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Plant Biotechnol J ; 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33236499


Foods high in amylose content and resistant starch (RS) offer great potential to improve human health and lower the risk of serious noninfectious diseases. Common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a major staple food crop globally. However, the RS contents in the grains of modern wheat varieties are low. Here, we report the generation of high-amylose wheat through targeted mutagenesis of TaSBEIIa in a modern winter wheat cv Zhengmai 7698 (ZM) and a spring wheat cv Bobwhite by CRISPR/Cas9, respectively. We generated a series of transgene-free mutant lines either with partial or triple null TasbeIIa alleles in ZM and Bobwhite, respectively. Analyses of starch composition, structure and properties revealed that the effects of partial or triple null alleles were dosage dependent with triple null lines demonstrated more profound impacts on starch composition, fine structures of amylopectin, and physiochemical and nutritional properties. The flours of triple null lines possessed significantly increased amylose, RS, protein and soluble pentosan contents which benefit human health. Baking quality analyses indicated that the high-amylose flours may be used as additives or for making cookies. Collectively, we successfully modified the starch composition, structure and properties through targeted mutagenesis of TaSBEIIa by CRISPR/Cas9 in both winter and spring wheat varieties, and generated transgene-free high-amylose wheat. Our finding provides deep insights on the role of TaSBEIIa in determining starch composition, structure, properties and end-use quality in different genetic backgrounds, and improving RS content with multiple breeding and end-use applications in cereal crop species through genome editing for health benefits.

Plant Sci ; 291: 110336, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31928684


Wheat grain nitrogen content displays large variations within different pearling fractions of grains because of radial gradients in the protein content. We identified how spatiotemporal mechanisms regulate this. The protein gradients emerged clearly at 19 days after anthesis, with the highest N content in aleurone and seed coat, followed by outer endosperm, whereas the lowest was in middle and inner endosperm. Laser microdissection, qRT-PCR and LC-MS were used to dissect tissue from aleurone, outer endosperm, middle endosperm, inner endosperm and transfer cells, measure gene expression and levels of free and protein-bound amino acids, respectively. The results showed that different FAA transportation pathways worked in parallel during grain filling stage while the grain protein gradient did not follow spatial expression of storage proteins. Additionally, two nitrogen (N) topdressing timings were conducted, either at the emergence of top third leaf (standard timing) or top first leaf (delayed timing), finding that delayed N topdressing enhanced both amino acids supply and protein synthesis capacity. The results provide insight into protein synthesis and amino acid transport pathways in endosperm and suggest targets for the enhancement of specialty pearled wheat with higher quality.

Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Endosperma/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Triticum/genética , Endosperma/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Endosperma/metabolismo , Triticum/química , Triticum/metabolismo
J Exp Bot ; 71(1): 234-246, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494665


The biosynthesis of starch granules in plant plastids is coordinated by the orchestrated action of transferases, hydrolases, and dikinases. These enzymes either contain starch-binding domain(s) themselves, or are dependent on direct interactions with co-factors containing starch-binding domains. As a means to competitively interfere with existing starch-protein interactions, we expressed the protein module Carbohydrate-Binding Motif 20 (CBM20), which has a very high affinity for starch, ectopically in barley plastids. This interference resulted in an increase in the number of starch granules in chloroplasts and in formation of compound starch granules in grain amyloplasts, which is unusual for barley. More importantly, we observed a photosystem-independent inhibition of CO2 fixation, with a subsequent reduced growth rate and lower accumulation of carbohydrates with effects throughout the metabolome, including lower accumulation of transient leaf starch. Our results demonstrate the importance of endogenous starch-protein interactions for controlling starch granule morphology and number, and plant growth, as substantiated by a metabolic link between starch-protein interactions and control of CO2 fixation in chloroplasts.

