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1.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 110(5): 1259-1260, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667515
2.
Depress Anxiety ; 36(12): 1154-1162, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31609059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to explore the association between depression and body mass index (BMI), and to investigate whether genetic susceptibility to high BMI is different among individuals with or without depression. METHODS: We used data on 251,125 individuals of white British ancestry from the UK Biobank. We conducted Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis to test for a causal association between depression and BMI using a major depressive disorder (MDD)-related genetic risk score (GRSMDD ) as an instrument for depression. We also examined whether depression modifies genetic susceptibility to high BMI, by investigating the interaction between depression and the BMI-related GRSBMI . RESULTS: We found observational and genetic evidence for an association between depression and BMI (MR beta: 0.09, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.04-0.13). Further, the contribution of genetic risk to high BMI was higher among individuals with depression compared to controls. Carrying 10 additional BMI increasing alleles was associated with 0.24 standard deviation (SD; 95%CI 0.23-0.25) higher BMI among depressed individuals compared to 0.20 SD (95%CI 0.19-0.21) higher in controls, which corresponds to 3.4 kg and 2.8 kg extra weight for an individual of average height. Amongst the individual loci, the evidence for interaction was most notable for a variant near MC4R, a gene known to affect both appetite regulation and the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis (pinteraction = 5.7 × 10-5 ). CONCLUSION: Genetic predisposition to high BMI was higher among depressed than to nondepressed individuals. This study provides support for a possible role of MC4R in the link between depression and obesity.

3.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 11(19): 8182-8203, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581132

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. Recent years, circular RNA (circRNA) have been shown to exert vital functions in the pathological progressions of many diseases. A growing number of evidences have identified the representative function of exosomal circRNAs in the physiological state of donor cells, which further induces cellular responses after captured by recipient cells. However, the contributions of circRNAs to HCC remain largely unknown. In vitro and in vivo regulatory roles of circRNA Cdr1as in proliferative and migratory abilities of HCC were evaluated by CCK8, EdU, Transwell and tumourigenicity assays, respectively. Results showed circRNA Cdr1as was highly expressed in HCC cell lines and tissues. Overexpression of circRNA Cdr1as greatly accelerated HCC cells to proliferate and migrate. Mechanistically, we found that Cdr1as could promote the expression of AFP, a well-known biomarker for HCC, by sponging miR-1270. Further studies showed exosomes extracted from HCC cells overexpressing circRNA Cdr1as accelerated the proliferative and migratory abilities of surrounding normal cells. In all, circRNA Cdr1as serves as a ceRNA to promote the progression of HCC. Meanwhile, it is directly transferred from HCC cells to surrounding normal cells via exosomes to further mediate the biological functions of surrounding cells.

4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(9): e1910915, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539074

RESUMO

Importance: Observational studies have shown associations of birth weight with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and glycemic traits, but it remains unclear whether these associations represent causal associations. Objective: To test the association of birth weight with T2D and glycemic traits using a mendelian randomization analysis. Design, Setting, and Participants: This mendelian randomization study used a genetic risk score for birth weight that was constructed with 7 genome-wide significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms. The associations of this score with birth weight and T2D were tested in a mendelian randomization analysis using study-level data. The association of birth weight with T2D was tested using both study-level data (7 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were used as an instrumental variable) and summary-level data from the consortia (43 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were used as an instrumental variable). Data from 180 056 participants from 49 studies were included. Main Outcomes and Measures: Type 2 diabetes and glycemic traits. Results: This mendelian randomization analysis included 49 studies with 41 155 patients with T2D and 80 008 control participants from study-level data and 34 840 patients with T2D and 114 981 control participants from summary-level data. Study-level data showed that a 1-SD decrease in birth weight due to the genetic risk score was associated with higher risk of T2D among all participants (odds ratio [OR], 2.10; 95% CI, 1.69-2.61; P = 4.03 × 10-5), among European participants (OR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.42-2.71; P = .04), and among East Asian participants (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.18-1.62; P = .04). Similar results were observed from summary-level analyses. In addition, each 1-SD lower birth weight was associated with 0.189 SD higher fasting glucose concentration (ß = 0.189; SE = 0.060; P = .002), but not with fasting insulin, 2-hour glucose, or hemoglobin A1c concentration. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, a genetic predisposition to lower birth weight was associated with increased risk of T2D and higher fasting glucose concentration, suggesting genetic effects on retarded fetal growth and increased diabetes risk that either are independent of each other or operate through alterations of integrated biological mechanisms.

