associated with reduced plasma cholesterol levels.


Assuntos
Ceco/microbiologia , Fibras na Dieta/uso terapêutico , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Hordeum/química , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Sementes/química , Animais , Ceco/imunologia , Ceco/metabolismo , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras/efeitos adversos , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Fermentação , Gastroenterite/imunologia , Gastroenterite/metabolismo , Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Gastroenterite/prevenção & controle , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/imunologia , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/metabolismo , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/imunologia , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/metabolismo , Hordeum/metabolismo , Hiperlipidemias/imunologia , Hiperlipidemias/metabolismo , Hiperlipidemias/microbiologia , Hiperlipidemias/prevenção & controle , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Fígado/imunologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos Wistar , Sementes/metabolismo , beta-Glucanas/metabolismo , beta-Glucanas/uso terapêutico
13.
Food Nutr Res ; 582014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25317120

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Butyric acid, one of the key products formed when ß-glucans are degraded by the microbiota in the colon, has been proposed to be important for colonic health. Glutamine bound to the fibre may have similar effects once it has been liberated from the fibre in the colon. Both ß-glucans and glutamine are found in high amounts in malted barley. Lactobacillus rhamnosus together with malt has been shown to increase the formation of butyric acid further in rats. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether Lactobacillus rhamnosus 271, Lactobacillus paracasei 87002, Lactobacillus plantarum HEAL 9 and 19, and Bifidobacterium infantis CURE 21 affect the levels of short-chain fatty acids and glutamine in caecum and portal blood of rats fed barley malt. DESIGN: The experimental diets were fed for 12 days. The daily dose of the probiotic strain was 1×10(9) colony forming units and the intake of fibre 0.82 g/day. RESULTS: The malt mostly contained insoluble fibre polymers (93%), consisting of glucose and xylose (38-41 g/kg) and some arabinose (21 g/kg). The fibre polysaccharides were quite resistant to fermentation in the rats, regardless of whether or not probiotics were added (25-30% were fermented). Caecal and portal levels of acetic acid decreased in the rats after the addition of L. plantarum HEAL 9 and L. rhamnosus 271, and also the levels of butyric acid. Viable counts of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Enterobacteriaceae were unaffected, while the caecal composition of Lactobacilli was influenced by the type of strain administrated. Portal levels of glutamine were unchanged, but glycine levels increased with L. plantarum HEAL 9 and 19 and phenylalanine with L. rhamnosus 271. CONCLUSIONS: Although the probiotic strains survived and reached the caecum, except B. infantis CURE 21, there were no effects on viable counts or in the fermentation of different fibre components, but the formation of some bacterial metabolites decreased. This may be due to the high proportion of insoluble fibres in the malt.

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