J Exp Bot ; 70(2): 485-496, 2019 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30407538


Plant starch is the main energy contributor to the human diet. Its biosynthesis is catalyzed and regulated by co-ordinated actions of several enzymes. Recently, a factor termed Protein Targeting to Starch 1 (PTST1) was identified as being required for correct granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS) localization and demonstrated to be crucial for amylose synthesis in Arabidopsis. However, the function of its homologous protein in storage tissues (e.g. endosperm) is unknown. We identified a PTST1 homolog in barley and it was found to contain a crucial coiled-coil domain and carbohydrate-binding module. We demonstrated the interaction between PTST1 and GBSS1 by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) in barley endosperm. By tagging PTST1 with the fluorophore mCherry, we observed that it is localized in the stroma of barley endosperm amyloplasts. PTST1 overexpression in endosperm increased endogenous gbss1a gene expression and amylose content. Gbss1a and ptst1 mutants were generated using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-related protein 9 (Cas9)-based targeted mutagenesis. Homozygous gbss1a mutants showed a waxy phenotype. Grains of ptst1 mutants did not accumulate any starch. These grains dried out during the desiccation stage and were unable to germinate, suggesting that PTST1 is essential for development of starchy endosperm and viable grains.

Endosperma/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hordeum/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Amido/biossíntese , Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Endosperma/metabolismo , Hordeum/genética , Hordeum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenótipo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
Food Chem ; 277: 135-144, 2019 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30502129


Nitrogen fertilization regimes significantly affect both grain quality and yield. Wheat plants were subjected to different application timing of topdressed nitrogen at the emergence of the top fifth (TL5), top third (TL3) and top first leaf (TL1), respectively. The iTRAQ (isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation) technology was adopted to obtain the complete proteome of wheat flour and to identify the differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) as regulated by nitrogen topdressing timing. Collectively, 591 proteins into 17 functional categories in flour of mature grains were identified. In comparison to TL3, 50 and 63 DEPs were identified in TL5 and TL1, respectively. Nine of the DEPs commonly dependent on nitrogen topdressing timing are the γ-gliadins or high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits. Additionally, delaying nitrogen topdressing modified the grain hardness and allergic protein content. The results suggested that altering nitrogen topdressing timing is a potential strategy for pursuing targeted processing quality of wheat flour.

Grão Comestível/efeitos dos fármacos , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Glutens/metabolismo , Dureza/efeitos dos fármacos , Nitrogênio/farmacologia , Farinha/análise , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteômica , Fatores de Tempo
BMC Plant Biol ; 18(1): 353, 2018 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30545290


BACKGROUND: Nitrogen is one basic element of amino acids and grain protein in wheat. In field experiments, wheat plants were subjected to different timing of nitrogen topdressing treatments: at the stages of emergence of the top fifth leaf (TL5), top third leaf (TL3) and top first leaf (TL1) to test the regulatory effects of nitrogen topdressing timing on grain protein quality. The underlying mechanisms were elucidated by clarifying the relationship between proteolysis in vegetative organs and accumulation of amino acids in the endosperm cavity, conversion of amino acids, and storage protein synthesis in endosperm of wheat grain. RESULTS: Delayed nitrogen topdressing up-regulated gene expression related to nitrogen metabolism and protease synthesis in the flag leaf, followed by more free amino acids being transported to both the cavity and the endosperm from 7 days after anthesis (DAA) to 13 DAA in TL1. TL1 enhanced the conversion between free amino acids in endosperm and upregulated the expression of genes encoding high molecular weight (HMW) and low molecular weight (LMW) subunits and protein disulfide isomerases-like (PDIL) proteins, indicating that the synthesis and folding of glutenin were enhanched by delayed nitrogen topdressing. As a consequense, the content of glutenin macropolymers (GMP) and glutenin increased with delaying nitrogen topdressing. CONCLUSIONS: The results highlight the relationship between nitrogen remobilization and final grain protein production and suggest that the nitrogen remobilization processes could be a potential target for improving the quality of wheat grain. Additionally, specific gene expression related to nitrogen topdressing was identified, which conferred more detailed insights into underlying mechanism on the modification protein quality.

Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/análise , Grão Comestível/química , Endosperma/química , Endosperma/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Nitrogênio/administração & dosagem , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real