5.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 71(3): 741-750, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450492

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype affects the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) with inconclusive evidence on the opportunity to mitigate related adverse effects by lifestyle changes. OBJECTIVE: To examine the individual and interactive associations of APOE and objectively-measured physical activity (PA) and sedentary activity with cognitive decline. METHODS: We used data from middle-aged and older UK Biobank participants with repeat tests on visuospatial memory (n = 52,767) and fluid intelligence (n = 19,713), and who also took part in the accelerometer sub-study. PA and sedentary activity were assessed by a wrist-worn accelerometer over a seven-day period. Cognitive decline was defined as >1 standard deviation (SD) reduction in memory or fluid intelligence score, and the mean follow up from baseline was 5.8 years. RESULTS: There was an age dependent association between APOEɛ4 genotype and memory decline (page-interaction = 0.01), with the association only seen in participants who were >65 years (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.24; for <65 years OR 1.06, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.14). The OR for the APOEɛ4 association with fluid intelligence decline was 1.11 (95% CI 0.99 to 1.24), and there was no evidence for age interaction (page-interaction = 0.99). High PA and low sedentary activity were associated with reduced mean memory decline (p < 0.02 for both). There was no interaction between PA or sedentary activity with APOEɛ4 regarding either of the cognitive decline measures (p > 0.63 for all). CONCLUSION: This large-scale study using objectively measured PA did not find differential effects of PA on cognitive decline based on APOE genotype.

6.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31427754

RESUMO

Depression affects all aspects of an individual's life but evidence relating to the causal effects on health is limited. We used information from 337,536 UK Biobank participants and performed hypothesis-free phenome-wide association analyses between major depressive disorder (MDD) genetic risk score (GRS) and 925 disease outcomes. GRS-disease outcome associations passing the multiple-testing corrected significance threshold (P < 1.9 × 10-3) were followed by Mendelian randomisation (MR) analyses to test for causality. MDD GRS was associated with 22 distinct diseases in the phenome-wide discovery stage, with the strongest signal observed for MDD diagnosis and related co-morbidities including anxiety and sleep disorders. In inverse-variance weighted MR analyses, MDD was associated with several inflammatory and haemorrhagic gastrointestinal diseases, including oesophagitis (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.18-1.48), non-infectious gastroenteritis (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.06-1.48), gastrointestinal haemorrhage (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.11-1.43) and intestinal E.coli infections (OR 3.24, 95% CI 1.74-6.02). Signals were also observed for symptoms/disorders of the urinary system (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.19-1.56), asthma (OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.06-1.44), and painful respiration (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.14-1.44). MDD was associated with disorders of lipid metabolism (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.12-1.34) and ischaemic heart disease (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.15-1.47). Sensitivity analyses excluding pleiotropic variants provided consistent associations. Our study indicates a causal link between MDD and a broad range of diseases, suggesting a notable burden of co-morbidity. Early detection and management of MDD is important, and treatment strategies should be selected to also minimise the risk of related co-morbidities.

7.
PLoS Med ; 16(6): e1002833, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Iron is integral to many physiological processes, and variations in its levels, even within the normal range, can have implications for health. The objective of this study was to explore the broad clinical effects of varying iron status. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary data obtained from 48,972 European individuals (55% female) across 19 cohorts in the Genetics of Iron Status Consortium were used to identify 3 genetic variants (rs1800562 and rs1799945 in the hemochromatosis gene [HFE] and rs855791 in the transmembrane protease serine 6 gene [TMPRSS6]) that associate with increased serum iron, ferritin, and transferrin saturation and decreased transferrin levels, thus serving as instruments for systemic iron status. Phenome-wide association study (PheWAS) of these instruments was performed on 424,439 European individuals (54% female) in the UK Biobank who were aged 40-69 years when recruited from 2006 to 2010, with their genetic data linked to Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) from April, 1995 to March, 2016. Two-sample summary data mendelian randomization (MR) analysis was performed to investigate the effect of varying iron status on outcomes across the human phenome. MR-PheWAS analysis for the 3 iron status genetic instruments was performed separately and then pooled by meta-analysis. Correction was made for testing of multiple correlated phenotypes using a 5% false discovery rate (FDR) threshold. Heterogeneity between MR estimates for different instruments was used to indicate possible bias due to effects of the genetic variants through pathways unrelated to iron status. There were 904 distinct phenotypes included in the MR-PheWAS analyses. After correcting for multiple testing, the 3 genetic instruments for systemic iron status demonstrated consistent evidence of a causal effect of higher iron status on decreasing risk of traits related to anemia (iron deficiency anemia: odds ratio [OR] scaled to a standard deviation [SD] increase in genetically determined serum iron levels 0.72, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.64-0.81, P = 4 × 10-8) and hypercholesterolemia (hypercholesterolemia: OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.83-0.93, P = 2 × 10-5) and increasing risk of traits related to infection of the skin and related structures (cellulitis and abscess of the leg: OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.10-1.42, P = 6 × 10-4). The main limitations of this study relate to possible bias from pleiotropic effects of the considered genetic variants and misclassification of diagnoses in the HES data. Furthermore, this work only investigated participants with European ancestry, and the findings may not be applicable to other ethnic groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings offer novel, to our knowledge, insight into previously unreported effects of iron status, highlighting a potential protective effect of higher iron status on hypercholesterolemia and a detrimental role on risk of skin and skin structure infections. Given the modifiable and variable nature of iron status, these findings warrant further investigation.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Ferro/sangue , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Fenótipo , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
8.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 109(3): 509-516, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30838377

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coffee is one of the most widely consumed stimulants worldwide and is generally considered to be safe or even beneficial for health. However, increased risk of myocardial infarction and hypertension has been suggested for individuals who carry a functional variant at cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2), which makes them less effective at metabolizing caffeine. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine if the CYP1A2 genotype or a genetic score for caffeine metabolism (caffeine-GS) modifies the association between habitual coffee consumption and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). METHODS: Genetic data and information on habitual coffee intake and relevant covariates were available for 347,077 individuals in the UK Biobank, including 8368 incident CVD cases. We used logistic regression to test for the association between coffee intake and CVD risk, and whether the association varies with CYP1A2 genotype or caffeine-GS. RESULTS: The association between habitual coffee intake and CVD risk was nonlinear, and, compared with participants drinking 1-2 cups/day, the risk of CVD was elevated for nondrinkers, drinkers of decaffeinated coffee, and those who reported drinking >6 cups/day (increase in odds by 11%, 7%, and 22%, respectively, P-curvature = 0.013). CYP1A2 genotype and caffeine-GS were not associated with CVD (P ≥ 0.22 for all comparisons). There was no evidence for an interaction between the CYP1A2 genotype or caffeine-GS and coffee intake with respect to risk of CVD (P ≥ 0.53). CONCLUSIONS: Heavy coffee consumption was associated with a modest increase in CVD risk, but this association was unaffected by genetic variants influencing caffeine metabolism.

9.
JAMA Intern Med ; 178(12): 1725, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30508051
10.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2018 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30398343

RESUMO

Despite decades of intense research, the core structure of the methane C-H bond breaking diiron(IV) intermediate, Q, of soluble methane monooxygenase remains controversial, with conflicting reports supporting either a "diamond" diiron core structure or an open core structure. Early extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) data assigned a short 2.46 Å Fe-Fe distance to Q (Shu et al. Science 1997, 275, 515 ) that is inconsistent with several theoretical studies and in conflict with our recent high-resolution Fe K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) studies (Castillo et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2017, 139, 18024 ). Herein, we revisit the EXAFS of Q using high-energy resolution fluorescence-detected extended X-ray absorption fine structure (HERFD-EXAFS) studies. The present data show no evidence for a short Fe-Fe distance, but rather a long 3.4 Å diiron distance, as observed in open core synthetic model complexes. The previously reported 2.46 Å feature plausibly arises from a background metallic iron contribution from the experimental setup, which is eliminated in HERFD-EXAFS due to the increased selectivity. Herein, we explore the origin of the short diiron feature in partial-fluorescent yield EXAFS measurements and discuss the diagnostic features of background metallic scattering contribution to the EXAFS of dilute biological samples. Lastly, differences in sample preparation and resultant sample inhomogeneity in rapid-freeze quenched samples for EXAFS analysis are discussed. The presented approaches have broad implications for EXAFS studies of all dilute iron-containing samples.

11.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2018 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30423117

RESUMO

Background: Depression is more common in obese than non-obese individuals, especially in women, but the causal relationship between obesity and depression is complex and uncertain. Previous studies have used genetic variants associated with BMI to provide evidence that higher body mass index (BMI) causes depression, but have not tested whether this relationship is driven by the metabolic consequences of BMI nor for differences between men and women. Methods: We performed a Mendelian randomization study using 48 791 individuals with depression and 291 995 controls in the UK Biobank, to test for causal effects of higher BMI on depression (defined using self-report and Hospital Episode data). We used two genetic instruments, both representing higher BMI, but one with and one without its adverse metabolic consequences, in an attempt to 'uncouple' the psychological component of obesity from the metabolic consequences. We further tested causal relationships in men and women separately, and using subsets of BMI variants from known physiological pathways. Results: Higher BMI was strongly associated with higher odds of depression, especially in women. Mendelian randomization provided evidence that higher BMI partly causes depression. Using a 73-variant BMI genetic risk score, a genetically determined one standard deviation (1 SD) higher BMI (4.9 kg/m2) was associated with higher odds of depression in all individuals [odds ratio (OR): 1.18, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09, 1.28, P = 0.00007) and women only (OR: 1.24, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.39, P = 0.0001). Meta-analysis with 45 591 depression cases and 97 647 controls from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) strengthened the statistical confidence of the findings in all individuals. Similar effect size estimates were obtained using different Mendelian randomization methods, although not all reached P < 0.05. Using a metabolically favourable adiposity genetic risk score, and meta-analysing data from the UK biobank and PGC, a genetically determined 1 SD higher BMI (4.9 kg/m2) was associated with higher odds of depression in all individuals (OR: 1.26, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.50], P = 0.010), but with weaker statistical confidence. Conclusions: Higher BMI, with and without its adverse metabolic consequences, is likely to have a causal role in determining the likelihood of an individual developing depression.

13.
Addiction ; 2018 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30209858

RESUMO

AIMS: To use the rs1229984 variant associated with alcohol consumption as an instrument for alcohol consumption to test the causality of the association of alcohol consumption with hay fever, asthma, allergic sensitization and serum total immunoglobulin (Ig)E. DESIGN: Observational and Mendelian randomization analyses using genetic variants as unbiased markers of exposure to estimate causal effects, subject to certain assumptions. SETTING: Europe. PARTICIPANTS: We included a total of 466 434 people aged 15-82 years from 17 population-based studies conducted from 1997 to 2015. MEASUREMENTS: The rs1229984 (ADH1B) was genotyped; alcohol consumption, hay fever and asthma were self-reported. Specific and total IgE were measured from serum samples. FINDINGS: Observational analyses showed that ever-drinking versus non-drinking, but not amount of alcohol intake, was positively associated with hay fever and inversely associated with asthma but not with allergic sensitization or serum total immunoglobulin (Ig)E. However, Mendelian randomization analyses did not suggest that the observational associations are causal. The causal odds ratio (OR) per genetically assessed unit of alcohol/week was an OR = 0.907 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.806, 1.019; P = 0.101] for hay fever, an OR = 0.897 (95% CI = 0.790, 1.019; P = 0.095) for asthma, an OR = 0.971 (95% CI =  0.804, 1.174; P = 0.763) for allergic sensitization and a 4.7% change (95% CI = -5.5%, 14.9%; P = 0.366) for total IgE. CONCLUSIONS: In observational analyses, ever-drinking versus not drinking was positively associated with hay fever and negatively associated with asthma. However, the Mendelian randomization results were not consistent with these associations being causal.

14.
BMC Psychiatry ; 18(1): 297, 2018 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30236085

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity and depression are both highly prevalent public health disorders and evidence on their relationship is inconsistent. This study examined whether depressive symptoms are associated with current obesity, and further, whether obesity in turn is associated with an increased odds of depressive symptoms five years later after accounting for potential lifestyle confounders and depressive symptoms at baseline. METHODS: Data were obtained from the 1958 British birth cohort (N = 9217 for cross-sectional and 7340 for prospective analysis). Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised and Mental Health Inventory-5 were used for screening depressive symptoms at ages 45 and 50 years, respectively. General and central obesity were defined using measurements of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) at 45 years, respectively. RESULTS: There was a cross-sectional association between depressive symptoms and obesity: participants with ≥2 depressive symptoms had 31% (95%CI 11% to 55%) higher odds of general and 26% higher odds of central obesity (95%CI 8% to 47%). In prospective analyses, both general and central obesity were associated with higher odds of depressive symptoms five years later among women but not in men (Pinteraction < 0.01). After adjustment for depressive symptoms at baseline, sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, women with general obesity had 38% (95% CI 7% to 77%) and women with central obesity 34% (95%CI 9% to 65%) higher odds of depression compared to others. CONCLUSIONS: Depressive symptoms are associated with concurrent obesity and related lifestyle factors among women and men in mid-life. Our study suggests that obesity in turn affects long-term risk of depressive symptoms in women but not in men, independently of concurrent associations, providing an important target group for the implementation of preventative strategies.

15.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 64(1): 181-193, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29865062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Numerous risk factors for dementia are well established, though the causal nature of these associations remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review Mendelian randomization (MR) studies investigating causal relationships between risk factors and global cognitive function or dementia. METHODS: We searched five databases from inception to February 2017 and conducted citation searches including MR studies investigating the association between any risk factor and global cognitive function, all-cause dementia or dementia subtypes. Two reviewers independently assessed titles and abstracts, full-texts, and study quality. RESULTS: We included 18 MR studies investigating education, lifestyle factors, cardiovascular factors and related biomarkers, diabetes related and other endocrine factors, and telomere length. Studies were of predominantly good quality, however eight received low ratings for sample size and statistical power. The most convincing causal evidence was found for an association of shorter telomeres with increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Causal evidence was weaker for smoking quantity, vitamin D, homocysteine, systolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, insulin sensitivity, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Well-replicated associations were not present for most exposures and we cannot fully discount survival and diagnostic bias, or the potential for pleiotropic effects. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic evidence supported a causal association between telomere length and AD, whereas limited evidence for other risk factors was largely inconclusive with tentative evidence for smoking quantity, vitamin D, homocysteine, and selected metabolic markers. The lack of stronger evidence for other risk factors may reflect insufficient statistical power. Larger well-designed MR studies would therefore help establish the causal status of these dementia risk factors.

16.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 7526, 2018 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29760501

RESUMO

Coffee's long-term effect on cognitive function remains unclear with studies suggesting both benefits and adverse effects. We used Mendelian randomization to investigate the causal relationship between habitual coffee consumption and cognitive function in mid- to later life. This included up to 415,530 participants and 300,760 coffee drinkers from 10 meta-analysed European ancestry cohorts. In each cohort, composite cognitive scores that capture global cognition and memory were computed using available tests. A genetic score derived using CYP1A1/2 (rs2472297) and AHR (rs6968865) was chosen as a proxy for habitual coffee consumption. Null associations were observed when examining the associations of the genetic score with global and memory cognition (ß = -0.0007, 95% C.I. -0.009 to 0.008, P = 0.87; ß = -0.001, 95% C.I. -0.005 to 0.002, P = 0.51, respectively), with high consistency between studies (Pheterogeneity > 0.4 for both). Domain specific analyses using available cognitive measures in the UK Biobank also did not support effects by habitual coffee intake for reaction time, pairs matching, reasoning or prospective memory (P ≥ 0.05 for all). Despite the power to detect very small effects, our meta-analysis provided no evidence for causal long-term effects of habitual coffee consumption on global cognition or memory.

17.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 260, 2018 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29343764

RESUMO

Vitamin D is a steroid hormone precursor that is associated with a range of human traits and diseases. Previous GWAS of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations have identified four genome-wide significant loci (GC, NADSYN1/DHCR7, CYP2R1, CYP24A1). In this study, we expand the previous SUNLIGHT Consortium GWAS discovery sample size from 16,125 to 79,366 (all European descent). This larger GWAS yields two additional loci harboring genome-wide significant variants (P = 4.7×10-9 at rs8018720 in SEC23A, and P = 1.9×10-14 at rs10745742 in AMDHD1). The overall estimate of heritability of 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum concentrations attributable to GWAS common SNPs is 7.5%, with statistically significant loci explaining 38% of this total. Further investigation identifies signal enrichment in immune and hematopoietic tissues, and clustering with autoimmune diseases in cell-type-specific analysis. Larger studies are required to identify additional common SNPs, and to explore the role of rare or structural variants and gene-gene interactions in the heritability of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels.

18.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 57(4): 918-922, 2018 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29165865

RESUMO

A fascinating discovery in the chemistry of ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) has been the identification of a dimanganese (Mn2 ) active site in class I b RNRs that requires superoxide anion (O2.- ), rather than dioxygen (O2 ), to access a high-valent Mn2 oxidant. Complex 1 ([Mn2 (O2 CCH3 )(N-Et-HPTB)](ClO4 )2 , N-Et-HPTB=N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-(1-ethylbenzimidazolyl))-2-hydroxy-1,3-diaminopropane) was synthesised in high yield (90 %). 1 was reacted with O2.- at -40 °C resulting in the formation of a metastable species (2). 2 displayed electronic absorption features (λmax =460, 610 nm) typical of a Mn-peroxide species and a 29-line EPR signal typical of a MnII MnIII entity. Mn K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) suggested a formal oxidation state change of MnII2 in 1 to MnII MnIII for 2. Electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) suggested 2 to be a MnII MnIII -peroxide complex. 2 was capable of oxidizing ferrocene and weak O-H bonds upon activation with proton donors. Our findings provide support for the postulated mechanism of O2.- activation at class I b Mn2 RNRs.

19.
J Biol Inorg Chem ; 23(1): 155-165, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29218640

RESUMO

Nonheme oxoiron(IV) complexes can serve as synthons for generating heterobimetallic oxo-bridged dimetal complexes by reaction with divalent metal complexes. The formation of FeIII-O-CrIII and FeIII-O-MnIII complexes is described herein. The latter complexes may serve as models for the FeIII-X-MnIII active sites of an emerging class of Fe/Mn enzymes represented by the Class 1c ribonucleotide reductase from Chlamydia trachomatis and the R2-like ligand-binding oxidase (R2lox) found in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These synthetic complexes have been characterized by UV-Vis, resonance Raman, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy, as well as electrospray mass spectrometry. The FeIII-O-CrIII complexes exhibit a three-band UV-Vis pattern that differs from the simpler features associated with FeIII-O-FeIII complexes. The positions of these features are modulated by the nature of the supporting polydentate ligand on the iron center, and their bands intensify dramatically in two examples upon the binding of an axial cyanate or thiocyanate ligand trans to the oxo bridge. In contrast, the FeIII-O-MnIII complexes resemble FeIII-O-FeIII complexes more closely. Resonance Raman characterization of the FeIII-O-MIII complexes reveals an 18O-sensitive vibration in the range of 760-890 cm-1. This feature has been assigned to the asymmetric FeIII-O-MIII stretching mode and correlates reasonably with the Fe-O bond distance determined by EXAFS analysis. The likely binding of an acetate as a bridging ligand to the FeIII-O-MnIII complex 12 lays the foundation for further efforts to model the heterobimetallic active sites of Fe/Mn enzymes.

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